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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571587/supplementation-of-grazing-beef-cows-during-gestation-as-a-strategy-to-improve-skeletal-muscle-development-of-the-offspring
#1
D C Marquez, M F Paulino, L N Rennó, F C Villadiego, R M Ortega, D S Moreno, L S Martins, D M de Almeida, M P Gionbelli, M R Manso, L P Melo, F H Moura, M S Duarte
The appropriate supply of nutrients in pregnant cows has been associated with the optimal development of foetal tissues, performance of their progeny and their meat quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate supplementation effects of grazing cows in different stages of gestation on skeletal muscle development and performance of the progeny. Thereby, 27 Nellore cows were divided into three groups (n=9 for each group) and their progeny as follows: UNS, unsupplemented during gestation; MID, supplemented from 30 to 180 days of gestation; LATE, supplemented from 181 to 281 days of gestation...
June 2, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380518/economic-selection-index-development-for-beefmaster-cattle-i-terminal-breeding-objective
#2
K P Ochsner, M D MacNeil, R M Lewis, M L Spangler
The objective of this study was to develop an economic selection index for Beefmaster cattle in a terminal production system where bulls are mated to mature cows with all resulting progeny harvested. National average prices from 2010 to 2014 were used to establish income and expenses for the system. Phenotypic and genetic parameter values among the selection criteria and goal traits were obtained from literature. Economic values were estimated by simulating 100,000 animals and approximating the partial derivatives of the profit function by perturbing traits one at a time, by 1 unit, while holding the other traits constant at their respective means...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324870/effects-of-long-spray-chilling-on-water-pocket-development-in-ribeyes
#3
A S de Mello, T P Ringkob, Y Yeh
Water Pocket (WP) is a defect on beef that may lead to significant economic losses. Our hypothesis is that longer spray-chilling time increases WP incidence on ribeyes (M. longissimus thoracis). Ribeyes (28,801) were visually evaluated for the presence of WP after 24 or 72h of spray chilling. Additionally, 252 beef sides were evaluated prior to chilling to predict WP development after 24h of spray chilling. Also, the 12th rib fat thickness was measured on 313 sides and the sides were assigned to two categories of WP or no WP to evaluate fat thickness as an indicator for WP...
July 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237337/parameter-estimates-for-reproductive-and-carcass-traits-in-nelore-beef-cattle
#4
M E Buzanskas, P S Pires, T C S Chud, P A Bernardes, L D Rola, R P Savegnago, R B Lôbo, D P Munari
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for scrotal circumference at 365 (SC365) and 450 (SC450) days of age, age at first calving (AFC), ribeye area (REA), backfat (BF) thickness, and rump fat (RF) thickness, in order to provide information on potential traits for Nelore cattle breeding program. Genetic parameters were estimated using the Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood method in single- and multitrait analyses. Four different animal models were tested for SC365, SC450, REA, BF, and RF in single-trait analyses...
