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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898882/genome-scan-for-postmortem-carcass-traits-in-nellore-cattle
#1
G A Fernandes Júnior, R B Costa, G M F de Camargo, R Carvalheiro, G J M Rosa, F Baldi, D A Garcia, D G M Gordo, R Espigolan, L Takada, A F B Magalhães, T Bresolin, F L B Feitosa, L A L Chardulo, H N de Oliveira, L G de Albuquerque
Carcass traits measured after slaughter are economically relevant traits in beef cattle. In general, the slaughter house payment system is based on HCW. Ribeye area (REA) is associated with the amount of the meat in the carcass, and a minimum of backfat thickness (BFT) is necessary to protect the carcass during cooling. The aim of this study was to identify potential genomic regions harboring candidate genes affecting those traits in Nellore cattle. The data set used in the present study consisted of 1,756 Nellore males with phenotype records...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898862/the-influence-of-supplemental-zn-amino-acid-complex-and-ractopamine-hydrochloride-feeding-duration-on-growth-performance-and-carcass-characteristics-of-finishing-beef-cattle
#2
O N Genther-Schroeder, M E Branine, S L Hansen
Previous research indicates that finishing steer ADG and G:F increases linearly with increasing dietary Zn-amino acid complex (ZnAA) supplementation in cattle fed ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of supplemental Zn-amino acid complex on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing steers fed RAC for 0, 28, or 42 d prior to harvest. This study was organized as 2 groups (GRP) of steers fed concurrently, for 91 (GRP 1) or 84 d (GRP 2). A total of 324 steers (463 ± 23...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635230/new-insights-into-cochlear-sound-encoding
#3
REVIEW
Tobias Moser, Christian Vogl
The inner ear uses specialized synapses to indefatigably transmit sound information from hair cells to spiral ganglion neurons at high rates with submillisecond precision. The emerging view is that hair cell synapses achieve their demanding function by employing an unconventional presynaptic molecular composition. Hair cell active zones hold the synaptic ribbon, an electron-dense projection made primarily of RIBEYE, which tethers a halo of synaptic vesicles and is thought to enable a large readily releasable pool of vesicles and to contribute to its rapid replenishment...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420997/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-neurod1-is-associated-with-production-traits-in-nelore-beef-cattle
#4
P S N de Oliveira, P C Tizioto, W Malago, M L do Nascimento, A S M Cesar, W J S Diniz, M M de Souza, D P D Lanna, R R Tullio, G B Mourão, M de A Mudadu, L L Coutinho, L C de A Regitano
Feed efficiency and carcass characteristics are late-measured traits. The detection of molecular markers associated with them can help breeding programs to select animals early in life, and to predict breeding values with high accuracy. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the functional and positional candidate gene NEUROD1 (neurogenic differentiation 1), and investigate their associations with production traits in reference families of Nelore cattle. A total of 585 steers were used, from 34 sires chosen to represent the variability of this breed...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420951/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-associated-with-carcass-traits-in-a-population-of-brahman-and-brahman-influenced-steers
#5
A M Royer, C Shivers, D G Riley, M A Elzo, M D Garcia
Brahman cattle are important in tropical regions due to their ability to tolerate excessive heat and parasites. However, Brahman cattle exhibit lower carcass quality characteristics when compared to Bos taurus breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes for carcass quality and composition traits in a population of Brahman and Brahman-influenced steers. Steers were evaluated through the American Brahman Breeders Association carcass evaluation project in Gonzales, Texas...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379164/deriving-gene-networks-from-snp-associated-with-triacylglycerol-and-phospholipid-fatty-acid-fractions-from-ribeyes-of-angus-cattle
#6
Justin W Buchanan, James M Reecy, Dorian J Garrick, Qing Duan, Don C Beitz, James E Koltes, Mahdi Saatchi, Lars Koesterke, Raluca G Mateescu
The fatty acid profile of beef is a complex trait that can benefit from gene-interaction network analysis to understand relationships among loci that contribute to phenotypic variation. Phenotypic measures of fatty acid profile from triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions of longissimus muscle, pedigree information, and Illumina 54 k bovine SNP genotypes were utilized to derive an annotated gene network associated with fatty acid composition in 1,833 Angus beef cattle. The Bayes-B statistical model was utilized to perform a genome wide association study to estimate associations between 54 k SNP genotypes and 39 individual fatty acid phenotypes within each fraction...
