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Auditory dual-task

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047031/the-effect-of-phasic-alertness-on-temporal-precision
#1
Qingqing Li, Peiduo Liu, Shunhang Huang, Xiting Huang
Many previous studies have found that there is a close relationship between attention and temporal precision. As a mechanism that regulates the intensity of attention, alertness has beneficial influences on perceptual processing. However, little is known regarding whether and how phasic alertness affects temporal precision. Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 used visual and auditory warning cues in a visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) task and a simultaneity judgment (SJ) task to investigate the phasic alerting effect on temporal precision...
October 18, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037639/reliability-of-kinematic-measures-in-subjects-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-deficiency-during-dual-task-walking
#2
Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani, Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh
OBJECTIVE: To define the throughout within- and between-day reliability of gait parameters in single - and dual-task conditions in subjects with and without anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD). METHODS: Fourteen subjects with ACLD and 14 healthy subjects completed a walking task on a treadmill with three levels of velocity (self-selected, high and low), with or without performing an auditory Stroop task over two sessions each 3-5 days apart. The gait kinematic parameters, including maximum and minimum hip flexion, total hip range of motion, maximum and minimum knee flexion and total knee range of motion were recorded using a motion analysis system...
October 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978769/case-studies-in-neuroscience-a-dissociation-of-balance-and-posture-demonstrated-by-camptocormia
#3
Rebecca J St George, Victor S Gurfinkel, Jeff Kraakevik, John G Nutt, Fay B Horak
Upright stance in humans requires an intricate exchange between the neural mechanisms that control balance and those that control posture; however, the distinction between these control systems is hard to discern in healthy subjects. By studying balance and postural control of a participant with camptocormia - an involuntary flexion of the trunk during standing that resolves when supine - a divergence between balance and postural control was revealed. A kinematic and kinetic investigation of standing and walking showed a stereotyped flexion of the upper body by almost 80 degrees over a few minutes, and yet the participant's ability to control their center of mass within their base of support and to compensate for external perturbations remained intact...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951973/implicit-sequence-learning-despite-multitasking-the-role-of-across-task-predictability
#4
Eva Röttger, Hilde Haider, Fang Zhao, Robert Gaschler
One often replicated finding is that implicit sequence learning is hampered in dual-task situations. Thus, one crucial question has been whether implicit learning processes require attentional resources. Meanwhile, focusing exclusively on limited attentional resources might be considered as too unspecific. Overall, the focus lies now rather on the possibility that the impairment is due to interference coming along with (a) task integration (e.g., Schmidtke and Heuer in Psychol Res 60(1-2):53-71, 1997)-or with (b) parallel response selection (Schumacher and Schwarb in J Exp Psychol Gen 138(2):270-290, 2009)...
September 26, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937301/attentional-modulation-and-individual-differences-in-explaining-the-changing-role-of-fundamental-frequency-in-korean-laryngeal-stop-perception
#5
Eun Jong Kong, Hyunjung Lee
Previous research has shown differential degrees of attention in processing hierarchical linguistic information where higher order cues require greater attention in speech processing. The current study investigated the influence of attentional resources on acoustic cue weightings in speech perception by examining Korean listeners' identifications of the three-way laryngeal stops (tense vs. lax vs. aspirated). Using a dual-task paradigm, we presented 28 adult Korean listeners with identification tasks blocked by no-distractor versus distractor conditions where arithmetic calculations distracted the listeners' speech processing...
September 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922999/pattern-of-near-transfer-effects-following-working-memory-training-with-a-dual-n-back-task
#6
Anna Soveri, Eric P A Karlsson, Otto Waris, Petra Grönholm-Nyman, Matti Laine
In a randomized controlled trial, we investigated the pattern of near transfer effects of working memory (WM) training with an adaptive auditory-visuospatial dual n-back training task in healthy young adults. The results revealed significant task-specific transfer to an untrained single n-back task, and more general near transfer to a WM updating composite score plus a nearly significant effect on a composite score measuring interference control in WM. No transfer effects were seen on Active or Passive WM composites...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917014/more-insight-into-the-interplay-of-response-selection-and-visual-attention-in-dual-tasks-masked-visual-search-and-response-selection-are-performed-in-parallel
#7
Christina B Reimer, Torsten Schubert
Both response selection and visual attention are limited in capacity. According to the central bottleneck model, the response selection processes of two tasks in a dual-task situation are performed sequentially. In conjunction search, visual attention is required to select the items and to bind their features (e.g., color and form), which results in a serial search process. Search time increases as items are added to the search display (i.e., set size effect). When the search display is masked, visual attention deployment is restricted to a brief period of time and target detection decreases as a function of set size...
