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Antibiotics and prescribing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241184/peritonitis-in-children-on-chronic-peritoneal-dialysis-the-experience-of-a-large-national-pediatric-cohort
#1
Daniela Ponce, Thyago Proença de Moraes, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Ana Elizabeth Figueiredo, Pasqual Barretti
BACKGROUND: We performed this study to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, microbiology, treatment, and outcome of peritonitis in pediatric Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients at a nationwide prospective study. METHODOLOGY: Patients younger than 18 years recruited in the BRAZPD II study from 2004 to 2011, who presented their first peritonitis episode, were included in the study. RESULTS: We found 125 first episodes of peritonitis in 491 children PD patients (0...
December 14, 2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240786/time-trend-analysis-2009-2016-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolated-in-italy-following-the-introduction-of-the-combined-antimicrobial-therapy
#2
Paola Stefanelli, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Maria Paola Landini, Ivano Dal Conte, Alberto Matteelli, Antonio Cristaudo, Marina Gaino, Marco Cusini, Anna Maria Barbui, Antonella Mencacci, Rosella De Nittis, Valeria Ghisetti, Elena Stroppiana, Anna Carannante
INTRODUCTION: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) antimicrobial susceptibility trends to azithromycin, cefixime and ceftriaxone were analyzed, from 2009 to 2016, to monitor changing antimicrobial susceptibility concomitant with the change in prescribing practice in 2012 from cefixime, or ceftriaxone, to ceftriaxone plus azithromycin. Patient characteristics predictive to be infected by antibiotic resistant N. gonorrhoeae were estimated. Finally, the protocol for the treatment of gonorrhoea, in comparison with the international guidelines, was also evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240687/decreasing-inappropriate-use-of-antibiotics-in-primary-care-in-four-countries-in-south-america-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Inés Urbiztondo, Lars Bjerrum, Lidia Caballero, Miguel Angel Suarez, Monica Olinisky, Gloria Córdoba
High antibiotic prescribing and antimicrobial resistance in patients attending primary care have been reported in South America. Very few interventions targeting general practitioners (GPs) to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing have been investigated in this region. This study assessed the effectiveness of online feedback on reducing antibiotic prescribing in patients with suspected respiratory tract infections (RTIs) attending primary care. The aim was to reduce antibiotic prescribing in patients with acute bronchitis and acute otitis media...
December 14, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240638/antibiotic-prophylaxis-after-immediate-breast-reconstruction-the-reality-of-its-efficacy
#4
Kavitha Ranganathan, Erika D Sears, Lin Zhong, Ting-Ting Chung, Kevin C Chung, Jeffrey H Kozlow, Adeyiza O Momoh, Jennifer F Waljee
PURPOSE: Numerous techniques are used to prevent infection after immediate implant-based breast reconstruction. Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) is commonly prescribed to decrease the risk of reconstructive failure, despite conflicting evidence regarding its effectiveness. We sought to determine whether PAP decreases the risk of infection-related explantation in the setting of immediate prosthesis-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: Using Truven MarketScan databases, we identified all patients who underwent immediate implant reconstruction between 1/2010-6/2014 with at least 6 months of follow-up...
December 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239248/use-of-and-microbial-resistance-to-antibiotics-in-china-a-path-to-reducing-antimicrobial-resistance
#5
Dan Cui, Xinliang Liu, Peter Hawkey, Hao Li, Quan Wang, Zongfu Mao, Jing Sun
We analyzed China's current use of and microbial resistance to antibiotics, and possible means of reducing antimicrobial resistance. Interventions like executive orders within clinical settings and educational approach with vertical approaches rather than an integrated strategy to curb the use of antimicrobials remain limited. An underlying problem is the system of incentives that has resulted in the intensification of inappropriate use by health professionals and patients. There is an urgent need to explore the relationship between financial and non-financial incentives for providers and patients, to eliminate inappropriate incentives...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238498/explaining-family-physicians-beliefs-about-antibiotic-prescription
#6
Elham Shokouhi, Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh, Marzieh Araban
Background: Antibiotics are among those drugs prescribed abundantly in hospitals due to their high efficiency. However, excessive, non-logical and unnecessary use of antibiotics regardless of physicians' recommendations is considered as a challenge. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explain family physicians' beliefs about antibiotic prescription in Ahvaz. Methods: This study is part of a content-analysis qualitative research conducted in Ahvaz in 2016...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238212/effects-of-an-antimicrobial-restriction-system-on-appropriate-carbapenem-use-in-a-hospital-without-infectious-diseases-consultation
#7
Warangkhana Wanla, Wasan Katip, Sakon Supakul, Porntipa Apiwatnakorn, Sompong Khamsarn
Background: Gram-negative bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to carbapenems and are related to the use of carbapenems. Thus, the main objective of this study was to compare the appropriateness of prescribing carbapenem before and after using an antimicrobial restriction system without infectious diseases consultation. Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional before and after study was conducted in Lamphun Hospital to limit the prescription of carbapenems...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237616/individual-differences-in-normal-body-temperature-longitudinal-big-data-analysis-of-patient-records
#8
Ziad Obermeyer, Jasmeet K Samra, Sendhil Mullainathan
OBJECTIVE: To estimate individual level body temperature and to correlate it with other measures of physiology and health. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient clinics of a large academic hospital, 2009-14. PARTICIPANTS: 35 488 patients who neither received a diagnosis for infections nor were prescribed antibiotics, in whom temperature was expected to be within normal limits. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline temperatures at individual level, estimated using random effects regression and controlling for ambient conditions at the time of measurement, body site, and time factors...