April 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202712/ribeye-b-domain-binds-to-lipid-components-of-synaptic-vesicles-in-an-nad-h-dependent-redox-sensitive-manner
#5
Karin Schwarz, Frank Schmitz
Synaptic ribbons are needed for fast and continuous exocytosis in ribbon synapses. RIBEYE is a main protein component of synaptic ribbons and is necessary to build the synaptic ribbon. RIBEYE consists of a unique A-domain and a carboxyterminal B-domain, which binds NAD(H). Within the presynaptic terminal, the synaptic ribbons are in physical contact with large numbers of synaptic vesicle (SV)s. How this physical contact between ribbons and synaptic vesicles is established at a molecular level is not well understood...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035673/somatic-and-neuritic-spines-on-tyrosine-hydroxylase-immunopositive-cells-of-rat-retina
#6
Anna Fasoli, James Dang, Jeffrey S Johnson, Aaron H Gouw, Alex Fogli Iseppe, Andrew T Ishida
Dopamine- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive cells (TH cells) modulate visually driven signals as they flow through retinal photoreceptor, bipolar, and ganglion cells. Previous studies suggested that TH cells release dopamine from varicose axons arborizing in the inner and outer plexiform layers after glutamatergic synapses depolarize TH cell dendrites in the inner plexiform layer and these depolarizations propagate to the varicosities. Although it has been proposed that these excitatory synapses are formed onto appendages resembling dendritic spines, spines have not been found on TH cells of most species examined to date or on TH cell somata that release dopamine when exposed to glutamate receptor agonists...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898882/genome-scan-for-postmortem-carcass-traits-in-nellore-cattle
#7
G A Fernandes Júnior, R B Costa, G M F de Camargo, R Carvalheiro, G J M Rosa, F Baldi, D A Garcia, D G M Gordo, R Espigolan, L Takada, A F B Magalhães, T Bresolin, F L B Feitosa, L A L Chardulo, H N de Oliveira, L G de Albuquerque
Carcass traits measured after slaughter are economically relevant traits in beef cattle. In general, the slaughter house payment system is based on HCW. Ribeye area (REA) is associated with the amount of the meat in the carcass, and a minimum of backfat thickness (BFT) is necessary to protect the carcass during cooling. The aim of this study was to identify potential genomic regions harboring candidate genes affecting those traits in Nellore cattle. The data set used in the present study consisted of 1,756 Nellore males with phenotype records...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898862/the-influence-of-supplemental-zn-amino-acid-complex-and-ractopamine-hydrochloride-feeding-duration-on-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-finishing-beef-cattle
#8
O N Genther-Schroeder, M E Branine, S L Hansen
Previous research indicates that finishing steer ADG and G:F increases linearly with increasing dietary Zn-amino acid complex (ZnAA) supplementation in cattle fed ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of supplemental Zn-amino acid complex on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing steers fed RAC for 0, 28, or 42 d prior to harvest. This study was organized as 2 groups (GRP) of steers fed concurrently, for 91 (GRP 1) or 84 d (GRP 2). A total of 324 steers (463 ± 23...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635230/new-insights-into-cochlear-sound-encoding
#9
REVIEW
Tobias Moser, Christian Vogl
The inner ear uses specialized synapses to indefatigably transmit sound information from hair cells to spiral ganglion neurons at high rates with submillisecond precision. The emerging view is that hair cell synapses achieve their demanding function by employing an unconventional presynaptic molecular composition. Hair cell active zones hold the synaptic ribbon, an electron-dense projection made primarily of RIBEYE, which tethers a halo of synaptic vesicles and is thought to enable a large readily releasable pool of vesicles and to contribute to its rapid replenishment...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420997/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-neurod1-is-associated-with-production-traits-in-nelore-beef-cattle
#10
P S N de Oliveira, P C Tizioto, W Malago, M L do Nascimento, A S M Cesar, W J S Diniz, M M de Souza, D P D Lanna, R R Tullio, G B Mourão, M de A Mudadu, L L Coutinho, L C de A Regitano
Feed efficiency and carcass characteristics are late-measured traits. The detection of molecular markers associated with them can help breeding programs to select animals early in life, and to predict breeding values with high accuracy. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the functional and positional candidate gene NEUROD1 (neurogenic differentiation 1), and investigate their associations with production traits in reference families of Nelore cattle. A total of 585 steers were used, from 34 sires chosen to represent the variability of this breed...
July 14, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420951/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-associated-with-carcass-traits-in-a-population-of-brahman-and-brahman-influenced-steers
#11
A M Royer, C Shivers, D G Riley, M A Elzo, M D Garcia
Brahman cattle are important in tropical regions due to their ability to tolerate excessive heat and parasites. However, Brahman cattle exhibit lower carcass quality characteristics when compared to Bos taurus breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes for carcass quality and composition traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers. Steers were evaluated through the American Brahman Breeders Association carcass evaluation project in Gonzales, Texas...
