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David R Sultemeier, Kristel R Choy, Felix E Schweizer, Larry F Hoffman
Exposure to the microgravity conditions of spaceflight alleviates the load normally imposed by the Earth's gravitational field upon the inner ear utricular epithelia. Previous ultrastructural investigations showed that spaceflight induced an increase in synapse density within hair cells of the rat utricle. However, the utricle exhibits broad physiologic heterogeneity across different epithelial regions, and it is unknown whether capabilities for synaptic plasticity generalize to hair cells across its topography...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jingjing Guo, Xiang Cheng, Lei Zhang, Linmei Wang, Yongxin Mao, Guixiang Tian, Wenhao Xu, Yuhao Wu, Zhi Ma, Jianbing Qin, Meiling Tian, Guohua Jin, Wei Shi, Xinhua Zhang
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is essential for learning and memory, and its dysfunction is involved in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adult hippocampal neurogenesis are still largely unknown. Our previous studies indicated that the transcription factor Brn4 was upregulated and promoted neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the surgically denervated hippocampus in rats. In this study, we use high-throughput RNA sequencing to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhancement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis induced by lentivirus-mediated Brn4 overexpression in vivo...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Jiang Nan, Sun Guan, Xu Jin, Zhu Jian, Fu Linshan, Guo Jun
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children and is responsible for ∼15% of pediatric cancer deaths. CtBP2 is a member of the CtBP family of proteins that functions as a transcription regulator and has been demonstrated to interact with the C-terminus of the adenoviral E1A oncoprotein. In this study, the expression of CtBP2 in the human neuroblastoma cell line SHSY5Y was down-regulated using lentiviral-mediated RNA interference. Down-regulation of CtBP2 inhibited the expression of c-myc, MMP2, and MMP9 proteins...
February 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Pingli Liu, Li Shi, Xiaomin Cang, Jieru Huang, Xue Wu, Jin Yan, Ling Chen, Shiwei Cui, Xinhua Ye
Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the development of hepatic insulin resistance, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that C-terminal-binding protein 2 (CtBP2) level was decreased in insulin resistance. Taking into account the relationship between CtBP family protein (ANGUSTIFOLIA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, we conjectured CtBP2 was involved in insulin resistance through ROS induced stress. In order to verify this hypothesis, we over-expressed CtBP2 in palmitate (PA) treated HepG2 cells...
January 19, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Jacquelyn L Meyers, Jian Zhang, Niklas Manz, Madhavi Rangaswamy, Chella Kamarajan, Leah Wetherill, David B Chorlian, Sun J Kang, Lance Bauer, Victor Hesselbrock, John Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, John I Nurnberger, Jay Tischfield, Jen Chyong Wang, Howard J Edenberg, Alison Goate, Tatiana Foroud, Bernice Porjesz
BACKGROUND: Differences in fast beta (20-28 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillatory activity distinguish some individuals with psychiatric and substance use disorders, suggesting that it may be a useful endophenotype for studying the genetics of disorders characterized by neural hyper-excitability. Despite the high heritability estimates provided by twin and family studies, there have been relatively few genetic studies of beta EEG, and to date only one genetic association finding has replicated (i...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Yong Wang, Shusheng Che, Gang Cai, Yuchao He, Jialei Chen, Wei Xu
Deregulated expression of C-terminal-binding protein 2 (CTBP2) has been observed previously in a number of tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and prostatic cancer, in the colorectal cancer SW480 cell line and in the human embryonic kidney 293 cell line. In the present study, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed to investigate whether gliomas exhibit deregulated CTBP2 expression. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between CTBP2 expression, clinicopathological data and patient survival in glioma patients...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
Pankhuri Vyas, Jingjing Sherry Wu, Amanda Zimmerman, Paul Fuchs, Elisabeth Glowatzki
Acoustic information propagates from the ear to the brain via spiral ganglion neurons that innervate hair cells in the cochlea. These afferents include unmyelinated type II fibers that constitute 5 % of the total, the majority being myelinated type I neurons. Lack of specific genetic markers of type II afferents in the cochlea has been a roadblock in studying their functional role. Unexpectedly, type II afferents were visualized by reporter proteins induced by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-driven Cre recombinase...
