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Visceral fat

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169085/combined-toxicity-of-triclosan-2-4-dichlorophenol-and-2-4-6-trichlorophenol-to-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#1
Yuhuan Zhang, Mi Liu, Jinfeng Liu, Xuedong Wang, Caihong Wang, Weiming Ai, Shaobo Chen, Huili Wang
Triclosan (TCS), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) are the most prevalent chlorinated phenolic pollutants in aquatic environments. Our results showed LC50 and EC50 values of 0.51, 1.11, 2.45mg/L, and 0.36, 0.74, 1.53mg/L for TCS, 2,4,6-TCP and 2,4-DCP, respectively, to 120hpf zebrafish. The highest TCSD (the mixture of TCS, 2,4,6-TCP and 2,4-DCP) toxicity was observed at a TCS:2,4,6-TCP:2,4-DCP concentration ratio of 1:2:4. LC50 and EC50 values of TCSD mixtures for 120-hpf zebrafish were 2...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169031/visceral-fat-index-percentage-body-fat-ratio-is-independently-associated-with-proximal-aortic-dilatation-in-a-middle-aged-and-aged-chinese-population-in-liujiang-of-guangxi
#2
Zhiyuan Jiang, Baojing Lin, Tangwei Liu, Shiyun Qin, Shan Huang, Shuang Shao, Shuo Li, Rongjie Huang, Jiangnan Huang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased volume of visceral adipose tissue is associated with worsening of cardiovascular disease risk factors that contribute to aortic dilatation. We investigated the effects of visceral fat index (VFI) and VFI/percentage body fat (PBF) ratio on proximal aortic size and proximal aortic dilatation (PAD), to assess whether excess visceral fat deposition is an independent risk factor for PAD. METHODS: 738 participants aged 35 years or more were included in this cross-sectional survey...
November 11, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167640/visceral-fat-dysfunctions-in-the-rat-social-isolation-model-of-psychosis
#3
Stefania Schiavone, Giulia M Camerino, Emanuela Mhillaj, Margherita Zotti, Marilena Colaianna, Angelo De Giorgi, Antonello Trotta, Francesco P Cantatore, Elena Conte, Maria Bove, Paolo Tucci, Maria G Morgese, Luigia Trabace
Medication with neuroleptics has been associated with adipose tissue dysfunctions and, in particular, with increased visceral fat amount. However, several studies suggested that antipsychotic treatment might not be the main responsible of fat mass accumulation, as this has been also described in not treated psychotic patients. One of the most used "drug-free" rodent models of psychosis is the social isolation rearing of young adult rats, which provides a non-pharmacologic method of inducing long-term alterations reminiscent of symptoms seen in psychotic patients...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166824/increased-visceral-adiposity-index-associated-with-sexual-dysfunction-in-men
#4
Murat Dursun, Huseyin Besiroglu, Suleyman Sami Cakir, Alper Otunctemur, Emin Ozbek
OBJECTIVE: Visceral adipose index (VAI) is a novel parameter for the evaluation of visceral obesity. As we know that obesity is a risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). So, in this study, we compared the VAI levels between the men with ED and without ED. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A total of 177 men were included in the study. Ninety-five men with ED and 82 men without ED (control). All men were evaluated for ED by Index of Erectile Function-5 items (IIEF-5). VAI levels were calculated using body mass index, high density lipoprotein and tryglyceride levels...
November 22, 2017: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165725/somatotrope-pituitary-function-in-professional-soccer-players
#5
Pia Roser, Tatiana Wehrhahn, Henry Krogmann, Nina Riedel, Robert Percy Marshall, Justus Gille, Jörg Flitsch, Jens Aberle
Background and objective Soccer is associated with repetitive head trauma, which, as it is known from sports like football and boxing, can result in hypopituitarism. Gonadotropins and GH are the most common pituitary hormones to become deficient. GH deficiency is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and has negative influence on body mass index, visceral fat mass, insulin resistance and sensitivity, bone mineral density and inflammatory markers. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the somatotrope pituitary function in professional soccer players...