June 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379164/deriving-gene-networks-from-snp-associated-with-triacylglycerol-and-phospholipid-fatty-acid-fractions-from-ribeyes-of-angus-cattle
#12
Justin W Buchanan, James M Reecy, Dorian J Garrick, Qing Duan, Don C Beitz, James E Koltes, Mahdi Saatchi, Lars Koesterke, Raluca G Mateescu
The fatty acid profile of beef is a complex trait that can benefit from gene-interaction network analysis to understand relationships among loci that contribute to phenotypic variation. Phenotypic measures of fatty acid profile from triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions of longissimus muscle, pedigree information, and Illumina 54 k bovine SNP genotypes were utilized to derive an annotated gene network associated with fatty acid composition in 1,833 Angus beef cattle. The Bayes-B statistical model was utilized to perform a genome wide association study to estimate associations between 54 k SNP genotypes and 39 individual fatty acid phenotypes within each fraction...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292637/synaptic-ribbons-require-ribeye-for-electron-density-proper-synaptic-localization-and-recruitment-of-calcium-channels
#13
Caixia Lv, William J Stewart, Otar Akanyeti, Courtney Frederick, Jie Zhu, Joseph Santos-Sacchi, Lavinia Sheets, James C Liao, David Zenisek
Synaptic ribbons are structures made largely of the protein Ribeye that hold synaptic vesicles near release sites in non-spiking cells in some sensory systems. Here, we introduce frameshift mutations in the two zebrafish genes encoding for Ribeye and thus remove Ribeye protein from neuromast hair cells. Despite Ribeye depletion, vesicles collect around ribbon-like structures that lack electron density, which we term "ghost ribbons." Ghost ribbons are smaller in size but possess a similar number of smaller vesicles and are poorly localized to synapses and calcium channels...
June 21, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273592/mutation-of-wrb-a-component-of-the-guided-entry-of-tail-anchored-protein-pathway-disrupts-photoreceptor-synapse-structure-and-function
#14
Lauren L Daniele, Farida Emran, Glenn P Lobo, Robert J Gaivin, Brian D Perkins
PURPOSE: Tail-anchored (TA) proteins contain a single hydrophobic domain at the C-terminus and are posttranslationally inserted into the ER membrane via the GET (guided entry of tail-anchored proteins) pathway. The role of the GET pathway in photoreceptors is unexplored. The goal of this study was to characterize the zebrafish pinball wizard mutant, which disrupts Wrb, a core component of the GET pathway. METHODS: Electroretinography, optokinetic response measurements (OKR), immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy analyses were employed to assess ribbon synapse function, protein expression, and ultrastructure in 5-day-old zebrafish larvae...
June 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206053/the-chemical-composition-of-carcasses-can-be-predicted-from-proxy-traits-in-finishing-male-beef-cattle-a-meta-analysis
#15
M Al-Jammas, J Agabriel, J Vernet, I Ortigues-Marty
Management practices can contribute to improving carcass quality if carcass quality could be simply evaluated under a wide range of conditions. The objective of this study was to derive quantitative relationships between the most accurate (but laborious) measurements of carcass chemical composition and proxy traits easily obtainable at slaughter (yield grade, subcutaneous fat thickness, marbling, ribeye area and hot carcass weight) by meta-analysis. Data from 34 publications using male beef cattle were used to develop and validate the models...
September 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132232/changes-in-ganglion-cells-during-retinal-degeneration
#16
Susmita Saha, Ursula Greferath, Kirstan A Vessey, David B Grayden, Anthony N Burkitt, Erica L Fletcher
Inherited retinal degeneration such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is associated with photoreceptor loss and concomitant morphological and functional changes in the inner retina. It is not known whether these changes are associated with changes in the density and distribution of synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We quantified changes in ganglion cell density in rd1 and age-matched C57BL/6J-(wildtype, WT) mice using the immunocytochemical marker, RBPMS. Our data revealed that following complete loss of photoreceptors, (∼3months of age), there was a reduction in ganglion cell density in the peripheral retina...
