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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634585/high-plasma-glucagon-levels-correlate-with-waist-to-hip-ratio-suprailiac-skinfold-thickness-and-deep-subcutaneous-abdominal-and-intraperitoneal-adipose-tissue-depots-in-nonobese-asian-indian-males-with-type-2-diabetes-in-north-india
#1
Shajith Anoop, Anoop Misra, Surya Prakash Bhatt, Seema Gulati, Harsh Mahajan, Gokulraj Prabakaran
We aimed to correlate plasma glucagon levels with anthropometric measures and abdominal adipose tissue depots. Nonobese males (n = 81; BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) with T2DM of less than one-year duration and nonobese males without diabetes (n = 30) were evaluated for the following: anthropometry (BMI, waist circumference, W-HR, and truncal skinfolds), whole-body DEXA (for body fat and fat-free mass), and MRI scan (for volumes of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) including superficial and deep, intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue (including intraperitoneal adipose tissue (IPAT), retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver span and fatty liver, and pancreatic volume))...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631820/dietary-intake-of-structured-lipids-with-different-contents-of-medium-chain-fatty-acids-on-obesity-prevention-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#2
Shengmin Zhou, Yueqiang Wang, Yuanrong Jiang, Zhongfei Zhang, Xiangjun Sun, Liangli Lucy Yu
Three medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) with different contents of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) (10% to 30%, w/w) were prepared and evaluated for their anti-obesity potential in C57BL/6J mice. The group fed with a high fat diet of MLCT containing 30% (w/w) MCFA showed significantly decreased body weight and fat mass (P < 0.05) relative to the control mice fed an obesity-inducing high fat rapeseed oil diet. In addition, serum parameters including triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B in the treatment group fed with 30% (w/w) MCFA were close to those of mice fed with a low fat rapeseed oil diet, but significantly different (P < 0...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#3
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
June 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628064/exercise-training-reduces-intrathoracic-fat-regardless-of-defective-glucose-tolerance
#4
Sanna M Honkala, Kumail K Motiani, Jari-Joonas Eskelinen, Anna Savolainen, Virva Saunavaara, Kirsi A Virtanen, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Jukka Kapanen, Juhani Knuuti, Kari K Kalliokoski, Jarna C Hannukainen
PURPOSE: Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). METHODS: A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20...
July 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624865/bone-marrow-fat-contributes-to-insulin-sensitivity-and-adiponectin-secretion-in-premenopausal-women
#5
Federica Ermetici, Silvia Briganti, Alessandra Delnevo, Paola Cannaò, Giovanni Di Leo, Stefano Benedini, Ileana Terruzzi, Francesco Sardanelli, Livio Luzi
PURPOSE: Bone marrow fat is a functionally distinct adipose tissue that may contribute to systemic metabolism. This study aimed at evaluating a possible association between bone marrow fat and insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: Fifty obese (n = 23) and non-obese (n = 27) premenopausal women underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure vertebral bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index at L4 level. Abdominal visceral, subcutaneous fat, and epicardial fat were also measured using magnetic resonance imaging...
June 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623763/saturated-high-fat-feeding-independent-of-obesity-alters-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-function-but-not-anxiety-like-behaviour
#6
Cecile Hryhorczuk, Léa Décarie-Spain, Sandeep Sharma, Caroline Daneault, Christine Des Rosiers, Thierry Alquier, Stephanie Fulton
Overconsumption of dietary fat can elicit impairments in emotional processes and the response to stress. While excess dietary lipids have been shown to alter hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and promote anxiety-like behaviour, it is not known if such changes rely on elevated body weight and if these effects are specific to the type of dietary fat. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a saturated and a monounsaturated high-fat diet (HFD) on HPA axis function and anxiety-like behaviour in rats...
June 10, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622745/sex-differences-in-vascular-stiffness-and-relationship-to-the-risk-of-renal-functional-decline-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Kenneth A Earle, Lauren Ng, Sarah White, Karima Zitouni
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that the higher risk of end-stage renal disease in women compared with men is associated with waist circumference. We investigated whether vascular stiffness which is linked to visceral fat accumulation is gender specific and associated with a loss in renal function. METHODS: We studied 166 patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of progressive renal disease. A vascular stiffness index was derived from measurement of the peripheral arterial pulse waveform using infrared finger photoplethysmography...