February 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
David J Sly, Luke Campbell, Aaron Uschakov, Saieda Tasfia Saief, Matthew Lam, Stephen J O'Leary
HYPOTHESIS: Applying neurotrophins to the round window immediately after a single noise exposure will prevent noise-induced hidden hearing loss. BACKGROUND: Loud noise can eliminate neural connections between inner hair cells and their afferent neurons (thereby diminishing sound perception) without causing a detectable change on audiogram. This phenomenon is termed hidden hearing loss. METHODS: Guinea pigs were exposed for 2 hours to 4 to 8 kHz noise at either 95 or 105 dB SPL...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
X Huang, T Huang, W Deng, G Yan, H Qiu, Y Huang, S Ke, Y Hou, Y Zhang, Z Zhang, S Fang, L Zhou, B Yang, J Ren, H Ai, L Huang
Prevalence of swine respiratory disease causes poor growth performance in and serious economic losses to the swine industry. In this study, a categorical trait of enzootic pneumonia-like (EPL) score representing the infection gradient of a respiratory disease, more likely enzootic pneumonia, was recorded in a herd of 332 Chinese Erhualian pigs. According to their EPL scores and the disease effect on weight gains, these pigs were grouped into controls (EPL score ≤ 1) and cases (EPL score > 1). The weight gain of the case group reduced significantly at days 180, 210, 240 and 300 as compared to the control group...
February 2017: Animal Genetics
Lei Li, Shanshan Wan, Kaixiong Tao, Guobin Wang, Ende Zhao
Killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily G member 1 (KLRG1) has been found on human memory T lymphocytes. However, the roles of KLRG1 on human T cells especially in tumor microenvironment have not been fully understood. Our results showed KLRG1 expression on T cells significantly increased in tumor microenvironment. KLRG1+ T cells exhibited poor proliferative capacity with decreased effector cytokine production. Meanwhile, KLRG1+ T cells expressed abundant pro-inflammatory cytokines and demonstrated high level of Foxp3 expression...
September 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Pezhman Salehi, Anthony Myint, Young J Kim, Marshall X Ge, Joel Lavinsky, Maria K Ho, Amanda L Crow, Charlene Cruz, Maya Monges-Hernadez, Juemei Wang, Jaana Hartiala, Li I Zhang, Hooman Allayee, Aldons J Lusis, Takahiro Ohyama, Rick A Friedman
This study aimed to investigate the genetic causes of vestibular dysfunction. We used vestibular sensory-evoked potentials (VsEPs) to characterize the vestibular function of 35 inbred mouse strains selected from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel and demonstrated strain-dependent phenotypic variation in vestibular function. Using these phenotypic data, we performed the first genome-wide association study controlling for population structure that has revealed two highly suggestive loci, one of which lies within a haplotype block containing five genes (Stard6, 4930503L19Rik, Poli, Mbd2, Dcc) on Chr...
October 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Kihoon Cha, Yi Li, Gwan-Su Yi
BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-based therapy is a recommended treatment for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, a considerable group of CML patients do not respond well to the TKI therapy. Challenging to overcome this problem, we tried to discover molecular signatures in gene expression profiles to discriminate the responders and non-responders of TKI therapy. METHODS: We collected three microarray datasets of CML patients having total 73 responders and 38 non-responders...
2016: BMC Medical Genomics
Arpad Palfi, Karsten Hokamp, Stefanie M Hauck, Sebastian Vencken, Sophia Millington-Ward, Naomi Chadderton, Mathew Carrigan, Elod Kortvely, Catherine M Greene, Paul F Kenna, G Jane Farrar
miRNA dysregulation is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders, including those involving the retina. Up-regulation of miR-1/133 and miR-142, and down-regulation of miR-183/96/182 has been described in the RHO-P347S mouse retina, a model for a common form of inherited blindness. High-throughput LC-MS/MS was employed to analyse the protein expression of predicted targets for these miRNAs in RHO-P347S mouse retinas; 133 potential target genes were identified. Pathway over-representation analysis suggests G-protein signaling/visual transduction, and synaptic transmission for miR-1, and transmembrane transport, cell-adhesion, signal transduction and apoptosis for miR-183/96/182 as regulated functions in retina...
