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Sex role

Zoheir Elkahtib
BACKGROUND: Most health-care organisations are increasingly interested in assessing the quality of their services. Patient satisfaction has a central role in the quality assessment in health care because it reflects the appropriateness of services from the clients' perspectives. The aim of this study was to assess the level of satisfaction in patients with non-communicable diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension) who receive services from UNRWA health centres in Gaza governorates. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we chose a random sample of participants who presented to the randomly selected six health centres for treatment of non-communicable diseases...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Brooke Y Kauffman, Lorra Garey, Daniel J Paulus, Charles Jardin, Andres G Viana, Clayton Neighbors, Michael J Zvolensky
OBJECTIVE: Extant work has documented the relationship between anxiety sensitivity (AS) and problematic alcohol-related behaviors. However, research on the underlying mechanisms may serve to better explain their association. METHOD: The present study tested the hypothesis that AS would exert an indirect effect on alcohol-related behaviors through negative urgency among a sample of 507 college students (74.4% female; mean age = 22.07 years; SD = 3.83; age range: 18-47 years) who reported at least one heavy episodic drinking (HED) event in the previous month and at least one lifetime sexual partner...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Po-Chia Chen, Pawel Masiewicz, Vladimir Rybin, Dmitri I Svergun, Janosch Hennig
We present a screening protocol utilizing small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to obtain structural information of biomolecular interactions independent of prior knowledge, so as to complement affinity-based screening and provide leads for further exploration. This protocol categorizes ligand titrations by computing pair-wise agreement between curves, and separately estimates affinities by quantifying complex formation as a departure from the linear sum properties of solution SAXS. The protocol is validated by sparse sequence search around the native poly-uridine RNA motifs of the two-RRM domain Sex-lethal protein (Sxl)...
March 19, 2018: ACS Combinatorial Science
May A Beydoun, Marie T Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Hind A Beydoun, Greg A Dore, Jose A Canas, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
The role of dairy foods and related nutrients in cardiometabolic health aetiology is poorly understood. We investigated longitudinal associations between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with key dairy product exposures. We used prospective data from a bi-racial cohort of urban adults (30-64 years at baseline (n 1371)), the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS), in Baltimore City, MD (2004-2013). The average of two 24-h dietary recalls measured 4-10 d apart was computed at baseline (V1) and follow-up (V2) waves...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Maya Schulpen, Piet A van den Brandt
The evidence on a cancer-protective effect of the Mediterranean diet (MD) is still limited. Therefore, we investigated the association between MD adherence and lung cancer risk. Data were used from 120 852 participants of the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS), aged 55-69 years. Dietary habits were assessed at baseline (1986) using a validated FFQ and alternate and modified Mediterranean diet scores (aMED and mMED, respectively), including and excluding alcohol, were calculated. After 20·3 years of follow-up, 2861 lung cancer cases and 3720 subcohort members (case-cohort design) could be included in multivariable Cox regression analyses...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Katri Nissinen, Virpi Virjamo, Lauri Mehtätalo, Anu Lavola, Anu Valtonen, Line Nybakken, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
In boreal woody plants, concentrations of defensive phenolic compounds are expected to be at a high level during the juvenile phase and decrease in maturity, although there is variation between plant species. Females of dioecious species, like most of the Salicaceae, are expected to invest their resources in defense and reproduction, while males are expected to be more growth-oriented. We studied age- and sex-dependent changes in leaf and stem phenolics, and in height and diameter growth in a dioecious Salix myrsinifolia plants over a seven-year time period...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Chun-Hsiang Tan, Peter A McNaughton
The abilities to detect warmth and heat are critical for the survival of all animals, both in order to be able to identify suitable thermal environments for the many different activities essential for life and to avoid damage caused by extremes of temperature. Several ion channels belonging to the TRP family are activated by non-noxious warmth or by heat and are therefore plausible candidates for thermal detectors, but identifying those that actually regulate warmth and heat detection in intact animals has proven problematic...