2016: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27292637/synaptic-ribbons-require-ribeye-for-electron-density-proper-synaptic-localization-and-recruitment-of-calcium-channels
#7
Caixia Lv, William J Stewart, Otar Akanyeti, Courtney Frederick, Jie Zhu, Joseph Santos-Sacchi, Lavinia Sheets, James C Liao, David Zenisek
Synaptic ribbons are structures made largely of the protein Ribeye that hold synaptic vesicles near release sites in non-spiking cells in some sensory systems. Here, we introduce frameshift mutations in the two zebrafish genes encoding for Ribeye and thus remove Ribeye protein from neuromast hair cells. Despite Ribeye depletion, vesicles collect around ribbon-like structures that lack electron density, which we term "ghost ribbons." Ghost ribbons are smaller in size but possess a similar number of smaller vesicles and are poorly localized to synapses and calcium channels...
June 21, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27273592/mutation-of-wrb-a-component-of-the-guided-entry-of-tail-anchored-protein-pathway-disrupts-photoreceptor-synapse-structure-and-function
#8
Lauren L Daniele, Farida Emran, Glenn P Lobo, Robert J Gaivin, Brian D Perkins
PURPOSE: Tail-anchored (TA) proteins contain a single hydrophobic domain at the C-terminus and are posttranslationally inserted into the ER membrane via the GET (guided entry of tail-anchored proteins) pathway. The role of the GET pathway in photoreceptors is unexplored. The goal of this study was to characterize the zebrafish pinball wizard mutant, which disrupts Wrb, a core component of the GET pathway. METHODS: Electroretinography, optokinetic response measurements (OKR), immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy analyses were employed to assess ribbon synapse function, protein expression, and ultrastructure in 5-day-old zebrafish larvae...
June 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27206053/the-chemical-composition-of-carcasses-can-be-predicted-from-proxy-traits-in-finishing-male-beef-cattle-a-meta-analysis
#9
M Al-Jammas, J Agabriel, J Vernet, I Ortigues-Marty
Management practices can contribute to improving carcass quality if carcass quality could be simply evaluated under a wide range of conditions. The objective of this study was to derive quantitative relationships between the most accurate (but laborious) measurements of carcass chemical composition and proxy traits easily obtainable at slaughter (yield grade, subcutaneous fat thickness, marbling, ribeye area and hot carcass weight) by meta-analysis. Data from 34 publications using male beef cattle were used to develop and validate the models...
April 22, 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27132232/changes-in-ganglion-cells-during-retinal-degeneration
#10
Susmita Saha, Ursula Greferath, Kirstan A Vessey, David B Grayden, Anthony N Burkitt, Erica L Fletcher
Inherited retinal degeneration such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is associated with photoreceptor loss and concomitant morphological and functional changes in the inner retina. It is not known whether these changes are associated with changes in the density and distribution of synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We quantified changes in ganglion cell density in rd1 and age-matched C57BL/6J-(wildtype, WT) mice using the immunocytochemical marker, RBPMS. Our data revealed that following complete loss of photoreceptors, (∼3months of age), there was a reduction in ganglion cell density in the peripheral retina...
