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Antibiotics and prescribing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667186/infectious-diseases-in-older-adults-of-long-term-care-facilities-update-on-approach-to-diagnosis-and-management
#1
REVIEW
Robin L P Jump, Christopher J Crnich, Lona Mody, Suzanne F Bradley, Lindsay E Nicolle, Thomas T Yoshikawa
The diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases in older adults in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), particularly nursing facilities, remains a challenge for all health providers who care for this population. This review provides updated information on the currently most important challenges of infectious diseases in LTCFs. With the increasing prescribing of antibiotics in older adults, particularly in LTCFs, the topic of antibiotic stewardship is presented in this review. Following this discussion, salient points on clinical relevance, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, therapy, and prevention are discussed for skin and soft tissue infections, infectious diarrhea (Clostridium difficile and norovirus infections), bacterial pneumonia, and urinary tract infection, as well as some of the newer approaches to preventive interventions in the LTCF setting...
April 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664457/aspergillus-sinusitis-complicated-with-meningitis-and-multiple-cerebral-infarctions-in-immunocompetent-patient
#2
Ahmad AlHaj Houssen, Fahad Algreeshah
This is a case of a 33-year-old male complaining of severe headache, neck pain, photophobia, vomiting and high-grade fever of several days. He had history of nasal polyp removal and recurrent sinusitis in the last 8 years. On examination: conscious with glasco coma scale (GCS) 15/15 and normal limbs strength but with positive Babinski sign. For further observation, he was admitted and full work-up was done. Even though full empirical antibiotics were started, there was no immediate improvement and he deteriorated dramatically developing ocular deficit, hydrocephalus and lower level of consciousness with multiple infarctions found at different areas in brain...
April 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663311/interobserver-variability-in-the-classification-of-appendicitis-during-laparoscopy
#3
A L van den Boom, E M L de Wijkerslooth, K A L Mauff, I Dawson, C C van Rossem, B R Toorenvliet, B P L Wijnhoven
BACKGROUND: The intraoperative classification of appendicitis dictates the patient's postoperative management. Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for complex appendicitis (gangrenous, perforated, abscess), whereas preoperative prophylaxis suffices for simple appendicitis. Distinguishing these two conditions can be challenging. The aim of this study was to assess interobserver variability in the classification of appendicitis during laparoscopy. METHODS: Short video recordings taken during laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis were shown to surgeons and surgical residents...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661029/antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-a-greek-hospital-implementing-a-mandatory-prescription-form-and-prospective-audits
#4
Vassiliki Pitiriga, Petros Kanellopoulos, Elsa Kampos, George Panagiotakopoulos, Athanasios Tsakris, George Saroglou
AIM: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are urgently needed for Greek hospitals in order to improve antibiotic usage. PATIENTS & METHODS: An ASP was implemented to a Greek hospital since February 2014. A mandatory order form was introduced for five antimicrobials; colistin, tigecycline, daptomycin, doripenem and linezolid. Prospective audits allowed for feedback to the prescribers without direct prescribing restriction. RESULTS: Antimicrobials' consumption at the baseline year and the 3 years of ASP implementation was 93...
April 17, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659041/association-of-added-sugar-intake-and-caries-related-experiences-among-individuals-of-mexican-origin
#5
S Vega-López, N M Lindberg, G J Eckert, E L Nicholson, G Maupomé
OBJECTIVE: Determine the association between key dental outcomes and added sugar intake using a survey instrument to assess added sugars, which was specifically tailored to immigrant and US-born adults of Mexican origin. METHODS: Hispanic adults of Mexican origin (n = 326; 36.2 ± 12.1 years) completed a self-administered survey to gather acculturation, self-reported dental experiences and self-care practices (eg brushing, flossing, pain, bleeding gums), and socio-demographic information...
April 16, 2018: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652754/pattern-of-antibiotic-prescription-for-oral-implant-treatment-among-dentists-in-saudi-arabia
#6
Khalid E El-Kholey, Othman Wali, Aamna Elkomy, Ahmed Almozayen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate antibiotic prophylaxis prescription behavior among dentists practicing dental implant surgery in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational questionnaire study was conducted in the period between October 2016 and December 2016. A link to an online previously validated questionnaire was sent to a convenience sample of dentists practicing dental implant placement in the different areas of Saudi Arabia. Absolute frequencies were used to describe the data...
April 12, 2018: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652559/point-prevalence-survey-of-antibiotic-use-and-resistance-at-a-referral-hospital-in-kenya-findings-and-implications
#7
Caleb Okoth, Sylvia Opanga, Faith Okalebo, Margaret Oluka, Amanj Baker Kurdi, Brian Godman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A substantial amount of antibiotic use in hospitals may be inappropriate, potentially leading to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance, adverse effects, mortality and increased hospital costs. The objective was to assess current patterns of antibiotic use in a leading referral hospital in Western Kenya. This would lead to the identification of opportunities for quality improvement in this hospital and across Kenya. METHODOLOGY: A point prevalence survey was carried out with data abstracted principally from patient medical records supplemented by interviews from physicians when needed...
