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Risk Prediction model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783277/how-safe-is-safe-enough-for-self-driving-vehicles
#1
Peng Liu, Run Yang, Zhigang Xu
Self-driving vehicles (SDVs) promise to considerably reduce traffic crashes. One pressing concern facing the public, automakers, and governments is "How safe is safe enough for SDVs?" To answer this question, a new expressed-preference approach was proposed for the first time to determine the socially acceptable risk of SDVs. In our between-subject survey (N = 499), we determined the respondents' risk-acceptance rate of scenarios with varying traffic-risk frequencies to examine the logarithmic relationships between the traffic-risk frequency and risk-acceptance rate...
May 21, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783231/allergenic-weed-pollen-forecast-under-the-mathematical-modeling-method-implementation-in-ukraine
#2
Irina I Motruk, Michael Yu Antomonov, Victoria V Rodinkova, Olena E Aleksandrova, Oleh V Yermishev
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Allergies are the most common reason of the chronic diseases in developed countries and represent an important medical, social and economic issue, the relevance of which is growing both in these countries and in Ukraine. The most famous of these allergens group is the pollen of ambrosia and pollen of poaceae, which are ubiquitously distributed in the subtropical and temperate climate. The aim: The objective of our study was to develop the mathematical models, which will be able to indicate the probability of the pollen circulation, and thus these models can simplify the forecast of symptoms risk and improve the prophylaxis of pollinosis...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783161/candidate-gene-analysis-in-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-epidemiologic-sleep-study-episono-shows-an-association-of-variant-in-pde4d-and-sleepiness
#3
Victoria M Pak, Diego R Mazzotti, Brendan T Keenan, Camila Hirotsu, Philip Gehrman, Lia Bittencourt, Allan I Pack, Sergio Tufik
INTRODUCTION: Sleepiness and cardiovascular disease share common molecular pathways; thus, genetic risk factors for sleepiness may also predict cardiovascular disease risk. This study explored the associations between subjective sleepiness and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes within oxidative stress, inflammatory, and neuronal pathways, which may contribute to sleepiness and downstream cardiovascular disease risk: Cytochrome B-245, Alpha Polypeptide (CYBA), Cytochrome B-245, Beta Polypeptide (CYBB), Neutrophil Cytosolic Factor (NCF2), Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha (TNFA), and Phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D)...
January 12, 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783106/prediction-of-the-combined-effects-of-multiple-estrogenic-chemicals-on-mcf-7-human-breast-cancer-cells-and-a-preliminary-molecular-exploration-of-the-estrogenic-proliferative-effects-and-related-gene-expression
#4
Shengwu Yuan, Chao Huang, Xiaoya Ji, Mei Ma, Kaifeng Rao, Zijian Wang
The environmental risks of environmental estrogens (EEs) are often assessed via the same mode of action in the concentration addition (CA) model, neglecting the complex combined mechanisms at the genetic level. In this study, the cell proliferation effects of estrone, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol, diethylstilbestrol, estradiol valerate, bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol were determined individually using the CCK-8 method, and the proliferation effects of a multicomponent mixture of estrogenic chemicals mixed at equipotent concentrations using a fixed-ratio design were studied using estrogen-sensitive MCF-7 cells...
May 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783079/altered-neural-encoding-of-prediction-errors-in-assault-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#5
Marisa C Ross, Jennifer K Lenow, Clinton D Kilts, Josh M Cisler
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is widely associated with deficits in extinguishing learned fear responses, which relies on mechanisms of reinforcement learning (e.g., updating expectations based on prediction errors). However, the degree to which PTSD is associated with impairments in general reinforcement learning (i.e., outside of the context of fear stimuli) remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate brain and behavioral differences in general reinforcement learning between adult women with and without a current diagnosis of PTSD...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782997/measurement-error-and-timing-of-predictor-values-for-multivariable-risk-prediction-models-are-poorly-reported
#6
REVIEW
Rebecca Whittle, George Peat, John Belcher, Gary S Collins, Richard D Riley
OBJECTIVE: Measurement error in predictor variables may threaten the validity of clinical prediction models. We sought to evaluate the possible extent of the problem. A secondary objective was to examine whether predictors are measured at the intended moment of model use. METHODS: A systematic search of Medline was used to identify a sample of articles reporting the development of a clinical prediction model published in 2015. After screening according to a predefined inclusion criteria, information on predictors, strategies to control for measurement error and intended moment of model use were extracted...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782862/evaluation-of-cardiac-arrhythmic-risks-using-a-rabbit-model-of-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction
#7
Bianca Hemmeryckx, Yuanbo Feng, Liesbeth Frederix, Marleen Lox, Sander Trenson, Rob Vreeken, Hua Rong Lu, David Gallacher, Yicheng Ni, H Roger Lijnen
