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Auditory dual-task

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397191/modulation-of-intra-and-inter-hemispheric-connectivity-between-primary-and-premotor-cortex-during-speech-perception
#1
Helen E Nuttall, Dan Kennedy-Higgins, Joseph T Devlin, Patti Adank
Primary motor (M1) areas for speech production activate during speechperception. It has been suggested that such activation may be dependent upon modulatory inputs from premotor cortex (PMv). If and how PMv differentially modulates M1 activity during perception of speech that is easy or challenging to understand, however, is unclear. This study aimed to test the link between PMv and M1 during challenging speech perception in two experiments. The first experiment investigated intra-hemispheric connectivity between left hemisphere PMv and left M1 lip area during comprehension of speech under clear and distorted listening conditions...
January 31, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383399/influence-of-dual-task-constraints-on-the-interaction-between-posture-and-movement-during-a-lower-limb-pointing-task
#2
Marcelo Guimarães Silva, Lucas Struber, José Geraldo T Brandão, Olivier Daniel, Vincent Nougier
One of the challenges regarding human motor control is making the movement fluid and at a limited cognitive cost. The coordination between posture and movement is a necessary requirement to perform daily life tasks. The present experiment investigated this interaction in 20 adult men, aged 18-30 years. The cognitive costs associated to postural and movement control when kicking towards a target was estimated using a dual-task paradigm (secondary auditory task). Results showed that addition of the attentional demanding cognitive task yielded a decreased kicking accuracy and an increased timing to perform the movement, mainly during the backswing motion...
January 30, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319009/cognitive-function-predicts-listening-effort-performance-during-complex-tasks-in-normally-aging-adults
#3
Jennine Harvey, Deborah von Hapsburg, Scott Seeman
PURPOSE: This study examines whether cognitive function, as measured by the subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III (WCJ-III) assessment, predicts listening-effort performance during dual tasks across the adults of varying ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 14 listeners (number of females = 11) who were 41-61 years old [mean = 53.18; standard deviation (SD) = 5.97]. Group 2 consisted of 15 listeners (number of females = 9) who were 63-81 years old (mean = 72...
November 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285603/dual-task-automatization-the-key-role-of-sensory-motor-modality-compatibility
#4
François Maquestiaux, Eric Ruthruff, Alexis Defer, Stéphane Ibrahime
How do people automatize their dual-task performance through bottleneck bypassing (i.e., accomplish parallel processing of the central stages of two tasks)? In the present work we addressed this question, evaluating the impact of sensory-motor modality compatibility-the similarity in modality between the stimulus and the consequences of the response. We hypothesized that incompatible sensory-motor modalities (e.g., visual-vocal) create conflicts within modality-specific working memory subsystems, and therefore predicted that tasks producing such conflicts would be performed less automatically after practice...
December 28, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166387/effects-of-total-sleep-deprivation-on-divided-attention-performance
#5
Eric Chern-Pin Chua, Eric Fang, Joshua J Gooley
Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163311/auditory-and-visual-memories-in-ptsd-patients-targeted-with-eye-movements-and-counting-the-effect-of-modality-specific-loading-of-working-memory
#6
Suzy J M A Matthijssen, Liselotte C M Verhoeven, Marcel A van den Hout, Ivo Heitland
Introduction: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is an evidence-based treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A key element of this therapy is simultaneously recalling an emotionally disturbing memory and performing a dual task that loads working memory. Memories targeted with this therapy are mainly visual, though there is some evidence that auditory memories can also be targeted. Objective: The present study tested whether auditory memories can be targeted with EMDR in PTSD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132071/reliability-of-clinically-feasible-dual-task-tests-expanded-timed-get-up-and-go-test-as-a-motor-task-on-young-healthy-individuals
#7
Kaori Tamura, Morgan Kocher, Liana Finer, Nathan Murata, Christopher Stickley
Dual-Task testing has been reported to have a higher sensitivity to deficits associated with concussion; however, the feasibility as a clinical or field test is questionable due to the requirements of laboratory-based equipment. With an overarching goal of exploration of clinically feasible Dual-Task testing options, the specific aims of this study were 1) to evaluate the reliability of Dual-Task testing methods using the Expanded Timed Get-Up-and-Go (ETGUG) paired with Backward Digit Recall (BDR), Serial Seven (SS), and Auditory Pure Switch Task (APST), and 2) to determine the effects of Dual-Task testing on motor and cognitive performance in healthy college-aged individuals...