August 4, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012610/reduced-sensory-stimulation-alters-the-molecular-make-up-of-glutamatergic-hair-cell-synapses-in-the-developing-cochlea
#11
M Barclay, R Constable, N R James, P R Thorne, J M Montgomery
Neural activity during early development is known to alter innervation pathways in the central and peripheral nervous systems. We sought to examine how reduced sound-induced sensory activity in the cochlea affected the consolidation of glutamatergic synapses between inner hair cells (IHC) and the primary auditory neurons as these synapses play a primary role in transmitting sound information to the brain. A unilateral conductive hearing loss was induced prior to the onset of sound-mediated stimulation of the sensory hair cells, by rupturing the tympanic membrane and dislocating the auditory ossicles in the left ear of P11 mice...
June 14, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929012/how-to-make-a-synaptic-ribbon-ribeye-deletion-abolishes-ribbons-in-retinal-synapses-and-disrupts-neurotransmitter-release
#12
Stephan Maxeiner, Fujun Luo, Alison Tan, Frank Schmitz, Thomas C Südhof
Synaptic ribbons are large proteinaceous scaffolds at the active zone of ribbon synapses that are specialized for rapid sustained synaptic vesicles exocytosis. A single ribbon-specific protein is known, RIBEYE, suggesting that ribbons may be constructed from RIBEYE protein. RIBEYE knockdown in zebrafish, however, only reduced but did not eliminate ribbons, indicating a more ancillary role. Here, we show in mice that full deletion of RIBEYE abolishes all presynaptic ribbons in retina synapses. Using paired recordings in acute retina slices, we demonstrate that deletion of RIBEYE severely impaired fast and sustained neurotransmitter release at bipolar neuron/AII amacrine cell synapses and rendered spontaneous miniature release sensitive to the slow Ca(2+)-buffer EGTA, suggesting that synaptic ribbons mediate nano-domain coupling of Ca(2+) channels to synaptic vesicle exocytosis...
May 17, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26911694/the-disease-protein-tulp1-is-essential-for-periactive-zone-endocytosis-in-photoreceptor-ribbon-synapses
#13
Silke Wahl, Venkat Giri Magupalli, Mayur Dembla, Rashmi Katiyar, Karin Schwarz, Louise Köblitz, Kannan Alpadi, Elmar Krause, Jens Rettig, Ching-Hwa Sung, Andrew F X Goldberg, Frank Schmitz
Mutations in the Tulp1 gene cause severe, early-onset retinitis pigmentosa (RP14) in humans. In the retina, Tulp1 is mainly expressed in photoreceptors that use ribbon synapses to communicate with the inner retina. In the present study, we demonstrate that Tulp1 is highly enriched in the periactive zone of photoreceptor presynaptic terminals where Tulp1 colocalizes with major endocytic proteins close to the synaptic ribbon. Analyses of Tulp1 knock-out mice demonstrate that Tulp1 is essential to keep endocytic proteins enriched at the periactive zone and to maintain high levels of endocytic activity close to the synaptic ribbon...
February 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26910511/novel-approach-to-aging-beef-vacuum-packaged-foodservice-steaks-versus-vacuum-packaged-subprimals
#14
L Clay Eastwood, Ashley N Arnold, Rhonda K Miller, Kerri B Gehring, Jeffrey W Savell
This study evaluated quality attributes of beef aged as subprimals versus as steaks. Paired subprimals (n=5 pairs of five subprimal types) were selected and assigned to a treatment: (1) aging as vacuum-packaged steaks (portioned 7 d postmortem), or (2) aging as vacuum-packaged subprimals (portioned into steaks after each aging period: ribeye, 28 d; strip loin, 28 d; top sirloin butt, 35 d; tenderloin, 21 d; and short loin, 28 d). To simulate typical U.S. handling and distribution, all steaks were held an additional 14 d before color, shelf life, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and consumer sensory analyses were conducted...