Patients with heart disease have a higher risk to develop cardiac arrhythmias, either spontaneously or drug-induced. In this study, we have used a rabbit model of myocardial infarction (MI) with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) to study potential drug-induced cardiac risks with N-(piperidin-2-ylmethyl)-2,5-bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)benzamide (flecainide). Upon ligation of the left circumflex arteries, male New Zealand White rabbits developed a large MI and moderate or severe LVSD 7 weeks after surgery, in comparison to SHAM-operated animals...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782650/predicting-obstructive-coronary-artery-disease-using-carotid-ultrasound-parameters-a-nomogram-from-a-large-real-world-clinical-data
#8
Na Wu, Xinghua Chen, Mingyang Li, Xiaolong Qu, Yueli Li, Weijia Xie, Long Wu, Ying Xiang, Yafei Li, Li Zhong
BACKGROUND: Carotid ultrasound is a non-invasive tool for risk assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). There is no consensus on which carotid ultrasound parameter constitutes the best measurement of atherosclerosis. We investigated which model of carotid ultrasound parameters and clinical risk factors (CRF) have the highest predictive value for CAD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 2431 consecutive patients who have suspected CAD and underwent coronary angiography and carotid ultrasound with measurements of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), total number of plaques and areas of different types of plaques classified by echogenicity...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782519/increased-circulating-microrna-122-is-a-biomarker-for-discrimination-and-risk-stratification-in-patients-defined-by-sepsis-3-criteria
#9
Tim Rahmel, Simon T Schäfer, Ulrich H Frey, Michael Adamzik, Jürgen Peters
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is now operationally defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by an infection, identified by an acute change in SOFA-Score of at least two points, including clinical chemistry such as creatinine or bilirubin concentrations. However, little knowledge exists about organ-specific microRNAs as potentially new biomarkers. Accordingly, we tested the hypotheses that micro-RNA-122, the foremost liver-related micro-RNA (miR), 1) discriminates between sepsis and infection, 2) is an early predictor for mortality, and 3) improves the prognostic value of the SOFA-score...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782500/the-human-snail-transmission-environment-shapes-long-term-schistosomiasis-control-outcomes-implications-for-improving-the-accuracy-of-predictive-modeling
#10
David Gurarie, Nathan C Lo, Martial L Ndeffo-Mbah, David P Durham, Charles H King
INTRODUCTION: Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic trematode disease that affects over 240 million people worldwide. The Schistosoma lifecycle is complex, involving transmission via specific intermediate-host freshwater snails. Predictive mathematical models of Schistosoma transmission have often chosen to simplify or ignore the details of environmental human-snail interaction in their analyses. Schistosome transmission models now aim to provide better precision for policy planning of elimination of transmission...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782486/clinical-socioeconomic-and-behavioural-factors-at-age-50-years-and-risk-of-cardiometabolic-multimorbidity-and-mortality-a-cohort-study
#11
Archana Singh-Manoux, Aurore Fayosse, Séverine Sabia, Adam Tabak, Martin Shipley, Aline Dugravot, Mika Kivimäki
BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is increasingly common and is associated with adverse health outcomes, highlighting the need to broaden the single-disease framework that dominates medical research. We examined the role of midlife clinical characteristics, socioeconomic position, and behavioural factors in the development of cardiometabolic multimorbidity (at least 2 of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke), along with how these factors modify risk of mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on 8,270 men and women were drawn from the Whitehall II cohort study, with mean follow-up of 23...
May 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782396/risk-factors-for-delays-in-adjuvant-chemotherapy-following-immediate-breast-reconstruction
#12
Oriana Cohen, Gretl Lam, Mihye Choi, Daniel Ceradini, Nolan Karp
BACKGROUND: Concerns exist that immediate breast reconstruction may delay adjuvant chemotherapy initiation, impacting oncologic outcomes. Here, we determine how post-operative complications impact chemotherapy timing, and identify factors associated with greater risk for delays. METHODS: Retrospective chart review identified patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction and adjuvant chemotherapy at a single institution from 2010 to 2015. Patients were analyzed based on occurrence of post-operative complications and time to chemotherapy...
May 15, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782393/clinical-and-prognostic-value-of-18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-restaging-of-pancreatic-cancer
#13
Domenico Albano, Demetrio Familiari, Roberta Gentile, Salvatore Scalisi, Federico Midiri, Marco Messina, Massimiliano Spada, Maria C Fornito, Massimo Galia, Massimo Midiri, Pierpaolo Alongi
AIM: The aim of this retrospective multicentre study was to evaluate the clinical and prognostic effect of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-PET/computed tomography (CT) in the restaging process of pancreatic cancer (PC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from patients treated for primary PC, who underwent F-FDG-PET/CT for suspicious of disease progression, were collected. Accuracy was assessed employing conventional diagnostic procedures, multidisciplinary team case notes, further F-FDG-PET/CT scans and/or follow-up...