November 6, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120261/effects-of-vision-and-cognitive-load-on-static-postural-control-in-subjects-with-and-without-patellofemoral-pain-syndrome
#8
Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh, Saeed Talebian, Soofia Naghdi, Mahyar Salavati, Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Bahareh Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of vision and cognitive load on static postural control in subjects with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). METHODS: Twenty-eight PFPS patients and 28 controls participated in the study. Postural control was assessed in isolation as well as with visual manipulation and cognitive loading on symptomatic limb. The outcome measures of postural control were quantified in terms of area, anterior-posterior (AP), medial-lateral (ML), and mean velocity (MV) of the displacements of center of pressure (COP)...
November 9, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090370/expectation-information-processing-and-subjective-duration
#9
Rhimmon Simchy-Gross, Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis
In research on psychological time, it is important to examine the subjective duration of entire stimulus sequences, such as those produced by music (Teki, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 2016). Yet research on the temporal oddball illusion (according to which oddball stimuli seem longer than standard stimuli of the same duration) has examined only the subjective duration of single events contained within sequences, not the subjective duration of sequences themselves. Does the finding that oddballs seem longer than standards translate to entire sequences, such that entire sequences that contain oddballs seem longer than those that do not? Is this potential translation influenced by the mode of information processing-whether people are engaged in direct or indirect temporal processing? Two experiments aimed to answer both questions using different manipulations of information processing...
October 31, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047031/the-effect-of-phasic-alertness-on-temporal-precision
#10
Qingqing Li, Peiduo Liu, Shunhang Huang, Xiting Huang
Many previous studies have found that there is a close relationship between attention and temporal precision. As a mechanism that regulates the intensity of attention, alertness has beneficial influences on perceptual processing. However, little is known regarding whether and how phasic alertness affects temporal precision. Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 used visual and auditory warning cues in a visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) task and a simultaneity judgment (SJ) task to investigate the phasic alerting effect on temporal precision...
October 18, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037639/reliability-of-kinematic-measures-in-subjects-with-anterior-cruciate-ligament-deficiency-during-dual-task-walking
#11
Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani, Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh
OBJECTIVE: To define the throughout within- and between-day reliability of gait parameters in single - and dual-task conditions in subjects with and without anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD). METHODS: Fourteen subjects with ACLD and 14 healthy subjects completed a walking task on a treadmill with three levels of velocity (self-selected, high and low), with or without performing an auditory Stroop task over two sessions each 3-5 days apart. The gait kinematic parameters, including maximum and minimum hip flexion, total hip range of motion, maximum and minimum knee flexion and total knee range of motion were recorded using a motion analysis system...
October 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978769/case-studies-in-neuroscience-a-dissociation-of-balance-and-posture-demonstrated-by-camptocormia
#12
Rebecca J St George, Victor S Gurfinkel, Jeff Kraakevik, John G Nutt, Fay B Horak
Upright stance in humans requires an intricate exchange between the neural mechanisms that control balance and those that control posture; however, the distinction between these control systems is hard to discern in healthy subjects. By studying balance and postural control of a participant with camptocormia - an involuntary flexion of the trunk during standing that resolves when supine - a divergence between balance and postural control was revealed. A kinematic and kinetic investigation of standing and walking showed a stereotyped flexion of the upper body by almost 80 degrees over a few minutes, and yet the participant's ability to control their center of mass within their base of support and to compensate for external perturbations remained intact...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951973/implicit-sequence-learning-despite-multitasking-the-role-of-across-task-predictability
#13
Eva Röttger, Hilde Haider, Fang Zhao, Robert Gaschler
One often replicated finding is that implicit sequence learning is hampered in dual-task situations. Thus, one crucial question has been whether implicit learning processes require attentional resources. Meanwhile, focusing exclusively on limited attentional resources might be considered as too unspecific. Overall, the focus lies now rather on the possibility that the impairment is due to interference coming along with (a) task integration (e.g., Schmidtke and Heuer in Psychol Res 60(1-2):53-71, 1997)-or with (b) parallel response selection (Schumacher and Schwarb in J Exp Psychol Gen 138(2):270-290, 2009)...