July 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620480/reduction-of-hba1c-levels-by-fucoxanthin-enriched-akamoku-oil-possibly-involves-the-thrifty-allele-of-uncoupling-protein-1-ucp1-a-randomised-controlled-trial-in-normal-weight-and-obese-japanese-adults
#8
Nana Mikami, Masashi Hosokawa, Kazuo Miyashita, Hitoshi Sohma, Yoichi M Ito, Yasuo Kokai
Lifestyle-related problems are becoming a major health threat in East Asian countries. Therefore, finding an efficacious nutraceutical for this population is important. One candidate is fucoxanthin (Fx), a carotenoid abundantly found in edible brown seaweed that has been associated with a number of valuable health-promoting benefits. Unfortunately, clinical studies of Fx are limited. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Fx on obesity-related parameters in Japanese subjects harbouring an SNP associated with lifestyle-related problems...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618655/eugenia-uniflora-fruit-red-type-standardized-extract-a-potential-pharmacological-tool-to-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-damage-management
#9
Pathise Souto Oliveira, Vitor Clasen Chaves, Natália Pontes Bona, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira Soares, Juliane de Souza Cardoso, Flávia Aleixo Vasconcellos, Rejane Giacomelli Tavares, Marcia Vizzotto, Luísa Mariano Cerqueira da Silva, Fabiane Borelli Grecco, Giovana Duzzo Gamaro, Roselia Maria Spanevello, Claiton Leoneti Lencina, Flávio Henrique Reginatto, Francieli Moro Stefanello
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Eugenia uniflora fruit (red type) extract on metabolic status, as well as on neurochemical and behavioral parameters in an animal model of metabolic syndrome induced by a highly palatable diet (HPD). Rats were treated for 150days and divided into 4 experimental groups: standard chow (SC) and water orally, SC and E. uniflora extract (200mg/kg daily, p.o), HPD and water orally, HPD and extract. Our data showed that HPD caused glucose intolerance, increased visceral fat, weight gain, as well as serum glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol; however, E...
June 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616806/ipragliflozin-reduces-epicardial-fat-accumulation-in-non-obese-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-visceral-obesity-a-pilot-study
#10
Tatsuya Fukuda, Ryotaro Bouchi, Masahiro Terashima, Yuriko Sasahara, Masahiro Asakawa, Takato Takeuchi, Yujiro Nakano, Masanori Murakami, Isao Minami, Hajime Izumiyama, Koshi Hashimoto, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa
INTRODUCTION: Epicardial fat (EF) was reported to be independently associated with cardiovascular disease regardless of obesity. We have previously reported that a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, luseogliflozin, reduces the EF volume (EFV) in parallel with the reduction of body weight in obese patients (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) with type 2 diabetes. However, it is unknown whether SGLT2 inhibitors could reduce EFV in non-obese patients (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) with type 2 diabetes...
June 14, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613919/hypercapnia-accelerates-adipogenesis-a-novel-role-of-high-co2-in-exacerbating-obesity
#11
Ryota Kikuchi, Takao Tsuji, Osamu Watanabe, Kazuhiro Yamaguchi, Kinya Furukawa, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Kazutetsu Aoshiba
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), which manifest as intermittent hypercapnia and sustained plus intermittent hypercapnia, respectively. In this study, we investigated whether CO2 affects adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis) and maturation (hypertrophy). Human visceral or subcutaneous preadipocytes were grown to confluence and then induced to differentiate to adipocytes under hypocapnia, normocapnia, and hypercapnia with or without hypoxia...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611394/identification-of-the-ectoenzyme-cd38-as-a-marker-of-committed-preadipocytes
#12
A Carrière, Y Jeanson, J-A Côté, C Dromard, A Galinier, S Menzel, C Barreau, S Dupuis-Coronas, E Arnaud, A Girousse, V Cuminetti, J Paupert, B Cousin, C Sengenes, F Koch-Nolte, A Tchernof, L Casteilla
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Characterization of the adipocyte cellular lineage is required for a better understanding of white adipose tissue homeostasis and expansion. While several studies have focused on the phenotype of the most immature adipocyte progenitors, very few tools exist to identify committed cells. In haematopoiesis, the CD38 ectoenzyme is largely used to delineate various stages of stem cell lineage commitment. We hypothesize that this marker could be used to identify committed preadipocytes...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606124/remodeling-adipose-tissue-through-in-silico-modulation-of-fat-storage-for-the-prevention-of-type-2-diabetes
#13
Thierry Chénard, Frédéric Guénard, Marie-Claude Vohl, André Carpentier, André Tchernof, Rafael J Najmanovich
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is one of the leading non-infectious diseases worldwide and closely relates to excess adipose tissue accumulation as seen in obesity. Specifically, hypertrophic expansion of adipose tissues is related to increased cardiometabolic risk leading to type 2 diabetes. Studying mechanisms underlying adipocyte hypertrophy could lead to the identification of potential targets for the treatment of these conditions. RESULTS: We present iTC1390adip, a highly curated metabolic network of the human adipocyte presenting various improvements over the previously published iAdipocytes1809...