December 13, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236038/adverse-effects-of-amoxicillin-for-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-primary-care-secondary-and-subgroup-analysis-of-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#9
Meera Tandan, Akke Vellinga, Robin Bruyndonckx, Paul Little, Theo Verheij, Chris C Butler, Herman Goossens, Samuel Coenen
A European placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic treatment for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) conducted in 16 primary care practices networks recruited participants between November 2007 and April 2010, and found adverse events (AEs) occurred more often in patients prescribed amoxicillin compared to placebo. This secondary analysis explores the causal relationship and estimates specific AEs (diarrhoea, nausea, rash) due to amoxicillin treatment for LRTI, and if any subgroup is at increased risk of any or a specific AE...
December 13, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234966/efficacy-and-feasibility-of-a-collaborative-multidisciplinary-program-for-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-clean-wound-surgery
#10
Xinyu Li, Hong Chen, Shenyin Zhu, Yu Liu, Jiadan Yang, Zhe Yuan, Gaoqun Yao, Feng Qiu
Background Despite national and international guidelines and recommendations, inappropriate prophylactic antibiotic use for clean wound surgery remains a common phenomenon in many Chinese hospitals, causing higher medical costs and bacterial resistance. Objective To improve the prescribing behavior for antibiotic prophylaxis and decrease antibiotic abuse and/or misuse in clean wound surgery. Setting The teaching hospital of a medical university in Southwest China. Methods A collaborative multidisciplinary program involving educational, technical, and administrative strategies was undertaken...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232913/pharmacoeconomic-analysis-of-drugs-used-in-the-treatment-of-pneumonia-in-paediatric-population-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india-a-cost-of-illness-study
#11
Lekha Saha, Sharonjeet Kaur, Pratibha Khosla, Sweta Kumari, Alka Rani
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The cost of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of pneumonia in the inpatient paediatric population can have a major impact on the healthcare expenditure. We planned to assess the direct and indirect costs of diagnosis and medical treatment of paediatric patients with community acquired pneumonia who are hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital in India. METHODS: 125 children with a diagnosis of pneumonia who were admitted to the inpatient department of a paediatric hospital receiving antibiotic treatment were observed...
December 11, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231979/otitis-media-with-effusion-in-the-boxer-a-report-of-seven-cases
#12
S Paterson
The aim of this study was to describe otitis media with effusion in seven boxers. All dogs presented with a range of clinical signs, which included head shaking, neurological dysfunction, pain on opening of the mouth and reduction in hearing ability. Otitis media was confirmed under general anaesthesia in each case by video-otoscopic identification of a bulging pars tensa and subsequent myringotomy, which revealed a tenacious mucus plug within the middle ear. Brainstem auditory evoked response thresholds were elevated in all affected ears...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230891/linking-individual-level-data-on-diagnoses-and-dispensing-for-research-on-antibiotic-use-evaluation-of-a-novel-data-source-from-english-secondary-care
#13
Patrick Rockenschaub, David Ansell, Laura Shallcross
PURPOSE: There has been a focus on stewardship programmes to curb inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and reduce antimicrobial resistance. In-hospital, patient-level prescribing linked to indication is needed to support surveillance, evaluation of stewardship initiatives, as well as other antibiotic research. We evaluated whether a novel dataset linking hospital pharmacy records to Hospital Episode Statistics data can be used for antibiotic research. METHODS: Using the Hospital Treatment Insights (HTI) database, which links Hospital Episode Statistics to pharmacy records from 43 out of 153 hospital trusts in England, we estimated the proportion of missed linkage and identified characteristics associated with missing data...
