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Auditory dual-task

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286477/transfer-effects-to-a-multimodal-dual-task-after-working-memory-training-and-associated-neural-correlates-in-older-adults-a-pilot-study
#1
Stephan Heinzel, Jérôme Rimpel, Christine Stelzel, Michael A Rapp
Working memory (WM) performance declines with age. However, several studies have shown that WM training may lead to performance increases not only in the trained task, but also in untrained cognitive transfer tasks. It has been suggested that transfer effects occur if training task and transfer task share specific processing components that are supposedly processed in the same brain areas. In the current study, we investigated whether single-task WM training and training-related alterations in neural activity might support performance in a dual-task setting, thus assessing transfer effects to higher-order control processes in the context of dual-task coordination...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237813/newly-acquired-audio-visual-associations-bias-perception-in-binocular-rivalry
#2
Wolfgang Einhäuser, Philipp Methfessel, Alexandra Bendixen
When distinct stimuli are presented to the two eyes, their mental representations alternate in awareness. Here, such "binocular rivalry" was used to investigate whether audio-visual associations bias visual perception. To induce two arbitrary associations, each between a tone and a grating of a specific color and motion direction, observers were required to respond whenever this combination was presented, but not for other tone-grating combinations. After about 20min of this induction phase, each of the gratings was presented to one eye to induce rivalry, while either of the two tones or no tone was played...
March 6, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230418/effect-of-age-on-attentional-control-in-dual-tasking
#3
Bianca Bier, Nick Corriveau Lecavalier, Dominique Malenfant, Isabelle Peretz, Sylvie Belleville
Background/Study Context: The age-related differences in divided attention and attentional control have been associated with several negative outcomes later in life. However, numerous questions remain unanswered regarding the nature of these age differences and the role of attentional control abilities in dual-tasking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sources for age differences in dual-tasking and more specifically: (1) whether they occur because of differences in attentional control skills, or (2) whether the age-related decrement in dual-tasking is due to a general resource reduction that would affect the ability to complete any demanding task...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226309/the-feasibility-of-singing-to-improve-gait-in-parkinson-disease
#4
Elinor C Harrison, Marie E McNeely, Gammon M Earhart
Brain regions important for controlling movement are also responsible for rhythmic processing. In Parkinson disease (PD), defective internal timing within the brain has been linked to impaired beat discrimination, and may contribute to a loss of ability to maintain a steady gait rhythm. Less rhythmic gait is inherently less efficient, and this may lead to gait impairment including reduced speed, cadence, and stride length, as well as increased variability. While external rhythmic auditory stimulation (e.g. a metronome beat) is well-established as an effective tool to stabilize gait in PD, little is known about whether self-generated cues such as singing have the same beneficial effect on gait in PD...
February 14, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213115/cross-modal-representation-of-spoken-and-written-word-meaning-in-left-pars-triangularis
#5
Antonietta Gabriella Liuzzi, Rose Bruffaerts, Ronald Peeters, Katarzyna Adamczuk, Emmanuel Keuleers, Simon De Deyne, Gerrit Storms, Patrick Dupont, Rik Vandenberghe
The correspondence in meaning extracted from written versus spoken input remains to be fully understood neurobiologically. Here, in a total of 38 subjects, the functional anatomy of cross-modal semantic similarity for concrete words was determined based on a dual criterion: First, a voxelwise univariate analysis had to show significant activation during a semantic task (property verification) performed with written and spoken concrete words compared to the perceptually matched control condition. Second, in an independent dataset, in these clusters, the similarity in fMRI response pattern to two distinct entities, one presented as a written and the other as a spoken word, had to correlate with the similarity in meaning between these entities...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203353/auditory-stimulus-detection-partially-depends-on-visuospatial-attentional-resources
#6
Basil Wahn, Supriya Murali, Scott Sinnett, Peter König
Humans' ability to detect relevant sensory information while being engaged in a demanding task is crucial in daily life. Yet, limited attentional resources restrict information processing. To date, it is still debated whether there are distinct pools of attentional resources for each sensory modality and to what extent the process of multisensory integration is dependent on attentional resources. We addressed these two questions using a dual task paradigm. Specifically, participants performed a multiple object tracking task and a detection task either separately or simultaneously...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151878/a-training-approach-to-improve-stepping-automaticity-while-dual-tasking-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-prospective-pilot-study
#7
Taylor Chomiak, Alexander Watts, Nicole Meyer, Fernando V Pereira, Bin Hu
BACKGROUND: Deficits in motor movement automaticity in Parkinson's disease (PD), especially during multitasking, are early and consistent hallmarks of cognitive function decline, which increases fall risk and reduces quality of life. This study aimed to test the feasibility and potential efficacy of a wearable sensor-enabled technological platform designed for an in-home music-contingent stepping-in-place (SIP) training program to improve step automaticity during dual-tasking (DT). METHODS: This was a 4-week prospective intervention pilot study...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146680/prefrontal-hemodynamics-of-physical-activity-and-environmental-complexity-during-cognitive-work
#8
Ryan McKendrick, Ranjana Mehta, Hasan Ayaz, Melissa Scheldrup, Raja Parasuraman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess performance and cognitive states during cognitive work in the presence of physical work and in natural settings. BACKGROUND: Authors of previous studies have examined the interaction between cognitive and physical work, finding performance decrements in working memory. Neuroimaging has revealed increases and decreases in prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin during the interaction of cognitive and physical work. The effect of environment on cognitive-physical dual tasking has not been previously considered...
