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Visceral fat

Salvatore Docimo, Young Lee, Prav Chatani, Ann M Rogers, Frank Lacqua
INTRODUCTION: There is an association between obesity and more complicated diverticular disease. We hypothesize that this link may be due to an increased level of visceral fat rather than an elevated body mass index alone. Adipose tissue secretes inflammatory cytokines, and chronic inflammation may account for the link between obesity and a more severe presentation of diverticular disease. We have applied a quantitative measure of visceral fat content in a series of patients admitted with diverticulitis, comparing those who required emergent versus elective surgical procedures for diverticulitis...
October 24, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Shelley E Keating, Helen M Parker, Toby G Pavey, Michael K Baker, Ian D Caterson, Jacob George, Nathan A Johnson
Objective. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and self-reported physical activity levels. However, subjective measurements can be inaccurate and prone to reporter bias. We investigated whether objectively quantified physical activity levels predicted liver fat and VAT in overweight/obese adults. Methods. Habitual physical activity was measured by triaxial accelerometry for four days (n = 82). Time spent in sedentary behavior (MET < 1...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Joshua H F Cooper, Blake E G Collins, David R Adams, Robert A Robergs, Cheyne E Donges
Purpose. Limited data exists for the effects of sprint-interval training (SIT) and endurance training (ET) on total body composition, abdominal visceral adipose tissue, and plasma inflammation. Moreover, whether "active" or "passive" recovery in SIT provides a differential effect on these measures remains uncertain. Methods. Sedentary middle-aged men (n = 62; 49.5 ± 5.8 y; 29.7 ± 3.7 kg·m(2)) underwent abdominal computed tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, venepuncture, and exercise testing before and after the interventions, which included the following: 12 wks 3 d·wk(-1) ET (n = 15; 50-60 min cycling; 80% HRmax), SIT (4-10 × 30 s sprint efforts) with passive (P-SIT; n = 15) or active recovery (A-SIT; n = 15); or nonexercise control condition (CON; n = 14)...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Lucia Russo, Hilda E Ghadieh, Simona S Ghanem, Qusai Y Al-Share, Zachary N Smiley, Cara Gatto-Weis, Emily L Esakov, Marcia F McInerney, Garrett Heinrich, Xin Tong, Lei Yin, Sonia M Najjar
Carcinoembryonic-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) regulates insulin sensitivity by promoting hepatic insulin clearance and mediating suppression of fatty acid synthase activity. Feeding C57BL/6J male mice with a high-fat diet for 3-4 weeks triggered a >60% decrease in hepatic CEACAM1 levels to subsequently impair insulin clearance and cause systemic insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. This study aimed at investigating whether lipolysis drives reduction in hepatic CEACAM1 and whether this constitutes a key mechanism leading to diet-induced metabolic abnormalities...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Nnamdi G Nelson, Faten A Suhaidi, Ross S DeAngelis, Nu-Chu Liang
Ethanol can be a food source but its effects on energy balance and contribution to obesity remain inconclusive. In this study, we hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on energy intake and body weight would depend on the administration dose, pattern and the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) time-course. Experiment 1 examined changes in food intake, diet preference, and body weight after saline or ethanol (1 and 3g/Kg) injection (IP). Experiment 2 compared the effects in rats that received either 3g/Kg/day ethanol administered all at once (EtOH_S) or in 2 1...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Aya Murakami, Daisuke Kobayashi, Toshio Kubota, Niina Zukeyama, Haru Mukae, Norihiro Furusyo, Mosaburo Kainuma, Takao Shimazoe
BACKGROUND: In Japanese Kampo medical practice, suidoku (fluid disturbance) is one of the most important concepts for selecting the proper medication. Suidoku is an excessive or uneven distribution of fluid that is indicated by splashing sounds and pitting edema. However, few objective reports about suidoku have been published. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) uses resistance values obtained from weak electrical currents to estimate body composition, including intracellular and extracellular water and muscle and fat mass...
