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Visceral fat

Teresa Małecka-Massalska, Aleksandra Majdan
Chronic inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to metabolic changes has an effect on body composition. Up to two thirds of patients may be affected by the loss of body cell mass and, thereby, malnutrition including its most severe form - cachexia. Among patients with RA and malnutrition, the total body weight is not reduced and the muscle loss is partially compensated by an increase in body fat. The excess of visceral and trunk adipose tissue is the main factor of increased prevalence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in RA patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Gerard K Nguyen, Vincent M Mellnick, Aldrin Kay-Yuen Yim, Amber Salter, Joseph E Ippolito
Purpose To determine if sex differences in abdominal visceral fat composition, measured by using computed tomography (CT), and tumor glucose metabolism, measured by gene expression, can help predict outcomes in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study included 222 patients with clear cell RCC from The Cancer Imaging Atlas. By using CT, body fat was segmented into subcutaneous fat and visceral fat areas (VFAs) and normalized to total fat to obtain the relative VFA (rVFA) and relative subcutaneous fat area...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Scott J Lee, Jianmin Liu, Jianhua Yao, Andrew Kanarek, Ronald M Summers, Perry J Pickhardt
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a fully-automated CT-based adiposity tool, applying it to a longitudinal adult screening cohort. METHODS: A validated automated adipose tissue segmentation algorithm was applied to non-contrast abdominal CT scans in 8852 consecutive asymptomatic adults (mean age, 57.1 years; 3926M/4926F) undergoing colonography screening. The tool was also applied to follow-up CT scans in a subset of 1584 individuals undergoing longitudinal surveillance (mean interval, 5...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
N W Badri, S W Flatt, H S Barkai, B Pakiz, D D Heath, C L Rock
Background: Fasting glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) are important measures of the risk for metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Weight loss interventions are considered part of the first line of therapy for those who develop disease states associated with insulin resistance, such as pre-diabetes, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome. Sex differences in insulin resistance have been extensively reported, but sex differences in the ability to improve insulin sensitivity are not well-established...
2018: Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
M I Maiorino, G Bellastella, D Giugliano, K Esposito
Metabolic diseases are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which has been indicated as a potential mediator of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Visceral adiposity is thought to be the starting condition of the inflammatory state through the release of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, CRP, and IL-6, which in turn promote endothelial dysfunction, endothelial expression of chemokines (IL-1) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and P-selectin), and the inhibition of anti-atherogenic factors (adiponectin)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Luzia Jaeger Hintze, Virginie Messier, Marie-Ève Lavoie, Martin Brochu, Jean-Marc Lavoie, Denis Prud'homme, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Éric Doucet
Resistance training (RT) has been shown to decrease fat mass (FM), and increase fat-free mass (FFM), which can be a useful for weight loss maintenance. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a 1-year RT intervention on weight loss maintenance following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention. DESIGN: Following a 6-month dietary weight loss intervention (-6% ± 5.8; 5.05 kg ± 4.45), 70 postmenopausal women living with overweight or obesity were randomized to a control group (n = 34) or a RT group (n = 36) (3×/week first 6 months, 2×/week last 6 months, 70-80% of 1-repetition maximum)...
March 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Sergio Polakof, Didier Rémond, Jérémie David, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux
OBJECTIVES: High-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) overfeeding is one of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether elevated BCAA levels are the cause or the consequence of IR and to determine the mechanisms and tissues involved in such a phenotype. METHODS: We performed a 2-mo follow-up on minipigs overfed an HFHS diet and focused on kinetics fasting and postprandial (PP) BCAA levels and BCAA catabolism in key tissues...
November 27, 2017: Nutrition
Ayako Uchinaka, Yuri Kawashima, Yuki Sano, Shogo Ito, Yusuke Sano, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Mamoru Yoneda, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
Melatonin regulates circadian rhythms but also has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. We investigated the effects of the selective melatonin agonist ramelteon on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology in the DahlS.Z-Leprfa /Leprfa (DS/obese) rat, a model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rats were treated with a low (0.3 mg/kg per day) or high (8 mg/kg per day) dose of ramelteon from 9 to 13 weeks of age. Ramelteon treatment at either dose attenuated body weight gain, left ventricular fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, as well as cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation, without affecting hypertension or insulin resistance...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Takeshi Akama, Tae-Hwa Chun
The visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SQ) fat pads are developmentally distinct white adipose tissue depots and contribute differently to inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity. The basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional regulator transcription factor 21 (TCF21) is a marker gene for white adipose tissues and is abundantly expressed in VIS-derived adipose stem cells (ASCs), but not in SQ-derived ASCs. However, TCF21's role in regulating fat depot-specific gene expression and function is incompletely understood...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Omar Yaxmehen Bello-Chavolla, Paloma Almeda-Valdes, Donaji Gomez-Velasco, Tannia Viveros-Ruiz, Ivette Cruz-Bautista, Alonso Romo-Romo, Daniel Sánchez-Lázaro, Dushan Meza-Oviedo, Arsenio Vargas-Vazquez, Olimpia Arellano Campos, Magdalena Del Rocío Sevilla-González, Alexandro J Martagón, Liliana Muñoz Hernández, Roopa Pravin Mehta, César Rodolfo Caballeros-Barragán, Carlos Aguilar-Salinas
OBJECTIVE: We developed a novel non-insulin based fasting score to evaluate insulin sensitivity validated against the EHC. We also evaluated its correlation with ectopic fact accumulation and its capacity to predict incident T2D cases. DESIGN & METHODS: The discovery sample was composed by 125 subjects (57 without and 68 with T2D) that underwent an EHC. We defined METS-IR as Ln[(2*G0)+TG0]*BMI)/(Ln[HDL-c]) and compared its diagnostic performance against the MFFM obtained by an EHC...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Xiaopeng Guo, Lu Gao, Xiaodong Shi, Hailong Li, Qiang Wang, Zihao Wang, Wei Chen, Bing Xing
Objective: To investigate the preoperative body composition, metabolic characteristics, and postoperative changes in patients with active acromegaly and analyze the effects of gender and age. Methods: We included 36 patients with untreated acromegaly and 37 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Adipose tissue (AT), the visceral fat index (VFI), sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW) were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Jean Paul Ten Klooster, Alexandros Sotiriou, Sjef Boeren, Stefan Vaessen, Jacques Vervoort, Raymond Pieters
Currently, there is a worldwide increase of patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). During the progression of healthy obese to T2D status, there is an influx of immune cells, in particular macrophages, into visceral adipose tissue, accompanied by an increase of inflammatory cytokines, such as, IL6, TNFα and Hp. To get a better insight in the underlying mechanisms, we performed a quantitative LCMS analysis on a modified in vitro assay, combining 3T3L1 adipocytes and activated RAW264.7 macrophages, thus mimicking inflamed adipose tissue...