December 12, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230259/-nosocomial-urinary-tract-and-surgical-site-infection-rates-in-the-maternity-ward-at-the-general-referral-hospital-in-katuba-lubumbashi-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#14
Hendrick Mbutshu Lukuke, Eric Kasamba, Abdulu Mahuridi, Roger Ngatu Nlandu, Suganuma Narufumi, Abel Ntambue Mukengeshayi, Vicky Malou, Michel Makoutode, Françoise Malonga Kaj
Introduction: In Intertropical Africa hospitalized patients are exposed to a risk of nosocomial infections. The dearth of published data on this subject limits the descriptive analysis of the situation. This study aimed to determine the incidence, the germs responsible for these infections and the risk factors of nosocomial infections in the Maternity Ward at the General Referral Hospital in Katuba, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Methods: We conducted a descriptive, longitudinal study from 1 October 2014 to 1 January 2015...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228985/investigating-the-burden-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-ethnic-minority-groups-in-high-income-countries-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Hannah Lishman, Paul Aylin, Vivian Alividza, Enrique Castro-Sanchez, Anuja Chatterjee, Victor Mariano, Alan P Johnson, Samir Jeraj, Céire Costelloe
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is an urgent problem globally, with overuse and misuse of antibiotics being one of the main drivers of antibiotic-resistant infections. There is increasing evidence that the burden of community-acquired infections such as urinary tract infections and bloodstream infections (both susceptible and resistant) may differ by ethnicity, although the reasons behind this relationship are not well defined. It has been demonstrated that socioeconomic status and ethnicity are often highly correlated with each other; however, it is not yet known whether accounting for deprivation completely explains any discrepancy seen in infection risk...
December 11, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228960/cross-sectional-survey-on-the-use-and-impact-of-the-danish-national-antibiotic-use-guidelines-for-companion-animal-practice
#16
Lisbeth Rem Jessen, Tina Møller Sørensen, Zenia Littau Lilja, Maja Kristensen, Tine Hald, Peter Damborg
BACKGROUND: The Danish antibiotic use guidelines for companion animal practice were published by the Danish Veterinary Association in 2012. Since then, national surveillance data indicate a 10% reduction in the total use of antibiotics for companion animals, particularly a marked reduction in the use of third generation cephalosporins. The aim of the study was to assess if and how the guidelines have impacted diagnostic and antibiotic prescription habits of the users, and to identify user perceived barriers to implementation...
December 11, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228528/the-dilemma-of-irrational-antibiotic-and-corticosteroid-prescription-in-iran-how-much-it-can-affect-the-medicine-expenditures
#17
Parisa Mehdizadeh, Nooredin Dopeykar, Mohammad Meskarpour-Amiri, Hediyeh Zekri, Mahmoud Salesi
In recent years the high cost of medicines and the lack of it were one of the major problems in developing countries that despite numerous efforts to solve the root causes of this problem, the issue remains, unfortunately. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of antibiotics and corticosteroids prescription on the medicines expenditures. This was descriptive-analytical study that conducted to assess the function of medical expenditures through prescription letters and analysis the factors affecting medicine expenditures...
October 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228207/effectiveness-of-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-in-preventing-amoxicillin-prescribing-in-preschool-children-a-self-controlled-case-series-study
#18
Pia Hardelid, Yonas Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Heather Whitaker, Greta Rait, Ruth Gilbert, Irene Petersen
Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in reducing amoxicillin prescribing in preschool children in primary care. Patients and methods: We used The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a large primary care database from the United Kingdom. We included children aged 2 to 4 years old at the start of either the 2013/14 or the 2014/15 winter season, with at least one amoxicillin prescription between September and May, irrespective of LAIV vaccination status...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224752/incidence-and-factors-associated-with-revision-adenoidectomy-a-retrospective-study
#19
James Johnston, Murali Mahadevan, Richard G Douglas
INTRODUCTION: Adenoidectomy is one of the most commonly performed pediatric operations worldwide. There are a proportion of children who require revision adenoidectomy. Yet there is little in the literature about the incidence, associated factors and etiology of adenoidal regrowth. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine incidence and factors associated with revision adenoidectomy. METHODS: An extraction of all hospital morbidity records belonging to patients under the age of 18 years who underwent one or more adenoidectomy procedures (with or without tonsillectomy) between January 1, 2000 and June 2016 at a tertiary care children's hospital was performed...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222650/taxane-platinum-and-5-fu-prior-to-chemoradiotherapy-benefits-patients-with-stage-iv-neck-node-positive-head-and-neck-cancer-and-a-good-performance-status
#20
Natalie M Lowe, Jonathan M Bernstein, Kathleen Mais, Kate Garcez, Lip W Lee, Andrew Sykes, David J Thomson, Jarrod J Homer, Catharine M West, Nicholas J Slevin
PURPOSE: The benefit of adding docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) induction chemotherapy to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate whether ICT is well tolerated when given with prophylactic treatment against predicted adverse effects and which patients benefit most. METHODS: A single-centre audit identified 132 HNSCC patients with stage IVa/b neck node-positive disease, prescribed TPF followed by CRT...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
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