June 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26846781/a-web-based-data-visualization-tool-for-the-mimic-ii-database
#15
Joon Lee, Evan Ribey, James R Wallace
BACKGROUND: Although MIMIC-II, a public intensive care database, has been recognized as an invaluable resource for many medical researchers worldwide, becoming a proficient MIMIC-II researcher requires knowledge of SQL programming and an understanding of the MIMIC-II database schema. These are challenging requirements especially for health researchers and clinicians who may have limited computer proficiency. In order to overcome this challenge, our objective was to create an interactive, web-based MIMIC-II data visualization tool that first-time MIMIC-II users can easily use to explore the database...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829237/formation-of-free-and-protein-bound-carboxymethyllysine-and-carboxyethyllysine-in-meats-during-commercial-sterilization
#16
Xiaohua Sun, Juming Tang, Jing Wang, Barbara A Rasco, Keqiang Lai, Yiqun Huang
The effect of commercial sterilization treatments on the levels of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in meats was investigated. The amounts of both free and protein-bound N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and N(ε)-carboxyethyllysine (CEL) in beef (rump, ribeye, short plate), pork (hind leg, tenderloin, belly), and chicken (chicken breasts, drumsticks) were determined using an HPLC-MS/MS method. Beef and pork had a small proportion (raw <15%; sterilized <8%) of free AGEs compared to the total AGEs, but raw chicken breasts had very high levels of free CEL (7...
June 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26681013/candidate-genes-for-carcass-traits-in-a-tropical-adapted-brazilian-composite-beef-breed
#17
G Veneroni-Gouveia, P C Tizioto, S L C Meirelles, A C Santiago, M M Alencar, L C A Regitano
Backfat thickness (BFT) and ribeye area (REA) are important production traits but, because they are measured late in the animal's life, they have not been efficiently included in breeding programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapped to the leptin, PPARGC1A, PSMC1, CRH, and FABP4 genes, which influence BFT and REA in Canchim cattle, a composite beef breed (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu). BFT and REA phenotypic records were obtained by ultrasound measurements from 18-month-old animals...
December 11, 2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26641196/relationships-among-temperament-behavior-and-growth-during-performance-testing-of-bulls
#18
S A Lockwood, H G Kattesh, P D Krawczel, F D Kirkpatrick, A M Saxton, J D Rhinehart, J B Wilkerson
Excitable cattle are dangerous to personnel and have reduced individual performance. The aim of this study was to 1) identify objective criteria for evaluating bull temperament and 2) examine relationships among temperament, behavior, and performance of bulls during an 84-d performance test. Angus bulls ( = 60) were reared in 6 pens based on BW and age. Pen scores (PS; 1 = docile and 5 = very aggressive) were assigned on d -1, 27, 55, and 83. Exit velocity (EV), BW, time to exit the chute, and order through the chute were recorded on d 0, 28, 56, and 84...
December 2015: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26641169/visual-body-scores-selection-and-its-influence-on-body-size-and-ultrasound-carcass-traits-in-nellore-cattle
#19
M N Bonin, J B S Ferraz, V B Pedrosa, S L Silva, R C Gomes, D C Cucco, M H A Santana, J H A Campos, V N Barbosa, F S F Castro, F J Novais, E C M Oliveira
Genetic parameters, genetic trends, and genetic progress of carcass traits were estimated for 12,447 Nellore individuals from different Brazilian herds. The following carcass traits were analyzed: visual body scores of conformation (CONF), precocity (PREC), and muscularity (MUSC); rump width (RW) and rump length (RL), body size (frame); and ultrasound evaluation of ribeye area (REA), backfat thickness (BFT), and rump fat thickness (RFT). Heritability estimates (± SE) for CONF, PREC, and MUSC were 0.23 ± 0...
December 2015: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26599759/integrating-genomics-with-nutrition-models-to-improve-the-prediction-of-cattle-performance-and-carcass-composition-under-feedlot-conditions
#20
Luis O Tedeschi
Cattle body composition is difficult to model because several factors affect the composition of the average daily gain (ADG) of growing animals. The objective of this study was to identify commercial single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels that could improve the predictability of days on feed (DOF) to reach a target United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) grade given animal, diet, and environmental information under feedyard conditions. The data for this study was comprised of crossbred heifers (n = 681) and steers (n = 836) from commercial feedyards...
2015: PloS One
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