March 8, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Virginie-Anne Chouinard, David C Henderson, Chiara Dalla Man, Linda Valeri, Brianna E Gray, Kyle P Ryan, Aaron M Cypess, Claudio Cobelli, Bruce M Cohen, Dost Öngür
Patients with psychotic disorders are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, and there is increasing evidence that patients display glucose metabolism abnormalities before significant antipsychotic medication exposure. In the present study, we examined insulin action by quantifying insulin sensitivity in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and unaffected siblings, compared to healthy individuals, using a physiological-based model and comprehensive assessment battery. Twenty-two unaffected siblings, 18 FEP patients, and 15 healthy unrelated controls were evaluated using a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), with 7 samples of plasma glucose and serum insulin concentration measurements...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Belén Pérez-Pevida, Jesús Díaz-Gutiérrez, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Camilo Silva, Sonia Romero, Javier Salvador, Javier Escalada, Gema Frühbeck
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the utility of the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) value to discriminate between different cardiometabolic profiles and examine the role of body composition in predicting the associated increased risk for glucose impairment, beta-cell dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: Subjects with normal fasting glucose completed a 2-hour OGTT and were categorized to the carbohydrate metabolism alterations (CMAs) or the control group based on a 2-hour glucose threshold of 7...
March 9, 2018: Obesity
Keisuke Ueda, Hiroyuki Sasai, Takehiko Tsujimoto, Chiaki Sanbongi, Shuji Ikegami, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Nobuhiko Shioya, Satoru Suzuki, Yoshio Nakata
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine mixture (A-mix) ingestion at 1,500 mg/day in combination with the promotion of physical activity for abdominal fat reduction in overweight adults. Methods: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial for 12 weeks combined with a 4-week follow-up period was conducted at a single center in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, between December 2016 and May 2017...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Veronica Moreno-Viedma, Matteo Tardelli, Maximilian Zeyda, Maria Sibilia, J Deborah Burks, M Thomas Stulnig
OBJECTIVE: Osteopontin (OPN, Spp1) is a protein upregulated in white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese subjects. Deletion of OPN protects mice from high-fat diet-induced WAT inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the alterations mediated by loss of OPN in WAT before the obesogenic challenge have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we hypothesised that the lack of OPN might enhance the pro-adipogenic micro environment before obesity driven inflammation. METHODS: OPN deficiency was tested in visceral (V) and subcutaneous (SC) WAT from WT and Spp1-/- female mice...
March 6, 2018: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
Agnieszka Dmitruk, Jan Czeczelewski, Ewa Czeczelewska, Jolanta Golach, Urszula Parnicka
Background: Menopause, also referred to as climacterium, is a period of multiple changes in the structure and functions of a woman organism. Objective: Determination of differences in body composition and fatty tissue distribution in women from groups discriminated based on their menstrual status. Material and Methods: The survey covered 312 women aged 38-75 years. Menstrual status of the surveyed women was established according to WHO guidelines based on answers to a questionnaire, and three groups were discriminated: women in the premenopausal period (group 1), in the perimenopausal period (group 2), and in the postmenopausal period (group 3)...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Janet M Chiang, Frank Z Stanczyk, Alka M Kanaya
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Asian Indians have a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 150 Asian Indians (50% male) from the San Francisco Bay Area. We assessed the association between 25-OH vitamin D (25-OHD) levels and vitamin D deficiency with body composition (anthropometric and radiographic measures) and metabolic outcomes...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Jane J Lee, Alison Pedley, Udo Hoffmann, Joseph M Massaro, Daniel Levy, Michelle T Long
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a heterogeneous condition and specific patterns of body fat distribution are differentially associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. It is not currently known which fat depots contribute most to individual cardiometabolic risk factors. We examined the associations among eight different fat depots accumulated in various anatomical regions and the relationship between these fat depots and multiple cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: Participants were from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (seventh examination) and Third Generation (first examination) who also participated in the multi-detector computed tomography sub-study between 2002 and 2005...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Xiaoying He, Hongyu Guan, Weiwei Liang, Zhimin Huang, Lijuan Xu, Pengyuan Zhang, Fen Xu, Yanbing Li
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity is considered a major factor in the development of metabolic disorders. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been reported to have positive effects on improving body metabolism and to reducing insulin resistance. However, it remains less clear whether GLP-1 plays a role in the adipogenesis process of visceral fat. METHODS: Here, we analyzed the in vitro actions and probable mechanisms of Exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) isolated from omentum...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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