October 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
I-Ting Tsai, Chao-Ping Wang, Teng-Hung Yu, Yung-Chuan Lu, Chih-Wen Lin, Li-Fen Lu, Cheng-Ching Wu, Fu-Mei Chung, Yau-Jiunn Lee, Wei-Chin Hung, Chia-Chang Hsu
Adipocytokines play an important role in adipose tissue homeostasis, especially in obesity-associated disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver and their complications including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although visfatin is an adipocytokine highly expressed in visceral fat that has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the progression of human malignancies, little is known about the role of visfatin in HCC associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
October 19, 2016: Cytokine
Christian Carpéné, Francisco Les, Mounia Hasnaoui, Simon Biron, Picard Marceau, Denis Richard, Jean Galitzky, Denis R Joanisse, Pascale Mauriège
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), identical to primary amine oxidase or vascular adhesion protein-1, is a membrane enzyme that generates hydrogen peroxide. SSAO is highly expressed at the adipocyte surface, and its plasma levels increase with type 2 diabetes. Since visceral adipose tissue (AT) is more tightly associated with obesity complications than subcutaneous (SC) abdominal fat, we compared SSAO activity in plasma and 4 distinct AT locations in 48 severely obese women (body mass index (BMI), averaging 54 ± 11 kg/m(2)), with or without a dysmetabolic profile...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Almudena Gómez-Hernández, Nuria Beneit, Sabela Díaz-Castroverde, Óscar Escribano
This review focuses on the contribution of white, brown, and perivascular adipose tissues to the pathophysiology of obesity and its associated metabolic and vascular complications. Weight gain in obesity generates excess of fat, usually visceral fat, and activates the inflammatory response in the adipocytes and then in other tissues such as liver. Therefore, low systemic inflammation responsible for insulin resistance contributes to atherosclerotic process. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between body mass index and brown adipose tissue activity has been described...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes, Francisco Sampaio, Nuno Bettencourt, Ricardo Fontes-Carvalho, Nuno Ferreira, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Vasco Gama
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor and the location of fat deposits seems to be an important determinant of its metabolic impact. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) exerts a harmful effect on metabolic homeostasis, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated the prognostic impact of the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). This study aimed to evaluate whether the VAT/SAT ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac events...
October 17, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
Morgana Mongraw-Chaffin, Alka M Kanaya, Namratha R Kandula, Arti Shah, Cheryl A M Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Few studies examine the relationships between anthropometry and the body composition measures they approximate, or whether they differ by sex, and no studies have examined these relationships in South Asians living in the US. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 871 participants in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study who had BMI < 40 kg/m(2) and underwent abdominal CT scans for measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Dan Mo, Peishan Hsieh, Hongrong Yu, Lining Zhou, Jichun Gong, Lin Xu, Peng Liu, Gang Chen, Zhao Chen, Qiongying Deng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ethnic differences in osteoporosis (OP) and body composition (BC) and their relationship in the Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao minorities in China. DESIGN: A total of 860 Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao women were included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic, health history, and lifestyle information was collected using questionnaires. BC was measured through bioelectrical impedance analysis, and bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed via calcaneal quantitative ultrasound...
October 21, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Hui-Jie Zhang, Ling-Ling Pan, Zhi-Min Ma, Zheng Chen, Zhu-Feng Huang, Qian Sun, Yan Lu, Cheng-Kun Han, Ming-Zhu Lin, Xue-Jun Li, Shu-Yu Yang, Xiao-Ying Li
Exercise training can reduce hepatic fat accumulation and cardiovascular risk among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but how long these benefits extend beyond the period of active intervention is unclear. Intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and metabolic risk factors were assessed among 220 obese subjects with NAFLD who were randomly assigned to vigorous-moderate exercise, moderate exercise, or control over the subsequent 1 year after 12-month exercise intervention...