February 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080113/higher-order-cognitive-control-in-dual-tasks-evidence-from-task-pair-switching
#9
Patricia Hirsch, Sophie Nolden, Iring Koch
In the present study, we combined the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm with a novel task-pair switching logic which enabled us to isolate performance costs occurring at the global level of task-pairs. In Experiment 1, in which we used conceptually overlapping responses for Task 1 (T1) and Task 2 (T2), we generated 3 task-pairs by combining 1 of 3 visual tasks (T1) with an auditory task (T2). In addition to worse performance after a short SOA than a long SOA (i.e., PRP effect), we found impaired performance in n - 1 task-pair switches as compared to n - 1 task-pair repetitions (i...
March 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932975/adaptations-of-prefrontal-brain-activity-executive-functions-and-gait-in-healthy-elderly-following-exergame-and-balance-training-a-randomized-controlled-study
#10
Alexandra Schättin, Rendel Arner, Federico Gennaro, Eling D de Bruin
During aging, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) undergoes age-dependent neuronal changes influencing cognitive and motor functions. Motor-learning interventions are hypothesized to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits in older adults. Especially, video game-based physical exercise might have the potential to train motor in combination with cognitive abilities in older adults. The aim of this study was to compare conventional balance training with video game-based physical exercise, a so-called exergame, on the relative power (RP) of electroencephalographic (EEG) frequencies over the PFC, executive function (EF), and gait performance...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890161/primary-or-secondary-tasks-dual-task-interference-between-cyclist-hazard-perception-and-cadence-control-using-cross-modal-sensory-aids-with-rider-assistance-bike-computers
#11
Chao-Yang Yang, Cheng-Tse Wu
This research investigated the risks involved in bicycle riding while using various sensory modalities to deliver training information. To understand the risks associated with using bike computers, this study evaluated hazard perception performance through lab-based simulations of authentic riding conditions. Analysing hazard sensitivity (d') of signal detection theory, the rider's response time, and eye glances provided insights into the risks of using bike computers. In this study, 30 participants were tested with eight hazard perception tasks while they maintained a cadence of 60 ± 5 RPM and used bike computers with different sensory displays, namely visual, auditory, and tactile feedback signals...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844494/sensorimotor-interaction-in-deaf-children-relationship-between-gait-performance-and-hearing-input-during-childhood-assessed-in-pre-lingual-cochlear-implant-users
#12
Hamlet Suarez, Rafael Alonso, Sofia Arocena, Enrique Ferreira, Cecilia San Roman, Alejo Suarez, Valeria Lapilover
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that auditory input is not neutral in motor skills and the complex interaction between them is generated in the earlier stages of childhood development. Objective The assessment of gait performance in pre-lingual deaf children with cochlear implant (CI). METHODS: Gait velocity (GV), using a 10-meter test, was measured by means of three inertial sensors in 10 pre-lingual cochlear implant users (CIU) (10-16 years old) in three sensory conditions: (1) cochlear implant turned on with environmental noise (EN), (2) cochlear implant turned on with EN and with cognitive dual task (DT), and (3) CI turned off (CI-OFF)...
November 15, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821940/the-effect-of-performing-a-dual-task-on-postural-control-and-selective-attention-of-older-adults-when-stepping-backward
#13
William Wai-Nam Tsang, Vito Wai-Lok Chan, Henry Hei Wong, Tony Wai-Cheong Yip, Xi Lu
[Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the postural control and cognitive performance of older adults when stepping backward with and without a concurrent cognitive task. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty young adults and twenty-eight older adults (mean age=21.3 ± 1.2 and 72.2 ± 5.7 years, respectively) were recruited. Participants were asked to step backward and then maintain a single-leg stance for 10 seconds with and without a concurrent auditory response task. The reaction time and error rate while performing the cognitive task were recorded...