April 13, 2018: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649268/a-case-control-study-of-lower-urinary-tract-infections-associated-antibiotics-and-the-risk-of-developing-prostate-cancer-using-pcbase-3-0
#8
Beth Russell, Hans Garmo, Kerri Beckmann, Pär Stattin, Jan Adolfsson, Mieke Van Hemelrijck
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between lower urinary-tract infections, their associated antibiotics and the subsequent risk of developing PCa. SUBJECTS/PATIENTS (OR MATERIALS) AND METHODS: Using data from the Swedish PCBaSe 3.0, we performed a matched case-control study (8762 cases and 43806 controls). Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between lower urinary-tract infections, related antibiotics and PCa, whilst adjusting for civil status, education, Charlson Comorbidity Index and time between lower urinary-tract infection and PCa diagnosis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649095/measuring-quality-gaps-in-tb-screening-in-south-africa-using-standardised-patient-analysis
#9
Carmen S Christian, Ulf-G Gerdtham, Dumisani Hompashe, Anja Smith, Ronelle Burger
This is the first multi-district Standardised Patient (SP) study in South Africa. It measures the quality of TB screening at primary healthcare (PHC) facilities. We hypothesise that TB screening protocols and best practices are poorly adhered to at the PHC level. The SP method allows researchers to observe how healthcare providers identify, test and advise presumptive TB patients, and whether this aligns with clinical protocols and best practice. The study was conducted at PHC facilities in two provinces and 143 interactions at 39 facilities were analysed...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648669/a-clinical-prediction-model-for-surgical-site-infections-in-dermato-logical-surgery
#10
Xiaomeng Liu, Nicole W J Kelleners-Smeets, Melissa Sprengers, Vishal Hira, Klara Mosterd, Patty J Nelemans
To adequately identify patients at risk for surgical site infection in dermatological surgery and effectively prescribe antibiotic prophylaxis, a prediction model may be helpful. Such a model was developed using data from 1,407 patients who underwent dermatological surgery without antibiotic prophylaxis. The multivariable logistic regression model included type of closure, tumour location and defect size as risk factors. Bootstrapping was used for internal validation. The overall performance of the model was good, with an area under the curve of 84...
April 12, 2018: Acta Dermato-venereologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629681/antibiotic-prescribing-practice-and-adherence-to-guidelines-in-primary-care-in-the-cape-town-metro-district-south-africa
#11
J Gasson, M Blockman, B Willems
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of antibiotic prescribing practice in primary care in South Africa is limited. As 80% of human antibiotic use is in primary care, this knowledge is important in view of the global problem of antibiotic resistance. OBJECTIVES: To assess antibiotic prescribing in primary care facilities in the Cape Town Metro District and compare it with current national guidelines, and to assess the reasons why prescriptions were not adherent to guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was performed in April/May 2016...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628918/identification-and-characterization-of-fluoroquinolone-non-susceptible-streptococcus-pyogenes-clones-harboring-tetracycline-and-macrolide-resistance-in-shanghai-china
#12
Yinfang Shen, Jiehao Cai, Mark R Davies, Chi Zhang, Kun Gao, Dan Qiao, Haoqin Jiang, Weilei Yao, Yuefang Li, Mei Zeng, Mingliang Chen
Streptococcus pyogenes , also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is one of the top 10 infectious causes of death worldwide. Macrolide and tetracycline resistant GAS has emerged as a major health concern in China coinciding with an ongoing scarlet fever epidemic. Furthermore, increasing rates of fluoroquinolone (FQ) non-susceptibility within GAS from geographical regions outside of China has also been reported. Fluoroquinolones are the third most commonly prescribed antibiotic in China and is an therapeutic alternative for multi-drug resistant GAS...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626362/clinical-outcome-of-dental-procedures-among-renal-transplant-recipients
#13
Rubens Caliento, Dmitry José de Santana Sarmento, Solange Kobayashi-Velasco, Stella Núbia Coelho de Sá, Patrícia Pinheiro Shibutani, Marina Gallotini
AIMS: To compare outcomes of dental procedures among a group of renal transplant recipients who had received antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) before the procedure and another group that had not received AP. METHODS AND RESULTS: The records of all renal transplant patients treated at the Special Care Dentistry Center (SCDC) were assessed. Dental procedures documented in the records were classified as invasive or noninvasive. All dental procedures performed were compiled, and the prescription or nonprescription of prophylactic antibiotics, and the incidence and description of postoperative complications after invasive procedures were recorded...