November 17, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165132/plasma-free-amino-acid-profiles-evaluate-risk-of-metabolic-syndrome-diabetes-dyslipidemia-and-hypertension-in-a-large-asian-population
#6
Natsu Yamaguchi, M H Mahbub, Hidekazu Takahashi, Ryosuke Hase, Yasutaka Ishimaru, Hiroshi Sunagawa, Hiroki Amano, Mikiko Kobayashi-Miura, Hideyuki Kanda, Yasuyuki Fujita, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Mai Yamamoto, Shinya Kikuchi, Atsuko Ikeda, Mariko Takasu, Naoko Kageyama, Mina Nakamura, Tsuyoshi Tanabe
BACKGROUND: Recently, the association of plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile and lifestyle-related diseases has been reported. However, few studies have been reported in large Asian populations, about the usefulness of PFAAs for evaluating disease risks. We examined the ability of PFAA profiles to evaluate lifestyle-related diseases in so far the largest Asian population. METHODS: We examined plasma concentrations of 19 amino acids in 8589 Japanese subjects, and determined the association with variables associated with obesity, blood glucose, lipid, and blood pressure...
April 7, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163218/exosomes-and-metabolic-function-in-mice-exposed-to-alternating-dark-light-cycles-mimicking-night-shift-work-schedules
#7
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Valeriy A Poroyko, Zhuanhong Qiao, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Mahzad Akbarpour, Isaac Almendros, Ramon Farré, David Gozal
Sleep is an important modulator of metabolic function. Disruptions of sleep in circadian rhythm are common in modern societies and are associated with increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Exosomes are ubiquitous extracellular vesicles that may play a mechanistic role in metabolic derangements. We hypothesized that alternating dark-light cycles mimicking shift work in mice would alter fecal microbiota and colonic epithelium permeability and alter plasma exosome cargo and metabolic function...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162431/adenine-accelerated-the-diabetic-wound-healing-by-ppar-delta-and-angiogenic-regulation
#8
Jyh-Gang Leu, Ming-Hsing Chiang, Chao-Yi Chen, Jiun-Tsai Lin, Han-Min Chen, Yen-Lin Chen, Yao-Jen Liang
Wound healing is one of the major complications of diabetes, and problems with wound healing in diabetics often lead to amputation and even death. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a protein involved in intracellular metabolism. Activated AMPK can reduce visceral fat and cholesterol synthesis and even inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis. Activation of AMPK has been widely used in the treatment of type II diabetes. We applied an AMPK activator (Adenine) to human fibroblasts and to the wounds of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice...
November 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161076/obesity-and-metabolic-abnormalities-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
Emiel F M Wouters
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obesity are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a relationship between COPD and obesity is increasingly recognized. The nature and underlying mechanisms of the link between obesity and COPD are still largely unknown. Obesity, and abdominal adiposity in particular, is linked to metabolic syndrome. Hypertension, hyperglycemia, and abdominal adiposity seem to be the most prevalent components of metabolic syndrome in COPD. Adipose tissues function as a source of a variety of signaling molecules in the pathobiology of respiratory diseases...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158445/pdgfr%C3%AE-pdgfr%C3%AE-signaling-balance-modulates-progenitor-cell-differentiation-into-white-and-beige-adipocytes
#10
Zhanguo Gao, Alexes C Daquinag, Fei Su, Brad Snyder, Mikhail G Kolonin
Relative abundance of thermogenic beige adipocytes and lipid-storing white adipocytes in adipose tissue underlie its metabolic activity. The roles of adipocyte progenitor cells, which express PDGFRα or PDGFRβ, in adipose tissue function have remained unclear. Here, by defining the developmental timing of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ expression in mouse subcutaneous and visceral adipose depots, we uncover depot-specificity of preadipocyte delineation. We demonstrate that PDGFRα expression precedes PDGFRβ expression in all subcutaneous but only in a fraction of visceral adipose stromal cells...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155039/perinatal-nicotine-exposure-increases-obesity-susceptibility-by-peripheral-leptin-resistance-in-adult-female-rat-offspring
