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Oral rehydration therapy

S A Sarker, B Berger, Y Deng, S Kieser, F Foata, D Moine, P Descombes, S Sultana, S Huq, P K Bardhan, V Vuillet, F Praplan, H Brüssow
A T4-like coliphage cocktail was given with different oral doses to healthy Bangladeshi children in a placebo-controlled randomized phase I safety trial. Fecal phage detection was oral dose dependent suggesting passive gut transit of coliphages through the gut. No adverse effects of phage application were seen clinically and by clinical chemistry. Similar results were obtained for a commercial phage preparation (Coliproteus from Microgen/Russia). By 16S rRNA gene sequencing only a low degree of fecal microbiota conservation was seen in healthy children from Bangladesh who were sampled over a time interval of 7 days suggesting a substantial temporal fluctuation of the fecal microbiota composition...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
J V Pai Dhungat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mojtaba Kianmehr, Ashraf Saber, Jalil Moshari, Reza Ahmadi, Mahdi Basiri-Moghadam
BACKGROUND: The world health organization guidelines for treatment of diarrhea in children emphasize on continued feeding together with prescription of oral rehydration solution (ORS) and supplementary zinc therapy. However, conflicting viewpoints exist regarding the optimal diet and dietary ingredients for children with diarrhea. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effect of rice soup along with ORS in the treatment of this disease. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore effects of simultaneous taking of glucose oral rehydration solution (G-ORS) and rice soup in the treatment of acute diarrhea in 8 to 24-month-old children...
June 2016: Nursing and Midwifery Studies
Samuel D Shillcutt, Amnesty E LeFevre, Christa L Fischer Walker, Sunita Taneja, Robert E Black, Sarmila Mazumder
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of mortality among young children in India although few receive the recommended treatment. The diarrhoea alleviation through zinc and oral rehydration salts (ORS) therapy (DAZT) team initiated a programme in Gujarat from 2011 to 2013 to increase coverage of these interventions through public and private providers at scale. This study evaluates the economic impact of diarrhoea to caregivers before and after the introduction of zinc and ORS at scale through the DAZT programme...
July 31, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
Kathryn Volpicelli, Alison M Buttenheim
Objectives Diarrheal disease is a significant cause of morbidity among children in Peru. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a cost-effective evidence-based approach to treat diarrhea in young children, yet many Peruvian children in poorer households do not receive this life-saving treatment. This study investigates the social determinants of care-seeking behavior and utilization of appropriate home treatment for diarrheal episodes. Methods We used the nationally-representative 2008 Peru Demographic and Health Survey to: (1) describe the burden of non-bloody diarrheal disease among children <5 years old; and (2) identify socioeconomic correlates of care-seeking behavior and utilization/appropriateness of treatment among mothers of children with recent non-bloody diarrheal episodes (N = 1365)...
July 23, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
E Tomasik, E Ziółkowska, M Kołodziej, H Szajewska
BACKGROUND: Vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis is a common symptom, and it is considered to be the main cause of failure of oral rehydration therapy. AIM: To systematically update evidence on the effects of ondansetron (5-HT3 serotonin antagonist) for vomiting in children with acute gastroenteritis. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched up to April 2016, with no language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs)...
September 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Rebecca A Carson, Shawna S Mudd, P Jamil Madati
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common illness in childhood that usually can be treated in the outpatient setting. Inaccurate assessment or delayed treatment of AGE can lead to an increased risk for invasive interventions. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL Plus, the Cochrane Library, and Embase. Results of the query were refined to narrow the focus of relevant studies for the provider caring for dehydrated children in the outpatient setting. Use of clinical dehydration scales to assess the level of dehydration and early initiation of oral rehydration therapy promote optimal patient outcomes...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Suvag Patnaik, Mitali Nanda, Jose Tiburicio
Intravenous fluid therapy (IVF) has a slightly lower failure rate than oral replacement therapy (ORT) in children with acute gastroenteritis, but the clinical significance is questionable. IVF takes longer to initiate than ORT and lengthens the hospital stay.
April 2016: Journal of Family Practice
Shafiqul A Sarker, Harald Brüssow
Over the last 20 years, the Nestlé Research Center in Switzerland and the International Center for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research in Bangladesh have explored the efficacy of alternative biological agents for the treatment of diarrheal diseases. This paper reviews the work of this collaborative effort, particularly on Escherichia coli phage therapy (PT), and discusses the development of the project, starting with the isolation of T4-like coliphages from the stool of diarrhea patients, their pilot plant amplification and purification, and the constitution and testing of a cocktail of T4-like phages in mice...
May 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Stephen B Freedman, Andrew R Willan, Kathy Boutis, Suzanne Schuh
IMPORTANCE: Gastroenteritis is a common pediatric illness. Electrolyte maintenance solution is recommended to treat and prevent dehydration. Its advantage in minimally dehydrated children is unproven. OBJECTIVE: To determine if oral hydration with dilute apple juice/preferred fluids is noninferior to electrolyte maintenance solution in children with mild gastroenteritis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized, single-blind noninferiority trial conducted between the months of October and April during the years 2010 to 2015 in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department in Toronto, Ontario, Canada...
May 10, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Idowu O Senbanjo, Chin Lye Ch'ng, Stephen J Allen
BACKGROUND: Mortality from acute diarrhoea and dehydration (AD/D) in children is high despite existing management guidelines. AIM: The aim of this study was to identify deficiencies in the management of AD/D by health staff and assess changes in management after a training intervention in a paediatric referral facility in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODS: In a retrospective review of case notes, the management of AD/D was assessed using WHO guidelines as the standard...
