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Auditory dual-task

Carey D Balaban, Joseph M Furman
This study provides the first clear evidence that the generation of optokinetic nystagmus fast phases is a decision process that is influenced by performance of a concurrent disjunctive reaction time task (DRT). Ten subjects performed an auditory DRT during constant velocity optokinetic stimulation. Eye movements were measured in three dimensions with a magnetic search coil. Slow phase (SP) durations were defined as the interval between fast phases (FPs). There were three main findings. Firstly, human optokinetic nystagmus SP durations are consistent with a model of a Gaussian basic interval generator (a type of biological clock), such that FPs can be triggered randomly at the end of a clock cycle (mean duration: 200-250 ms); Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests could not reject the modeled cumulative distribution for any data trials...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Christina B Reimer, Tilo Strobach, Torsten Schubert
Both visual attention and response selection are limited in capacity. In the present study, we investigated whether visual attention requires the same bottleneck mechanism as response selection in a dual-task of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm. The dual-task consisted of an auditory two-choice discrimination Task 1 and a conjunction search Task 2, which were presented at variable temporal intervals (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA). In the conjunction search task, visual attention is required to select the items and to bind the item features resulting in a serial search process...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Xiangbin Teng, Xing Tian, David Poeppel
Natural sounds contain information on multiple timescales, so the auditory system must analyze and integrate acoustic information on those different scales to extract behaviorally relevant information. However, this multi-scale process in the auditory system is not widely investigated in the literature, and existing models of temporal integration are mainly built upon detection or recognition tasks on a single timescale. Here we use a paradigm requiring processing on relatively 'local' and 'global' scales and provide evidence suggesting that the auditory system extracts fine-detail acoustic information using short temporal windows and uses long temporal windows to abstract global acoustic patterns...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tiina Salminen, Simone Kühn, Peter A Frensch, Torsten Schubert
UNLABELLED: The dual n-back working memory (WM) training paradigm (comprising auditory and visual stimuli) has gained much attention since studies have shown widespread transfer effects. By including a multimodal dual-task component, the task is demanding to the human cognitive system. We investigated whether dual n-back training improves general cognitive resources or a task-specific WM updating process in participants. We expected: (1) widespread transfer effects and the recruitment of a common neuronal network by the training and the transfer tasks and (2) narrower transfer results and that a common activation network alone would not produce transfer, but instead an activation focus on the striatum, which is associated with WM updating processes...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Shahrzad Mohammadi Rad, Mahyar Salavati, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Behnam Akhbari, Shiva Sherafat, Hossein Negahban, Pezhman Lali, Masood Mazaheri
PURPOSE: To compare the effect of dual-tasking on postural stability between patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) and healthy controls. METHODS: Single-limb postural stability was assessed in 17 athletes with ACL-R and 17 healthy matched athletes while standing on a Biodex Balance System platform in four conditions: stability level of 8 (i.e. more stable support surface) with eyes open; stability level of 8 with eyes closed; stability level of 6 (i...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Timothy A Worden, Matthew Mendes, Pratham Singh, Lori Ann Vallis
Successful planning and execution of motor strategies while concurrently performing a cognitive task has been previously examined, but unfortunately the varied and numerous cognitive tasks studied has limited our fundamental understanding of how the central nervous system successfully integrates and executes these tasks simultaneously. To gain a better understanding of these mechanisms we used a set of cognitive tasks requiring similar central executive function processes and response outputs but requiring different perceptual mechanisms to perform the motor task...
September 4, 2016: Gait & Posture
Reinier J Jansen, Ben D Sawyer, René van Egmond, Huib de Ridder, Peter A Hancock
OBJECTIVE: We examine how transitions in task demand are manifested in mental workload and performance in a dual-task setting. BACKGROUND: Hysteresis has been defined as the ongoing influence of demand levels prior to a demand transition. Authors of previous studies predominantly examined hysteretic effects in terms of performance. However, little is known about the temporal development of hysteresis in mental workload. METHOD: A simulated driving task was combined with an auditory memory task...
September 9, 2016: Human Factors
Bernhard Hommel, Roberta Sellaro, Rico Fischer, Saskia Borg, Lorenza S Colzato
Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive-control processes can be configured to optimize either persistence of information processing (by amplifying competition between decision-making alternatives and top-down biasing of this competition) or flexibility (by dampening competition and biasing). We investigated whether high-frequency binaural beats, an auditory illusion suspected to act as a cognitive enhancer, have an impact on cognitive-control configuration. We hypothesized that binaural beats in the gamma range bias the cognitive-control style toward flexibility, which in turn should increase the crosstalk between tasks in a dual-task paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Theofilos Petsas, Jemma Harrison, Makio Kashino, Shigeto Furukawa, Maria Chait
In this series of behavioural experiments we investigated the effect of distraction on the maintenance of acoustic scene information in short-term memory. Stimuli are artificial acoustic 'scenes' composed of several (up to twelve) concurrent tone-pip streams ('sources'). A gap (1000 ms) is inserted partway through the 'scene'; Changes in the form of an appearance of a new source or disappearance of an existing source, occur after the gap in 50% of the trials. Listeners were instructed to monitor the unfolding 'soundscapes' for these events...