May 18, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781918/health-self-empowerment-theory-predicting-health-behaviors-and-bmi-in-culturally-diverse-adults
#14
Carolyn M Tucker, Julia Roncoroni, Guillermo M Wippold, Michael Marsiske, Delphia J Flenar, Kristin Hultgren
Health Self-Empowerment Theory asserts that 5 controllable psychological variables predict engagement in health-promoting behaviors. This study tests the theoretical integrity of Health Self-Empowerment Theory and its usefulness in predicting health-promoting behaviors and body mass index. Results from surveying 189 predominantly low-income, overweight/obese, and culturally diverse adults showed that most Health Self-Empowerment Theory variables were positively correlated. Structural equation modeling showed that 4 variables significantly predicted engagement in health-promoting behaviors, which mediated the relationships between body mass index and (a) motivation, (b) health self-efficacy, and (c) self-praise...
July 2018: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781896/burnout-among-us-military-behavioral-health-providers
#15
Shaun Stearns, Kotaro Shoji, Charles C Benight
The present study investigated the prevalence of burnout among US military behavioral health providers (BHPs) and tested a mechanism of developing burnout in a job demands-resources model. Surveys were sent to BHPs working with US military populations globally (T1). Six months after, surveys were collected again at T2. In total, 271 providers completed T1, and 116 completed T2. The job demands-resources model showed that T1 burnout self-efficacy and support predicted T2 burnout and work engagement. T1 job demands predicted T2 burnout...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781836/relationship-between-left-main-coronary-artery-plaque-burden-and-nonleft-main-coronary-atherosclerosis-results-from-the-prospect-study
#16
Takehisa Shimizu, Gary S Mintz, Bernard De Bruyne, Naim Z Farhat, Shinji Inaba, Yang Cao, Steven P Marso, Giora Weisz, Patrick W Serruys, Gregg W Stone, Akiko Maehara
OBJECTIVES: Whether the severity of left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease reflects LMCA and overall coronary atherosclerotic burden is not known. We aimed to assess nonculprit LMCA disease characteristics and the relationship with atherosclerosis in the rest of the coronary arteries as well as patient outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the PROSPECT study, 697 patients with acute coronary syndromes underwent three-vessel gray-scale and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound after percutaneous coronary intervention...
May 17, 2018: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781417/gender-differences-in-the-association-between-marital-status-and-hypertension-in-ghana
#17
Derek Anamaale Tuoyire, Harold Ayetey
SummaryHypertension is a significant contributor to the global burden of cardiovascular and related target organ diseases such as heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke and kidney failure, and their associated premature morbidity, mortality and disability. Marital status is an important social characteristic known to predict a range of health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about its impact on hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa. This study explored the relationship between marital status and hypertension among women and men in Ghana...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781233/fit-guts-reduced-models-online-from-theory-to-practice
#18
Virgile Baudrot, Philippe Veber, Guillaume Gence, Sandrine Charles
Mechanistic modelling approaches, as the toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) framework, are promoted by international institutions as EFSA and OECD to assess the environmental risk of chemical products generated by human activities. TKTD models can encompass a large set of mechanisms describing the kinetics of compounds inside organisms (e.g. uptake and elimination) and their effect at the level of individuals (e.g. damage accrual, recovery and death mechanism). Compared to classical dose-response models, TKTD approaches have many advantages as taking into account temporal aspects of exposure and toxicity, considering data-points all along the experiment and not only at the end, and making predictions for untested situations as realistic exposure scenarios...
May 20, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781139/early-gesture-use-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#19
L Rague, K Caravella, B Tonnsen, J Klusek, J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) exhibit abnormal gesture use early in development, although few studies have investigated the emergence of gesture use in this population or the impact of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) features on these behaviours. The present study examined the longitudinal development of gesture use in infants with FXS relative to low-risk controls and infant siblings of children with ASD (high-risk siblings), with the goal of establishing potentially unique patterns of gesture development in infants with FXS and understanding the relative impact of ASD symptom severity on these patterns...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781094/a-new-model-to-predict-risk-of-nonsentinel-lymph-node-status-in-chinese-sentinel-lymph-node-positive-patients-after-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy
#20
Yang Yang, Yingjian He, Zhaoqing Fan, Yiqiang Liu, Tao Ouyang
There is no previous predictive model to assess risk of nonsentinel lymph node metastases (NSLN) in sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAT). Our goal was to develop a new predictive model for SLN-positive patients after NAT, and validate this new model. A series of 513 patients with metastases in SLN who received NAT were used to evaluate factors affecting NSLN status. Logistic regression analysis was performed to develop a predictive model, which was validated by a subsequent prospective 138 patients...
May 20, 2018: Breast Journal
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