March 19, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Laura C D Pomatto, Sarah Wong, John Tower, Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive homeostasis enables rapid cellular signaling, leading to transcriptional and translational modifications (Davies, 2016) [1]. The Proteasome is one of the main cellular proteolytic enzymes that plays an essential role in the rapid clearance of oxidatively damaged cellular proteins, and is highly responsive to oxidative stress. Upon exposure to even very low, signaling levels of oxidants, the predominant form of the Proteasome becomes the ATP-independent 20S proteasome that enables rapid clearance of damaged proteins...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Yating Tang, Guang Li, Shan Wu, Lingrong Tang, Ning Zhang, Jinzhao Liu, Shuo Zhang, Lei Yao
Immunotherapy with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) agents has demonstrated promising efficacy for the treatment of various types of malignancies. However, the role of PD-L1 as a tumor prognostic marker remains poorly understood. In the present study, the prognostic value of PD-L1 expression in esophageal carcinoma (EC) following definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) was investigated, and its associations with three systemic inflammation biomarkers, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) were further explored...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Anja Buttstedt, Carmen I Mureşan, Hauke Lilie, Gerd Hause, Christian H Ihling, Stefan-H Schulze, Markus Pietzsch, Robin F A Moritz
The female sex in honeybees (Apis spp.) comprises a reproductive queen and a sterile worker caste. Nurse bees feed all larvae progressively with a caste-specific food jelly until the prepupal stage. Only those larvae that are exclusively fed a large amount of royal jelly (RJ) develop into queens [1]. RJ is a composite secretion of two specialized head glands: the mandibular glands, which produce mainly fatty acids [2], and the hypopharyngeal glands, which contribute proteins, primarily belonging to the major royal jelly protein (MRJP) family [3]...
March 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Lilian O Guimarães, Francisco Fernandes, Eliana F Monteiro, Izilda Curado, Marcia M Holcman, Gerhard Wunderlich, Sidney E Santos, Júlia M Soler, Karin Kirchgatter
In low-endemic areas for malaria transmission, asymptomatic individuals play an important role as reservoirs for malarial infection. Understanding the dynamics of asymptomatic malaria is crucial for its efficient control in these regions. Genetic host factors such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms may play a role in the maintenance or elimination of infection. In this study, the effect of TLR polymorphisms on the susceptibility to malaria was investigated among individuals living in the Atlantic Forest of São Paulo, Southern Brazil...
March 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
Oliver Stevens, Jamie I Forrest
Chemsex is a growing public health concern in urban centres, and few interventions exist to mitigate the significant sexual, drug-related, and social harms potentially experienced by people who participate in chemsex. In much of the world, these immediate harms are further compounded by the criminalisation and stigmatisation of both homosexuality and drug use, preventing participants fully engaging with treatment services or provision of health care. Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men participating in chemsex fall between the traditional definitions of key populations and consequently are poorly provided for by existing drug and sexual health frameworks...
March 19, 2018: Sexual Health
Francesca Zanderigo, Spiro Pantazatos, Harry Rubin-Falcone, R Todd Ogden, Binod Thapa Chhetry, Gregory Sullivan, Maria Oquendo, Jeffrey M Miller, J John Mann
Serotonin 1A (5-HT1A ) receptors mediate serotonin trophic role in brain neurogenesis. Gray matter volume (GMV) loss and 5-HT1A receptor binding alterations have been identified in major depressive disorder (MDD). Here we investigated the relationship between 5-HT1A receptor binding and GMV in 40 healthy controls (HCs) and, for the first time, 47 antidepressant-free MDD patients using Voxel-Based Morphometry and [11 C]WAY100635 Positron Emission Tomography. Values of GMV and 5-HT1A binding (expressed as BPF , one of the types of binding potentials that refer to displaceable or specific binding that can be quantified in vivo with PET) were obtained in 13 regions of interest, including raphe, and at the voxel level...