September 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904598/delusional-ideation-cognitive-processes-and-crime-based-reasoning
#8
Dean J Wilkinson, Laura S Caulfield
Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks...
August 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830767/influence-of-dual-tasking-with-different-levels-of-attention-diversion-on-characteristics-of-the-movement-related-cortical-potential
#9
Susan Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako, Ning Jiang, Dario Farina, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting
Dual tasking is defined as performing two tasks concurrently and has been shown to have a significant effect on attention directed to the performance of the main task. In this study, an attention diversion task with two different levels was administered while participants had to complete a cue-based motor task consisting of foot dorsiflexion. An auditory oddball task with two levels of complexity was implemented to divert the user's attention. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were made from nine single channels...
August 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827155/effects-of-mental-workload-on-involuntary-attention-a-somatosensory-erp-study
#10
Sungchul Mun, Mincheol Whang, Sangin Park, Min-Chul Park
Previous psychophysiological assessments of mental workload have relied on the addition of visual or auditory stimuli. This study investigated the tactile ERP and EEG spectral power correlates of mental workload by relating limited-capacity involuntary attention allocation to changes in late positive potential (LPP) amplitude, alpha, and theta powers. We examined whether mental workload (high-level cognitive control) can be evaluated using somatosensory stimuli. Sixteen participants all performed three tasks of varying difficulty...
August 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806193/speech-perception-in-noise-and-listening-effort-of-older-adults-with-nonlinear-frequency-compression-hearing-aids
#11
James Shehorn, Nicole Marrone, Thomas Muller
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this laboratory-based study was to compare the efficacy of two hearing aid fittings with and without nonlinear frequency compression, implemented within commercially available hearing aids. Previous research regarding the utility of nonlinear frequency compression has revealed conflicting results for speech recognition, marked by high individual variability. Individual differences in auditory function and cognitive abilities, specifically hearing loss slope and working memory, may contribute to aided performance...
August 10, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802368/study-of-the-effects-of-hearing-on-static-and-dynamic-postural-function-in-children-using-cochlear-implants
#12
Malihah Mazaheryazdi, Abdollah Moossavi, Javad Sarrafzadah, Saeed Talebian, Shohreh Jalaie
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the postural control perturbations by the center of pressure parameters in two main approaches, cochlear implant turned "on" and "off". METHODS: We included 25 children aged 8-10 years with unilateral cochlear implants and bilateral vestibular hypofunction deficit. To evaluate the postural function, each children was asked to stand on the force plate under 3 different conditions and cochlear implant turned "on" and "off": Condition (A) double stance from open eyes to closed eyes, Condition (B) double stance with open eyes engaging in the dual task and Condition (C) From double leg stance to one leg stance with open eyes for assessment of dynamic postural control...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758775/near-independent-capacities-and-highly-constrained-output-orders-in-the-simultaneous-free-recall-of-auditory-verbal-and-visuo-spatial-stimuli
#13
Cathleen Cortis Mack, Kevin Dent, Geoff Ward
Three experiments examined the immediate free recall (IFR) of auditory-verbal and visuospatial materials from single-modality and dual-modality lists. In Experiment 1, we presented participants with between 1 and 16 spoken words, with between 1 and 16 visuospatial dot locations, or with between 1 and 16 words and dots with synchronized onsets. We found that for dual-modality lists (a) overall performance, initial recalls, and serial position curves were largely determined by the within-modality list lengths, (b) there was only a small degree of dual-task trade-off (that was limited to the visuospatial items), and (c) there were strongly constrained output orders: participants tended to alternate between words and dots from equivalent or neighboring serial positions...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723907/auditory-and-visual-distractors-disrupt-multisensory-temporal-acuity-in-the-crossmodal-temporal-order-judgment-task
#14
Cassandra L Dean, Brady A Eggleston, Kyla David Gibney, Enimielen Aligbe, Marissa Blackwell, Leslie Dowell Kwakye
The ability to synthesize information across multiple senses is known as multisensory integration and is essential to our understanding of the world around us. Sensory stimuli that occur close in time are likely to be integrated, and the accuracy of this integration is dependent on our ability to precisely discriminate the relative timing of unisensory stimuli (crossmodal temporal acuity). Previous research has shown that multisensory integration is modulated by both bottom-up stimulus features, such as the temporal structure of unisensory stimuli, and top-down processes such as attention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718840/bilinguals-working-memory-wm-advantage-and-their-dual-language-practices
#15
Eunju Yang
The present study investigates a possible working memory (WM) difference between monolingual and bilingual groups and explores the relationship between their WM advantage and language practices. A mixed methods design was employed for the study. To measure participants' WM, auditory and visual digit span tasks were conducted on the different language groups: 20 Korean near-monolinguals, and 40 Korean-English bilinguals with two different levels of second language (L2) proficiency. Bilinguals' daily language practices were explored through semi-structured interviews with eight bilinguals...