2016: Scientific Reports
Gema Esquiva, Aaron Avivi, Jens Hannibal
The blind mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi, can, despite severely degenerated eyes covered by fur, entrain to the daily light/dark cycle and adapt to seasonal changes due to an intact circadian timing system. The present study demonstrates that the Spalax retina contains a photoreceptor layer, an outer nuclear layer (ONL), an outer plexiform layer (OPL), an inner nuclear layer (INL), an inner plexiform layer (IPL), and a ganglion cell layer (GCL). By immunohistochemistry, the number of melanopsin (mRGCs) and non-melanopsin bearing retinal ganglion cells was analyzed in detail...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Sandra Côté, Valérie Gagné-Ouellet, Simon-Pierre Guay, Catherine Allard, Andrée-Anne Houde, Patrice Perron, Jean-Patrice Baillargeon, Daniel Gaudet, Renée Guérin, Diane Brisson, Marie-France Hivert, Luigi Bouchard
BACKGROUND: Children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at a higher risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. This susceptibility might involve brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is suspected to protect against obesity. The objective of this study is to assess whether fetal exposure to maternal hyperglycemia is associated with DNA methylation variations in genes involved in BAT genesis and activation. METHODS: DNA methylation levels at the PRDM16, BMP7, CTBP2, and PPARGC1α gene loci were measured in placenta samples using bisulfite pyrosequencing in E-21 (n = 133; 33 cases of GDM) and the HumanMethylation450 array in Gen3G (n = 172, all from non-diabetic women) birth cohorts...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
A Hinney, M Kesselmeier, S Jall, A-L Volckmar, M Föcker, J Antel, I M Heid, T W Winkler, S F A Grant, Y Guo, A W Bergen, W Kaye, W Berrettini, H Hakonarson, B Herpertz-Dahlmann, M de Zwaan, W Herzog, S Ehrlich, S Zipfel, K M Egberts, R Adan, M Brandys, A van Elburg, V Boraska Perica, C S Franklin, M H Tschöp, E Zeggini, C M Bulik, D Collier, A Scherag, T D Müller, J Hebebrand
The maintenance of normal body weight is disrupted in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) for prolonged periods of time. Prior to the onset of AN, premorbid body mass index (BMI) spans the entire range from underweight to obese. After recovery, patients have reduced rates of overweight and obesity. As such, loci involved in body weight regulation may also be relevant for AN and vice versa. Our primary analysis comprised a cross-trait analysis of the 1000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the lowest P-values in a genome-wide association meta-analysis (GWAMA) of AN (GCAN) for evidence of association in the largest published GWAMA for BMI (GIANT)...
February 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
Susmita Saha, Ursula Greferath, Kirstan A Vessey, David B Grayden, Anthony N Burkitt, Erica L Fletcher
Inherited retinal degeneration such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is associated with photoreceptor loss and concomitant morphological and functional changes in the inner retina. It is not known whether these changes are associated with changes in the density and distribution of synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We quantified changes in ganglion cell density in rd1 and age-matched C57BL/6J-(wildtype, WT) mice using the immunocytochemical marker, RBPMS. Our data revealed that following complete loss of photoreceptors, (∼3months of age), there was a reduction in ganglion cell density in the peripheral retina...
August 4, 2016: Neuroscience
Yanli Zhang, Jamie Sui-Lam Kwok, Pui-Wah Choi, Minghua Liu, Junzheng Yang, Margit Singh, Shu-Kay Ng, William R Welch, Michael G Muto, Stephen Kw Tsui, Stephen P Sugrue, Ross S Berkowitz, Shu-Wing Ng
Unlike many other human solid tumors, ovarian tumors express many epithelial markers at a high level for cell growth and local invasion. The phosphoprotein Pinin plays a key role in epithelial cell identity. We showed that clinical ovarian tumors and ovarian cancer cell lines express a high level of Pinin when compared with normal ovarian tissues and immortalized normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. Pinin co-localized and physically interacted with transcriptional corepressor C-terminal binding proteins, CtBP1 and CtBP2, in the nuclei of cancer cells...
March 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Changwen Zhang, Shuanghui Li, Baomin Qiao, Kuo Yang, Ranlu Liu, Baojie Ma, Yan Liu, Zhihong Zhang, Yong Xu
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of CtBP2 in prostate cancer and to determine its relationship with clinicopathologic parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of CtBP2 in 119 prostate cancer tissues and 41 normal tissues was examined by qPCR and Western blot analysis, and the results were correlated with clinicopathologic parameters. RESULTS: CtBP2 expression in prostate cancer tissues was higher than that in normal samples...
December 10, 2015: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Miho Riku, Shingo Inaguma, Hideaki Ito, Takumi Tsunoda, Hiroshi Ikeda, Kenji Kasai
Although breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies, the molecular mechanisms underlying its development and progression are not fully understood. To identify key molecules involved, we screened publicly available microarray datasets for genes differentially expressed between breast cancers and normal mammary glands. We found that three of the genes predicted in this analysis were differentially expressed among human mammary tissues and cell lines. Of these genes, we focused on the role of the zinc-finger homeobox protein TSHZ2, which is down-regulated in breast cancer cells...
February 2, 2016: Oncotarget
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