#11
Wan-Xia Zhang, Yin-Ping Li, Jie Fan, Hui-Jian Chen, Gai-Ling Li, Yan-Qiong Ouyang, You-E Yan
Maternal nicotine (NIC) exposure causes overweight, hyperleptinemia and metabolic disorders in adult offspring. Our study aims to explore the underlying mechanism of perinatal NIC exposure increases obesity susceptibility in adult female rat offspring. In our model, we found that adult NIC-exposed females presented higher body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat mass, as well as larger adipocytes, while no change was found in food intake. Serum profile showed a higher serum glucose, insulin and leptin levels in NIC-exposed females...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154926/site-specific-effects-of-apolipoprotein-e-expression-on-diet-induced-obesity-and-white-adipose-tissue-metabolic-activation
#12
Aikaterini Hatziri, Christina Kalogeropoulou, Eva Xepapadaki, Eleni Birli, Eleni A Karavia, Eugenia Papakosta, Serafoula Filou, Caterina Constantinou, Kyriakos E Kypreos
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been strongly implicated in the development of diet induced obesity. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of brain and peripherally expressed human apolipoprotein E3 (APOE3), the most common human isoform, to diet induced obesity. In our studies APOE3 knock-in (Apoe3(knock-in)), Apoe-deficient (apoe(-/-)) and brain-specific expressing APOE3 (Apoe3(brain)) mice were fed western-type diet for 12week and biochemical analyses were performed. Moreover, AAV-mediated gene transfer of APOE3 to apoe(-/-) mice was employed, as a means to achieve APOE3 expression selectively in periphery, since peripherally expressed APOE does not cross blood brain barrier (BBB) or blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB)...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153557/cardiovascular-risk-and-obesity-in-sleep-apnea-syndrome-assessed-with-the-stop-bang-questionnaire
#13
María Teófila Vicente-Herrero, Luisa Capdevila García, María Del Carmen Bellido Cambrón, María Victoria Ramírez Iñiguez de la Torre, Silvia Lladosa Marco
INTRODUCTION: Sleep disorders include a number of different processes, of which the most prevalent is the sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). Prevalence of SAHS has increased worldwide, and has a significant social and health impact because of the increased cardiometabolic risk attributed to obesity and the associated metabolic syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study of 1110 workers from public service companies in the Spanish Mediterranean area (Balearic Islands and Valencian Community) was conducted between January and December 2015...
November 15, 2017: Endocrinología, diabetes y nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153108/evaluation-of-a-semi-automated-computer-algorithm-for-measuring-total-fat-and-visceral-fat-content-in-lambs-undergoing-in-vivo-whole-body-computed-tomography
#14
Alana J Rosenblatt, Peter V Scrivani, Yves R Boisclair, Anthony P Reeves, Jose M Ramos-Nieves, Yiting Xie, Hollis N Erb
Computed tomography (CT) is a suitable tool for measuring body fat, since it is non-destructive and can be used to differentiate metabolically active visceral fat from total body fat. Whole body analysis of body fat is likely to be more accurate than single CT slice estimates of body fat. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between semi-automated computer analysis of whole body volumetric CT data and conventional proximate (chemical) analysis of body fat in lambs. Data were collected prospectively from 12 lambs that underwent duplicate whole body CT, followed by slaughter and carcass analysis by dissection and chemical analysis...
October 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152632/a-combination-of-quercetin-and-resveratrol-reduces-obesity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats-by-modulation-of-gut-microbiota
#15
Le Zhao, Qi Zhang, Weini Ma, Feng Tian, Hongyi Shen, Mingmei Zhou
Resveratrol and quercetin, widely found in foods and vegetables, are plant polyphenols reported to have a wide range of biological activities. Despite their limited bioavailabilities, both resveratrol and quercetin are known to exhibit anti-inflammation and anti-obesity effects. We hypothesized that gut microbiota may be a potential target for resveratrol and quercetin to prevent the development of obesity. The aim of this research was to confirm whether a combination of quercetin and resveratrol (CQR) could restore the gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD)...