July 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662465/neuroimaging-of-an-attention-demanding-dual-task-during-dynamic-postural-control
#16
Andrea L Rosso, Massimo Cenciarini, Patrick J Sparto, Patrick J Loughlin, Joseph M Furman, Theodore J Huppert
Cognitive tasks impact postural control when performed concurrently as dual-tasks. This is presumed to result from capacity limitations in relevant brain regions. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure brain activation of the left motor, temporal, and dorsal-lateral prefrontal brain regions of younger (n=6) and older (n=10) adults. Brain activation was measured during an auditory choice reaction task (CRT) and standing on a dynamic posturography platform, both as single-tasks and concurrently as dual-task...
September 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659844/transferability-of-dual-task-coordination-skills-after-practice-with-changing-component-tasks
#17
Torsten Schubert, Roman Liepelt, Sebastian Kübler, Tilo Strobach
Recent research has demonstrated that dual-task performance with two simultaneously presented tasks can be substantially improved as a result of practice. Among other mechanisms, theories of dual-task practice-relate this improvement to the acquisition of task coordination skills. These skills are assumed (1) to result from dual-task practice, but not from single-task practice, and (2) to be independent from the specific stimulus and response mappings during the practice situation and, therefore, transferable to new dual task situations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654960/the-cost-of-making-an-eye-movement-a-direct-link-between-visual-working-memory-and-saccade-execution
#18
Martijn J Schut, Nathan Van der Stoep, Albert Postma, Stefan Van der Stigchel
To facilitate visual continuity across eye movements, the visual system must presaccadically acquire information about the future foveal image. Previous studies have indicated that visual working memory (VWM) affects saccade execution. However, the reverse relation, the effect of saccade execution on VWM load is less clear. To investigate the causal link between saccade execution and VWM, we combined a VWM task and a saccade task. Participants were instructed to remember one, two, or three shapes and performed either a No Saccade-, a Single Saccade- or a Dual (corrective) Saccade-task...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644923/examining-transfer-effects-of-dual-task-training-protocols-for-a-complex-locomotor-task
#19
Timothy A Worden, Lori Ann Vallis
Training protocols designed to improve dual-task performance of an obstacle crossing and auditory Stroop task (OBS+Stroop) were tested. In Experiment  1 , following baseline collection of OBS+Stroop trials, proximally related walking training was performed, and participants were then retested on the OBS+Stroop test. After training, participants adopted a more cautious obstacle crossing strategy, indicating a potentially safer navigation strategy. Transfer effects from distally related training were then examined (Experiment  2 ); a computer game training paradigm was examined using the same testing protocol as Experiment  1 ...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545933/extracting-multidimensional-stimulus-response-correlations-using-hybrid-encoding-decoding-of-neural-activity
#20
REVIEW
Jacek P Dmochowski, Jason Ki, Paul DeGuzman, Paul Sajda, Lucas C Parra
In neuroscience, stimulus-response relationships have traditionally been analyzed using either encoding or decoding models. Here we propose a hybrid approach that decomposes neural activity into multiple components, each representing a portion of the stimulus. The technique is implemented via canonical correlation analysis (CCA) by temporally filtering the stimulus (encoding) and spatially filtering the neural responses (decoding) such that the resulting components are maximally correlated. In contrast to existing methods, this approach recovers multiple correlated stimulus-response pairs, and thus affords a richer, multidimensional analysis of neural representations...
May 22, 2017: NeuroImage
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