March 17, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Z Guleken, D Ozbeyli, M Acikel-Elmas, S Oktay, B Alev, S Sirvanci, A Velioglu Ogunc, O Kasimay Cakir
The 17β-estradiol plays a role in physiology of pancreas and may protect it from inflammation. To examine the possible anti-inflammatory effects of 17β-estadiol in pancreaticobiliary duct ligated (PBDL) acute pancreatitis (AP) model, and the underlying mechanism that 17β-estradiol acts on, via evaluating the direct and the receptor related effects by using 17β-estradiol, ER-α and -β agonists. In the study both sexes of rats (n = 88) were used. Animals were divided into two groups as PBDL and PBDL + ovariectomized...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Emmanuel Weyne, Johanna L Hannan, Thomas Gevaert, Yodi Soebadi, Hotaka Matsui, Fabio Castiglione, Koenraad van Renterghem, Dirk De Ridder, Frank Van der Aa, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Maarten Albersen
BACKGROUND: Previously, we found that the neuropeptide galanin was strongly upregulated soon after bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) and that galanin and its receptors were expressed in nitrergic erectile innervation. Galanin has been observed to exert neuroregenerative effects in dorsal root ganglion neurons, but evidence for these effects in the major pelvic ganglion (MPG) after BCNI is lacking. AIM: To evaluate the neurotropic effects of galanin receptor agonists and antagonists in vitro in nitrergic neurons and MPG and in vivo in rats after BCNI...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Adriana Maggi, Sara Della Torre
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and clinical studies have largely demonstrated major differences in the prevalence of metabolic disorders in males and females, but the biological cause of these dissimilarities remain to be elucidated. Mammals are characterized by a major change in reproductive strategies and it is conceivable that these changes subjected females to a significant evolutionary pressure that perfected the coupling between energy metabolism and reproduction. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review will address the plausibility that female liver functions diverged significantly from males given the role of liver in the control of metabolism...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Suzanne R Burstein, Hyun Jeong Kim, Jasmine A Fels, Liping Qian, Sheng Zhang, Ping Zhou, Anatoly A Starkov, Costantino Iadecola, Giovanni Manfredi
Recent evidence highlights a role for sex and hormonal status in regulating cellular responses to ischemic brain injury and neurodegeneration. A key pathological event in ischemic brain injury is the opening of a mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPT) induced by excitotoxic calcium levels, which can trigger irreversible damage to mitochondria accompanied by the release of pro-apoptotic factors. However, sex differences in brain MPT modulation have not yet been explored. Here, we show that mitochondria isolated from female mouse forebrain have a lower calcium threshold for MPT than male mitochondria, and that this sex difference depends on the MPT regulator cyclophilin D (CypD)...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Andre Pittig, Michael Treanor, Richard T LeBeau, Michelle G Craske
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders, and are often chronic and disabling. Although exposure-based treatments are effective, a substantial number of individuals fail to fully remit or experience a return of symptoms after treatment. Understanding the critical processes underlying the development and treatment of anxiety disorders will help identify individuals at risk and optimize treatments. Aversive associative learning offers explanatory pathways through which fear and anxiety emerge, spread, persist, and resurge...
March 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Marc A Furrer, Marc P Schneider, Fiona C Burkhard, Patrick Y Wuethrich
BACKGROUND: Early postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality following major surgery. Only few reports exist on postoperative AKI and specifically its risk factors after radical cystectomy (RC) and urinary diversion (UD). We aimed to identify risk factors for AKI in patients undergoing RC and UD. METHODS: In an observational single-center cohort study, 912 consecutive bladder cancer patients undergoing RC and UD from 2000 to 2016 were evaluated for risk factors for AKI...
March 14, 2018: Urologic Oncology
L Bua, E Tibaldi, L Falcioni, M Lauriola, L De Angelis, F Gnudi, M Manservigi, F Manservisi, I Manzoli, I Menghetti, R Montella, S Panzacchi, D Sgargi, V Strollo, A Vornoli, D Mandrioli, F Belpoggi
BACKGROUND: Up to now, experimental studies on rodents have failed to provide definitive confirmation of the carcinogenicity of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEMF). Two recent studies performed in our laboratory on Sprague-Dawley rats reported a statistically significant increase in malignant tumors of different sites (mammary gland, C-cells carcinoma, hemolymphoreticular neoplasia, and malignant heart Schwannoma) when ELFEMF exposure was associated with exposure to formaldehyde (50 mg/l) or acute low dose of γ-radiation (0...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Research
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