January 29, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Jenny Liu, Lisa M Prach, Emily Treleaven, Mara Hansen, Jennifer Anyanti, Temple Jagha, Vince Seaman, Olufemi Ajumobi, Chinwoke Isiguzo
OBJECTIVE: To characterize patent and proprietary medicine vendors and shops in Nigeria and to assess their ability to help improve access to high-quality, primary health-care services. METHODS: In 2013 and 2014, a census of patent and proprietary medicine shops in 16 states of Nigeria was carried out to determine: (i) the size and coverage of the sector; (ii) the basic characteristics of shops and their staff; and (iii) the range of products stocked for priority health services, particularly for malaria, diarrhoea and family planning...
April 1, 2016: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Sam Xianjun Cheng
Management of acute diarrhea remains a global challenge, particularly in resource-limiting countries. Oral rehydration solution (ORS), a passive rehydrating therapy developed approximately 40 years ago, remains the mainstay treatment. Although ORS is effective for hydration, since it does not inhibit enterotoxin-mediated excessive secretion, reduced absorption and compromised barrier function - the primary mechanisms of diarrhea, ORS does not offer a rapid relief of diarrhea symptom. There are a few alternative therapies available, yet the use of these drugs is limited by their expense, lack of availability and/or safety concerns...
March 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hwa-Young Lee, Nguyen Van Huy, Sugy Choi
BACKGROUND: Despite significant achievements in health indicators during previous decades, Vietnam lags behind other developing countries in reducing common early childhood illnesses, such as diarrhea and respiratory infections. To date, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the prevalence and treatment of childhood morbidity in Vietnam. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the determinants of diarrhea and 'illness with a cough' and treatments for each of the conditions among young children in Vietnam, and describes trends over time...
2016: Global Health Action
Junya Sato, Naoto Morikawa, Hiroo Nitanai, Hiromi Nagashima, Satoru Nihei, Kohei Yamauti, Kenzo Kudo
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin (CDDP) is used as a key anticancer drug for solid cancers, including lung cancer. However, a large quantity of fluid replacement is required to prevent renal dysfunction. This requirement have made outpatient chemotherapies including CDDP administration less popular among the available therapeutic options. We designed a short-term hydration regimen combined with oral rehydration solution (ORS) that has a supplementary water ability equivalent to intravenous electrolyte maintenance infusion and investigated its safety and feasibility in the CDDP including chemotherapy...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences
Fatihi Hassan Soliman Toaimah, Hala Mohammad Fathi Mohammad
BACKGROUND: Rapid intravenous (IV) rehydration is commonly used for the management of pediatric gastroenteritis in the emergency department. The current practice shows wide variation in the volume and rate of rapid IV hydration. The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of rapid IV rehydration compared with standard method in children with gastroenteritis. METHOD: MEDLINE (1946-2014), EMBASE (1974-2014), and CENTRAL via the Cochrane Library (Issue 8, 2014) were systematically searched to identify eligible studies...
February 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Allison Bahm, Stephen B Freedman, Jun Guan, Astrid Guttmann
OBJECTIVE: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading cause of pediatric emergency department (ED) visits. Despite evidence-based guidelines, variation in adherence exists. Clinical decision tools can enhance evidence-based care, but little is known about their use and effectiveness in pediatric AGE. This study sought to determine if the following tools-1) pathways/order sets, 2) medical directives for oral rehydration therapy (ORT) or ondansetron, and 3) printed discharge instructions-are associated with AGE admission and ED revisits...
May 2016: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Ivan D Florez, Reem Al-Khalifah, Javier M Sierra, Claudia M Granados, Juan J Yepes-Nuñez, Carlos Cuello-Garcia, Giordano Perez-Gaxiola, Adriana M Zea, Gilma N Hernandez, Areti-Angeliki Veroniki, Gordon H Guyatt, Lehana Thabane
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis (AD/AGE) are common among children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC). Supportive therapy including maintaining feeding, prevention of dehydration, and use of oral rehydration solution (ORS), is the mainstay of treatment in all children. Several additional treatments aiming to reduce the episode duration have been compared to placebo, but the differences in effectiveness among them are unknown...
2016: Systematic Reviews
Ole Frithjof Norheim
This article discusses what ethicists have called "unacceptable trade-offs" in health policy choices related to universal health coverage (UHC). Since the fiscal space is constrained, trade-offs need to be made. But some trade-offs are unacceptable on the path to universal coverage. Unacceptable choices include, among other examples from low-income countries, to expand coverage for services with lower priority such as coronary bypass surgery before securing universal coverage for high-priority services such as skilled birth attendance and services for easily preventable or treatable fatal childhood diseases...
2015: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Arun Singh Danewa, Dheeraj Shah, Prerna Batra, Swapan Kumar Bhattacharya, Piyush Gupta
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of oral ondansetron in facilitating successful rehydration of under-5-year-old children suffering from acute diarrhea with vomiting and some dehydration. STUDY DESIGN: Children (n = 170) aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea with vomiting and some dehydration were enrolled in this double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The participants were randomized to receive either single dose of oral ondansetron (n = 85) or placebo (n = 85) in addition to standard management of dehydration according to World Health Organization guidelines...
February 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
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