October 19, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Ning Xia, Huige Li
Under physiological conditions, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) attenuates agonist-induced vasoconstriction by releasing vasoactive molecules including hydrogen peroxide, angiotensin 1-7, adiponectin, methyl palmitate, hydrogen sulfide, nitric oxide (NO) and leptin. This anticontractile function of PVAT is lost under conditions of obesity. The central mechanism underlying PVAT dysfunction in obesity is likely to be an "obesity triad" (consisting of PVAT hypoxia, inflammation and oxidative stress) that leads to dysregulation of PVAT-derived vasoregulators...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Meilin Zhang, Li Zheng, Ping Li, Yufeng Zhu, Hong Chang, Xuan Wang, Weiqiao Liu, Yuwen Zhang, Guowei Huang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our aim was to evaluate whether visceral adiposity index (VAI) could predict the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in different genders and to compare the predictive ability between VAI and other fatness indices. METHODS: Four thousand seventy-eight participants including 1,817 men and 2,261 women, aged 18 and older and free of T2D at baseline were enrolled in 2010 and followed up for 4 years. New cases of T2D were identified via the annual medical examination...
October 20, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
M Pourhassan, C-C Glüer, P Pick, W Tigges, M J Müller
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effect of weight loss-associated changes in detailed body composition on plasma insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index to calculate the magnitude of reduction in different adipose tissue depots required to improve insulin sensitivity. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 50 subjects aged 20-69 years were studied. The participants were compiled from low-calorie diet interventions and bariatric surgery and differed in their baseline body mass index (BMI; range 21...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Massimiliano Ruscica, Chiara Pavanello, Sara Gandini, Monica Gomaraschi, Cecilia Vitali, Chiara Macchi, Beatrice Morlotti, Gilda Aiello, Raffaella Bosisio, Laura Calabresi, Anna Arnoldi, Cesare R Sirtori, Paolo Magni
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are currently the commonest cause of death worldwide. Different strategies for their primary prevention have been planned, taking into account the main known risk factors, which include an atherogenic lipid profile and visceral fat excess. METHODS: The study was designed as a randomized, parallel, single-center study with a nutritional intervention duration of 12 weeks. Whole soy foods corresponding to 30 g/day soy protein were given in substitution of animal foods containing the same protein amount...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Mahalingam Balakumar, Durai Prabhu, Chandrakumar Sathishkumar, Paramasivam Prabu, Namita Rokana, Ramesh Kumar, Srividhya Raghavan, Avinash Soundarajan, Sunita Grover, Virender Kumar Batish, Viswanathan Mohan, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam
PURPOSE: Diabetes and obesity are characterized by glucose intolerance, fat deposition, inflammation, and dyslipidemia. Recent reports postulated that distinct gut microbiota alterations were observed in obese/diabetic subjects and modulating gut microbiota beneficially through specific probiotics could be a potential therapeutic option for type 2 diabetes/obesity. Therefore, we attempted to study the efficacy of probiotics of Indian gut origin (Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC5690 and Lactobacillus fermentum MTCC5689) along with a positive control, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) on glucose/lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet-induced diabetic animal model...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Catriona Syme, Simon Czajkowski, Jean Shin, Michal Abrahamowicz, Gabriel Leonard, Michel Perron, Louis Richer, Suzanne Veillette, Daniel Gaudet, Lisa Strug, Yun Wang, Hongbin Xu, Graeme Taylor, Tomáš Paus, Steffany Bennett, Zdenka Pausova
BACKGROUND: -Glycerophosphocholine (GPC) metabolites modulate atherosclerosis and thus risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pre-clinical CVD may start during adolescence. Here, we used targeted serum lipidomics to identify a new panel of GPCs, and tested whether any of these GPCs are associated - in adolescence - with classical risk factors of CVD, namely excess visceral fat (VF), elevated BP, insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia. METHODS: -We studied a population-based sample of 990 adolescents (12-18 years, 48% male), as part of the Saguenay Youth Study...
October 18, 2016: Circulation
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego Bellido, Ana I Castro, Lucia Ordoñez-Mayan, Jose Carreira, Cristobal Galban, Miguel A Martinez-Olmos, Ana B Crujeiras, Ignacio Sajoux, Felipe F Casanueva
CONTEXT: A common concern when using low-calorie diets as a treatment for obesity is the reduction in fat-free mass, mostly muscular mass that occurs together with the fat mass loss, and the best methodologies to evaluate body composition changes. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diet-induced changes in body composition of obese patients and to compare three different methodologies employed to evaluate that changes. DESIGN: Twenty obese patients followed a VLCK diet for 4 months...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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