September 26, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937301/attentional-modulation-and-individual-differences-in-explaining-the-changing-role-of-fundamental-frequency-in-korean-laryngeal-stop-perception
#14
Eun Jong Kong, Hyunjung Lee
Previous research has shown differential degrees of attention in processing hierarchical linguistic information where higher order cues require greater attention in speech processing. The current study investigated the influence of attentional resources on acoustic cue weightings in speech perception by examining Korean listeners' identifications of the three-way laryngeal stops (tense vs. lax vs. aspirated). Using a dual-task paradigm, we presented 28 adult Korean listeners with identification tasks blocked by no-distractor versus distractor conditions where arithmetic calculations distracted the listeners' speech processing...
September 1, 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922999/pattern-of-near-transfer-effects-following-working-memory-training-with-a-dual-n-back-task
#15
Anna Soveri, Eric P A Karlsson, Otto Waris, Petra Grönholm-Nyman, Matti Laine
In a randomized controlled trial, we investigated the pattern of near transfer effects of working memory (WM) training with an adaptive auditory-visuospatial dual n-back training task in healthy young adults. The results revealed significant task-specific transfer to an untrained single n-back task, and more general near transfer to a WM updating composite score plus a nearly significant effect on a composite score measuring interference control in WM. No transfer effects were seen on Active or Passive WM composites...
July 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917014/more-insight-into-the-interplay-of-response-selection-and-visual-attention-in-dual-tasks-masked-visual-search-and-response-selection-are-performed-in-parallel
#16
Christina B Reimer, Torsten Schubert
Both response selection and visual attention are limited in capacity. According to the central bottleneck model, the response selection processes of two tasks in a dual-task situation are performed sequentially. In conjunction search, visual attention is required to select the items and to bind their features (e.g., color and form), which results in a serial search process. Search time increases as items are added to the search display (i.e., set size effect). When the search display is masked, visual attention deployment is restricted to a brief period of time and target detection decreases as a function of set size...
September 15, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904598/delusional-ideation-cognitive-processes-and-crime-based-reasoning
#17
Dean J Wilkinson, Laura S Caulfield
Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks...
August 2017: Europe's Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830767/influence-of-dual-tasking-with-different-levels-of-attention-diversion-on-characteristics-of-the-movement-related-cortical-potential
#18
Susan Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Ernest Nlandu Kamavuako, Ning Jiang, Dario Farina, Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting
Dual tasking is defined as performing two tasks concurrently and has been shown to have a significant effect on attention directed to the performance of the main task. In this study, an attention diversion task with two different levels was administered while participants had to complete a cue-based motor task consisting of foot dorsiflexion. An auditory oddball task with two levels of complexity was implemented to divert the user's attention. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were made from nine single channels...
August 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827155/effects-of-mental-workload-on-involuntary-attention-a-somatosensory-erp-study
#19
Sungchul Mun, Mincheol Whang, Sangin Park, Min-Chul Park
Previous psychophysiological assessments of mental workload have relied on the addition of visual or auditory stimuli. This study investigated the tactile ERP and EEG spectral power correlates of mental workload by relating limited-capacity involuntary attention allocation to changes in late positive potential (LPP) amplitude, alpha, and theta powers. We examined whether mental workload (high-level cognitive control) can be evaluated using somatosensory stimuli. Sixteen participants all performed three tasks of varying difficulty...
August 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806193/speech-perception-in-noise-and-listening-effort-of-older-adults-with-nonlinear-frequency-compression-hearing-aids
#20
James Shehorn, Nicole Marrone, Thomas Muller
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this laboratory-based study was to compare the efficacy of two hearing aid fittings with and without nonlinear frequency compression, implemented within commercially available hearing aids. Previous research regarding the utility of nonlinear frequency compression has revealed conflicting results for speech recognition, marked by high individual variability. Individual differences in auditory function and cognitive abilities, specifically hearing loss slope and working memory, may contribute to aided performance...
August 10, 2017: Ear and Hearing
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