October 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815974/attention-modulation-during-motor-preparation-in-parkinsonian-freezers-a-time-frequency-eeg-study
#14
Céline Tard, Kathy Dujardin, Jean-Louis Bourriez, Behnam Molaee-Ardekani, Philippe Derambure, Luc Defebvre, Arnaud Delval
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cortical integration of attentional stimuli during motor preparation in parkinsonian patients with freezing of gait (FoG, n=12) or without freezing of gait (n=13), and in aged-matched healthy controls (n=13). We hypothesized that interference between attention and action in freezers would be revealed by differences in cortical modulation during this dual task. METHODS: Attention during step preparation was modulated by means of an auditory oddball discrimination task...
December 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812334/comparable-cerebral-oxygenation-patterns-in-younger-and-older-adults-during-dual-task-walking-with-increasing-load
#15
Sarah A Fraser, Olivier Dupuy, Philippe Pouliot, Frédéric Lesage, Louis Bherer
The neuroimaging literature on dual-task gait clearly demonstrates increased prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement when performing a cognitive task while walking. However, findings from direct comparisons of the cerebral oxygenation patterns of younger (YA) and older (OA) adults during dual-task walking are mixed and it is unclear how YA and OA respond to increasing cognitive load (difficulty) while walking. This functional near infra-red (fNIRS) study examined cerebral oxygenation of YA and OA during self-paced dual-task treadmill walking at two different levels of cognitive load (auditory n-back)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794195/influence-of-cognitive-rehabilitation-on-pelvic-floor-muscle-contraction-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Anne Villot, Xavier Deffieux, Sylvie Billecocq, Laurent Auclair, Gérard Amarenco, Thibault Thubert
AIM: Distraction task (DT), which led to a modification of voluntary and involuntary reflex pelvic floor muscle (PFM) activation, might potentiate urinary incontinence, through an alteration of the temporal course between intra-abdominal pressure and PFM contraction. We evaluated whether cognitive rehabilitation (dual-task method) could prevent the effect of a mental distraction task on the reaction time of PFM contraction. METHODS: Thirty-nine healthy volunteers underwent two sessions of electromyographic (EMG) PFM recordings separated by a 2-week interval...
October 29, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760815/beat-to-beat-control-of-human-optokinetic-nystagmus-slow-phase-durations
#17
Carey D Balaban, Joseph M Furman
This study provides the first clear evidence that the generation of optokinetic nystagmus fast phases (FPs) is a decision process that is influenced by performance of a concurrent disjunctive reaction time task (DRT). Ten subjects performed an auditory DRT during constant velocity optokinetic stimulation. Eye movements were measured in three dimensions with a magnetic search coil. Slow phase (SP) durations were defined as the interval between FPs. There were three main findings. Firstly, human optokinetic nystagmus SP durations are consistent with a model of a Gaussian basic interval generator (a type of biological clock), such that FPs can be triggered randomly at the end of a clock cycle (mean duration: 200-250 ms)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734768/concurrent-deployment-of-visual-attention-and-response-selection-bottleneck-in-a-dual-task-electrophysiological-and-behavioural-evidence
#18
Christina B Reimer, Tilo Strobach, Torsten Schubert
Visual attention and response selection are limited in capacity. Here, we investigated whether visual attention requires the same bottleneck mechanism as response selection in a dual-task of the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm. The dual-task consisted of an auditory two-choice discrimination Task 1 and a conjunction search Task 2, which were presented at variable temporal intervals (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA). In conjunction search, visual attention is required to select items and to bind their features resulting in a serial search process around the items in the search display (i...
November 2, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713546/testing-multi-scale-processing-in-the-auditory-system
#19
Xiangbin Teng, Xing Tian, David Poeppel
Natural sounds contain information on multiple timescales, so the auditory system must analyze and integrate acoustic information on those different scales to extract behaviorally relevant information. However, this multi-scale process in the auditory system is not widely investigated in the literature, and existing models of temporal integration are mainly built upon detection or recognition tasks on a single timescale. Here we use a paradigm requiring processing on relatively 'local' and 'global' scales and provide evidence suggesting that the auditory system extracts fine-detail acoustic information using short temporal windows and uses long temporal windows to abstract global acoustic patterns...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683914/transfer-after-dual-n-back-training-depends-on-striatal-activation-change
#20
Tiina Salminen, Simone Kühn, Peter A Frensch, Torsten Schubert
UNLABELLED: The dual n-back working memory (WM) training paradigm (comprising auditory and visual stimuli) has gained much attention since studies have shown widespread transfer effects. By including a multimodal dual-task component, the task is demanding to the human cognitive system. We investigated whether dual n-back training improves general cognitive resources or a task-specific WM updating process in participants. We expected: (1) widespread transfer effects and the recruitment of a common neuronal network by the training and the transfer tasks and (2) narrower transfer results and that a common activation network alone would not produce transfer, but instead an activation focus on the striatum, which is associated with WM updating processes...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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