November 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152236/low-levels-of-very-long-chain-n-3-pufa-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-diet-reduce-fish-robustness-under-challenging-conditions-in-sea-cages
#16
Marta Bou, Gerd M Berge, Grete Baeverfjord, Trygve Sigholt, Tone-Kari Østbye, Bente Ruyter
The present study aimed to determine the minimum requirements of the essential n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that can secure their health under challenging conditions in sea cages. Individually tagged Atlantic salmon were fed 2, 10 and 17 g/kg of EPA + DHA from 400 g until slaughter size (about 3·5 kg). The experimental fish reared in sea cages were subjected to the challenging conditions typically experienced under commercial production. Salmon receiving the lowest EPA + DHA levels showed lower growth rates in the earlier life stages, but no significant difference in final weights at slaughter...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151980/synbiotic-effects-of-%C3%AE-glucans-from-cauliflower-mushroom-and-lactobacillus-fermentum-on-metabolic-changes-and-gut-microbiome-in-estrogen-deficient-rats
#17
Seong-Yeop Jeong, Suna Kang, Cao Shi Hua, Zhang Ting, Sunmin Park
Background: We investigated whether the long-term consumption of a symbiotic formulation with Lactobacillus fermentum (probiotic) and β-glucan from cauliflower mushroom (prebiotic) would delay the progression of post-menopausal symptoms in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and explored their mechanisms of action, including changes in gut microbiota. Methods: OVX rats were fed with high-fat diets containing 1% dextrin (control), 1% lyophilized cauliflower mushroom extract (CFM), 0...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151596/comparison-of-regional-fat-measurements-by-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-conventional-anthropometry-and-their-association-with-markers-of-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#18
S K Vasan, C Osmond, D Canoy, C Christodoulides, M J Neville, C Di Gravio, C H D Fall, F Karpe
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Fat distribution is a strong and independent predictor of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is usually determined using conventional anthropometry in epidemiological studies. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can measure total and regional adiposity more accurately. Nonetheless, whether DXA provides more precise estimates of cardiovascular risk in relation to total and regional adiposity is not known. We determined the strength of the associations between DXA- and conventional anthropometry determined fat distribution and T2D and CVD risk...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151595/high-fat-diet-consumption-differentially-affects-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-adipocyte-size-in-obesity-prone-and-obesity-resistant-rats
#19
J M Poret, F Souza-Smith, S J Marcell, D A Gaudet, T H Tzeng, H D Braymer, L M Harrison-Bernard, S D Primeaux
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Expanding visceral adiposity is associated with increased inflammation and increased risk for developing obesity-related comorbidities. The goal of this study was to examine high fat diet (HFD)-induced differences in adipocyte size and cytokine/chemokine expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots in obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rats. METHODS: OP and OR rats were fed either a low fat diet (LFD, 10% kilocalories from fat) or HFD (60% kilocalories from fat) for 7 weeks...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151452/development-of-a-new-diet-induced-obesity-dio-model-using-wistar-lean-rats
#20
Yoriko Kimura, Atsushi Yamada, Yoko Takabayashi, Tsunehiko Tsubota, Hisao Kasuga
Obesity is an increasingly severe socioeconomic health issue worldwide. Rodents with diet-induced obesity (DIO) are widely used as models of obesity. The main aim of this study was to establish a DIO model using Wistar lean (+/+ or +/-) rats by feeding a high-fat diet (45 kcal% fat) to dams during the latter term of gestation and the lactation period. A second aim was to examine the effect of post-weaning nutrition independently of maternal nutrition. Some pups (group D) were fed the same high-fat diet after weaning, while others (group C) were fed a chow diet after weaning...
November 17, 2017: Experimental Animals
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