June 12, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605281/re-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-and-pericardial-fat-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-by-bayomi-et-al-metab-syndr-relat-disord-doi-10-1089-met-2017-0031
#14
Angelo Avogaro
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily, which inactivates tissue plasminogen activator (tPA); therefore, increased level of PAI-1 antigen counteracts the anticoagulant effect of tPA and facilitates the fibrin clot formation. Plasma PAI-1 antigen and activity levels are associated with increased body mass index and with features of the insulin resistance syndrome like obesity and diabetes. Visceral adipose tissue produces more PAI-1 than subcutaneous adipose tissue: This increased production of PAI-1 from the visceral adipose tissue is one important link between visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease...
June 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604756/anthropometry-dxa-and-leptin-reflect-subcutaneous-but-not-visceral-abdominal-adipose-tissue-by-mri-in-197-healthy-adolescents
#15
Jeanette Tinggaard, Casper P Hagen, Anders N Christensen, Annette Mouritsen, Mikkel G Mieritz, Christine Wohlfahrt-Veje, Jørn W Helge, Thomas N Beck, Eva Fallentin, Rasmus Larsen, Rikke B Jensen, Anders Juul, Katharina M Main
BACKGROUND: Abdominal fat distribution is associated with development of cardio-metabolic disease, independently of BMI. We assessed anthropometry, serum adipokines and DXA as markers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by MRIMETHODS:We performed a cross-sectional study including 197 healthy adolescents (114 boys) aged 10-15 years nested within a longitudinal population-based cohort. Clinical examination, blood sampling, DXA and abdominal MRI was performed...
June 12, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604567/epicardial-fat-pathophysiology-and-clinical-significance
#16
Elijah Douglass, Shana Greif, William Frishman
Over the last decade and a half there has been much interest in understanding the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) in cardiac pathology. EAT is a visceral adipose deposit with putative paracrine function. In the non-diseased state, EAT releases cardioprotective cytokines and chemokines to the coronary vasculature. In pathological states, EAT releases an inflammatory cytokine profile that is believed to contribute to the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). EAT imaging with echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated a correlation between EAT size and CAD...
May 3, 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604513/severe-sarcopenia-and-increased-fat-stores-in-pediatric-patients-with-liver-kidney-or-intestine-failure
#17
Richard S Mangus, Weston J Bush, Chandrashekhar A Kubal, Christina Miller
OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition and wasting predict clinical outcomes in children with severe chronic illness. Objectively calculated malnutrition in children with end-stage organ failure has not been well studied. This analysis compares children with kidney, liver or intestine failure to healthy controls to quantitate the disparity in muscle and fat stores. METHODS: Children younger than age 19 with end stage liver, kidney or intestine failure and with pre-transplant computed tomography (CT) imaging were selected from the transplant database...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603178/role-of-adipokines-in-cardiovascular-disease
#18
Wayne Bond Lau, Koji Ohashi, Yajing Wang, Hayato Ogawa, Toyoaki Murohara, Xin-Liang Ma, Noriyuki Ouchi
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the greatest cause of death, accounting for nearly one-third of all deaths worldwide. The increase in obesity rates over 3 decades is widespread and threatens the public health in both developed and developing countries. Obesity, the excessive accumulation of visceral fat, causes the clustering of metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, culminating in the development of CVD. Adipose tissue is not only an energy storage organ, but an active endocrine tissue producing various biologically active proteins known as adipokines...
June 10, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602057/body-composition-predicts-survival-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-treated-with-transarterial-chemoembolization
#19
Neehar D Parikh, Peng Zhang, Amit G Singal, Brian A Derstine, Venkat Krishnamurthy, Pranab Barman, Akbar K Waljee, Grace L Su
Purpose: The prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is often uncertain. We aimed to utilize analytic morphomics, a high-throughput imaging analysis, to assess if body composition is predictive of post-TACE survival. Materials and Methods: We included patients from a single center (Ann Arbor VA) who had TACE as the primary treatment for HCC and had a pre-treatment CT scans. Univariate analysis and multivariate conditional inference tree analysis were utilized to identify the morphomic characteristics predictive of one-year survival...
June 1, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601891/effect-of-liraglutide-treatment-on-prediabetes-and-overweight-or-obesity-in-clozapine-or-olanzapine-treated-patients-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#20
Julie R Larsen, Louise Vedtofte, Mathilde S L Jakobsen, Hans R Jespersen, Michelle I Jakobsen, Camilla K Svensson, Kamuran Koyuncu, Ole Schjerning, Peter S Oturai, Andreas Kjaer, Jimmi Nielsen, Jens J Holst, Claus T Ekstrøm, Christoph U Correll, Tina Vilsbøll, Anders Fink-Jensen
Importance: Compared with the general population, patients with schizophrenia have a 2- to 3-fold higher mortality rate primarily caused by cardiovascular disease. Previous interventions designed to counteract antipsychotic-induced weight gain and cardiometabolic disturbances reported limited effects. Objectives: To determine the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide added to clozapine or olanzapine treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders...
June 10, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
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