September 2, 2016: Hearing Research
R Bianco, G Novembre, P E Keller, Kim Seung-Goo, F Scharf, A D Friederici, A Villringer, D Sammler
The ability to predict upcoming structured events based on long-term knowledge and contextual priors is a fundamental principle of human cognition. Tonal music triggers predictive processes based on structural properties of harmony, i.e., regularities defining the arrangement of chords into well-formed musical sequences. While the neural architecture of structure-based predictions during music perception is well described, little is known about the neural networks for analogous predictions in musical actions and how they relate to auditory perception...
August 16, 2016: NeuroImage
Dennis Hamacher, Daniel Hamacher, Fabian Herold, Lutz Schega
Rhythmic auditory cues aim to modulate step times while walking. Their effect on the variability of minimum foot clearance, which is "normally" the most controlled gait parameter in normal overground walking, has not been studied, yet. We aim to analyse the effects of auditory cues on the variability of foot clearance versus the variability of other gait parameters. We further ask how the control of minimum foot clearance behaves in walking with rhythmic cuing while cognitive gait control mechanisms of higher centres is reduced through a cognitive load...
August 17, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Reinier J Jansen, René van Egmond, Huib de Ridder
The role of task prioritization in performance tradeoffs during multi-tasking has received widespread attention. However, little is known on whether people have preferences regarding tasks, and if so, whether these preferences conflict with priority instructions. Three experiments were conducted with a high-speed driving game and an auditory memory task. In Experiment 1, participants did not receive priority instructions. Participants performed different sequences of single-task and dual-task conditions. Task performance was evaluated according to participants' retrospective accounts on preferences...
2016: PloS One
Suzy Johanna Martina Adriana Matthijssen, Marcel van den Hout
BACKGROUND: According to the working memory (WM) theory of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), dual tasks that tax WM during memory recall reduce image vividness and emotionality of memory during future recalls when no dual task is carried out. There is some evidence that WM taxing also reduces vividness and emotionality of auditory or verbal imagery. OBJECTIVE: The present study tests the effect of eye movements (EM) on positive verbal material (verbal imagery), which is used in different parts of the EMDR protocol...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
June J Pilcher, Kristen S Jennings, Ginger E Phillips, James A McCubbin
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated performance on a dual auditory task during a simulated night shift. BACKGROUND: Night shifts and sleep deprivation negatively affect performance on vigilance-based tasks, but less is known about the effects on complex tasks. Because language processing is necessary for successful work performance, it is important to understand how it is affected by night work and sleep deprivation. METHOD: Sixty-two participants completed a simulated night shift resulting in 28 hr of total sleep deprivation...
June 15, 2016: Human Factors
Kevin Hopkins, Steven J Kass, Lisa Durrance Blalock, J Christopher Brill
In this study, we examined how spatially informative auditory and tactile cues affected participants' performance on a visual search task while they simultaneously performed a secondary auditory task. Visual search task performance was assessed via reaction time and accuracy. Tactile and auditory cues provided the approximate location of the visual target within the search display. The inclusion of tactile and auditory cues improved performance in comparison to the no-cue baseline conditions. In comparison to the no cue conditions, both tactile and auditory cues resulted in faster response times in the visual search only (single task) and visual-auditory (dual task) conditions...
June 7, 2016: Ergonomics
Dustin J H van Gerven, Thomas Ferguson, Ronald W Skelton
Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal...
July 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Marius Dettmer, Amir Pourmoghaddam, Beom-Chan Lee, Charles S Layne
Specific activities that require concurrent processing of postural and cognitive tasks may increase the risk for falls in older adults. We investigated whether peripheral receptor sensitivity was associated with postural performance in a dual-task and whether an intervention in form of subthreshold vibration could affect performance. Ten younger (age: 20-35 years) and ten older adults (70-85 years) performed repeated auditory-verbal 1-back tasks while standing quietly on a force platform. Foot sole vibration was randomly added during several trials...
2016: Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research
Alexander Soutschek, Paul C J Taylor, Torsten Schubert
When humans perform two tasks simultaneously, responses to the second task are increasingly delayed as the interval between the two tasks decreases (psychological refractory period). This delay of the second task is thought to reflect a central processing limitation at the response selection stage. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this central processing limitation remain unclear. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we examined the role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex (dMFC) in a dual-task paradigm in which participants performed an auditory task 1 and a visual task 2...
September 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Cris Lanting, Aron Woźniak, Pim van Dijk, Dave R M Langers
We investigated tinnitus-related differences in functional networks in adults with tinnitus by means of a functional connectivity study. Previously it was found that various networks show differences in connectivity in patients with tinnitus compared to controls. How this relates to patients' ongoing tinnitus and whether the ecological sensory environment modulates connectivity remains unknown.Twenty healthy controls and twenty patients suffering from chronic tinnitus were enrolled in this study. Except for the presence of tinnitus in the patient group, all subjects were selected to have normal or near-normal hearing...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ana Paula Ritto, Julia Biancalana Costa, Fabiola Staróbole Juste, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we compared the performance of both fluent speakers and people who stutter in three different speaking situations: monologue speech, oral reading and choral reading. This study follows the assumption that the neuromotor control of speech can be influenced by external auditory stimuli in both speakers who stutter and speakers who do not stutter. METHOD: Seventeen adults who stutter and seventeen adults who do not stutter were assessed in three speaking tasks: monologue, oral reading (solo reading aloud) and choral reading (reading in unison with the evaluator)...
March 2016: Clinics
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