April 6, 2018: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625943/drug-utilization-and-prescribing-pattern-of-antibiotics-in-a-tertiary-care-setups-trends-and-practices
#14
Huma Ali, Farya Zafar, Shazia Alam, Anwar Ejaz Beg, Rabia Bushra, Ammara Manzoor, Ghazala R Naqvi, Riffat Yasmeen, Yousra Shafiq, Anum Tariq, Saba Zubair, Saima Saleem
Irrational, over and misuse of antibiotics arise as global concern in both hospital and community settings and lead to adverse events including antimicrobial resistance, associated health problems, amplified hospitalization stay and cost. Hence, Drug Utilization Evaluation (DUE) studies are designed to evaluate and improve the prescribing, administration and the rational use of medications. The present study was designed to assess the pattern of antimicrobial drug utilization in in-patients cohort of tertiary care setup in Karachi, Pakistan...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623212/first-report-of-lyme-disease-in-nepal
#15
Sher Bahadur Pun, Sumit Agrawal, Santoshananda Jha, Lila Nath Bhandari, Bimal Sharma Chalise, Abadhesh Mishra, Rajesh Shah
Introduction: Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and is widely reported in the USA, Central Europe, South East Asia and Latin America. Until recently, no scientific report regarding Lyme disease in Nepal had been published. Case presentation: A 32-year-old, previously healthy female visited the hospital with a history of joint pains, fatigue, neck stiffness, tingling sensation and headache. She was initially treated for typhoid fever, brucellosis and malaria, but did not show significant improvement...
March 2018: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623093/prevalence-and-antibiotics-susceptibility-pattern-of-salmonella-and-shigella-species-among-diarrheal-patients-attending-nekemte-referral-hospital-oromia-ethiopia
#16
Alemayehu Terfassa, Mulissa Jida
The main objective of this study was determining the prevalence and antibiotics resistance pattern of Salmonella and Shigella sp. from diarrheal patients attending Nekemte Referral Hospital. A total of 422 patients were included in the study and their sociodemographic and clinical information was collected using questionnaire. Stool samples of the patients were collected and processed following standard bacteriological protocols. Presumptive colonies of Salmonella and Shigella species were identified and subcultured to their respective genera by standard biochemical tests...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621001/antibiotic-use-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-surgical-patients-with-peritonitis-at-a-tertiary-referral-hospital-in-rwanda
#17
Jennifer Rickard, Christian Ngarambe, Leonard Ndayizeye, Blair Smart, Robert Riviello, Jean Paul Majyambere, Rahel G Ghebre
BACKGROUND: There is growing recognition of the worsening problem of antibiotic resistance and the need for antibiotic stewardship in low-resource settings. The aim of this study was to describe antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in patients undergoing surgery for peritonitis at a Rwandan referral hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All surgical patients with peritonitis at a Rwandan referral hospital were enrolled. Prospective data were collected on epidemiology, clinical features, interventions, and outcomes...
April 5, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619607/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-considerations-of-beta-lactam-antibiotics-in-adult-critically-ill-patients
#18
REVIEW
Anne M Masich, Mojdeh S Heavner, Jeffrey P Gonzales, Kimberly C Claeys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Beta-lactam antibiotics are commonly prescribed in critically ill patients for a variety of infectious conditions. Our understanding of how critical illness alters beta-lactam pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) is rapidly evolving. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a growing body of literature in adult patients demonstrating that physiological alterations occurring in critically ill patients may limit our ability to optimally dose beta-lactam antibiotics to reach these PK/PD targets...
April 4, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619292/rate-of-antibiotic-prescriptions-in-german-outpatient-care-are-the-guidelines-followed-or-are-they-still-exceeded
#19
Janine Zweigner, Elisabeth Meyer, Petra Gastmeier, Frank Schwab
Aim: The consequences of antibiotic overuse are substantial. We combined and analyzed the infection diagnoses and antibiotic prescribing practices of physicians in outpatient settings. Recommendations for targeting policy efforts to focused areas are given. Methods: Antibiotic prescriptions and infections diagnosed were provided by a German statutory health insurance provider over a 12-month period. Antibiotic use was expressed as prescriptions per 100 patients. Results: 2,594,000 patient-physician contacts within twelve months were analyzed...
2018: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619213/pet-owner-and-vet-interactions-exploring-the-drivers-of-amr
#20
Matt Smith, Caroline King, Mark Davis, Adele Dickson, Jeni Park, Fraser Smith, Kay Currie, Paul Flowers
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing public health problem across the world. As the negative consequences of AMR become apparent at local, national and international levels, more attention is being focussed on the variety of mechanisms by which AMR is potentiated. We explore how interactions between pet owners and veterinarians represent a key arena in which AMR-related behaviours can be shaped. Methods: In depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with pet owners ( n  = 23) and vets ( n  = 16) across the UK in 2017...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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