August 4, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012610/reduced-sensory-stimulation-alters-the-molecular-make-up-of-glutamatergic-hair-cell-synapses-in-the-developing-cochlea
#17
M Barclay, R Constable, N R James, P R Thorne, J M Montgomery
Neural activity during early development is known to alter innervation pathways in the central and peripheral nervous systems. We sought to examine how reduced sound-induced sensory activity in the cochlea affected the consolidation of glutamatergic synapses between inner hair cells (IHC) and the primary auditory neurons as these synapses play a primary role in transmitting sound information to the brain. A unilateral conductive hearing loss was induced prior to the onset of sound-mediated stimulation of the sensory hair cells, by rupturing the tympanic membrane and dislocating the auditory ossicles in the left ear of P11 mice...
June 14, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929012/how-to-make-a-synaptic-ribbon-ribeye-deletion-abolishes-ribbons-in-retinal-synapses-and-disrupts-neurotransmitter-release
#18
Stephan Maxeiner, Fujun Luo, Alison Tan, Frank Schmitz, Thomas C Südhof
Synaptic ribbons are large proteinaceous scaffolds at the active zone of ribbon synapses that are specialized for rapid sustained synaptic vesicles exocytosis. A single ribbon-specific protein is known, RIBEYE, suggesting that ribbons may be constructed from RIBEYE protein. RIBEYE knockdown in zebrafish, however, only reduced but did not eliminate ribbons, indicating a more ancillary role. Here, we show in mice that full deletion of RIBEYE abolishes all presynaptic ribbons in retina synapses. Using paired recordings in acute retina slices, we demonstrate that deletion of RIBEYE severely impaired fast and sustained neurotransmitter release at bipolar neuron/AII amacrine cell synapses and rendered spontaneous miniature release sensitive to the slow Ca(2+)-buffer EGTA, suggesting that synaptic ribbons mediate nano-domain coupling of Ca(2+) channels to synaptic vesicle exocytosis...
May 17, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911694/the-disease-protein-tulp1-is-essential-for-periactive-zone-endocytosis-in-photoreceptor-ribbon-synapses
#19
Silke Wahl, Venkat Giri Magupalli, Mayur Dembla, Rashmi Katiyar, Karin Schwarz, Louise Köblitz, Kannan Alpadi, Elmar Krause, Jens Rettig, Ching-Hwa Sung, Andrew F X Goldberg, Frank Schmitz
Mutations in the Tulp1 gene cause severe, early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP14) in humans. In the retina, Tulp1 is mainly expressed in photoreceptors that use ribbon synapses to communicate with the inner retina. In the present study, we demonstrate that Tulp1 is highly enriched in the periactive zone of photoreceptor presynaptic terminals where Tulp1 colocalizes with major endocytic proteins close to the synaptic ribbon. Analyses of Tulp1 knock-out mice demonstrate that Tulp1 is essential to keep endocytic proteins enriched at the periactive zone and to maintain high levels of endocytic activity close to the synaptic ribbon...
February 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26910511/novel-approach-to-aging-beef-vacuum-packaged-foodservice-steaks-versus-vacuum-packaged-subprimals
#20
L Clay Eastwood, Ashley N Arnold, Rhonda K Miller, Kerri B Gehring, Jeffrey W Savell
This study evaluated quality attributes of beef aged as subprimals versus as steaks. Paired subprimals (n=5 pairs of five subprimal types) were selected and assigned to a treatment: (1) aging as vacuum-packaged steaks (portioned 7 d postmortem), or (2) aging as vacuum-packaged subprimals (portioned into steaks after each aging period: ribeye, 28 d; strip loin, 28 d; top sirloin butt, 35 d; tenderloin, 21 d; and short loin, 28 d). To simulate typical U.S. handling and distribution, all steaks were held an additional 14 d before color, shelf life, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and consumer sensory analyses were conducted...
June 2016: Meat Science
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