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Risk Prediction model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931220/race-ethnicity-and-the-pharmacogenetics-of-reported-suicidality-with-efavirenz-among-clinical-trials-participants
#1
Katie R Mollan, Camlin Tierney, Jacklyn N Hellwege, Joseph J Eron, Michael G Hudgens, Roy M Gulick, Richard Haubrich, Paul E Sax, Thomas B Campbell, Eric S Daar, Kevin R Robertson, Diana Ventura, Qing Ma, Digna R Velez Edwards, David W Haas
Background: We examined associations between suicidality and genotypes that predict plasma efavirenz exposure among AIDS Clinical Trials Group study participants in the United States. Methods: Four clinical trials randomly assigned treatment-naive participants to efavirenz-containing regimens; suicidality was defined as reported suicidal ideation or attempted or completed suicide. Genotypes that predict plasma efavirenz exposure were defined by CYP2B6 and CYP2A6 polymorphisms...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931089/advanced-glycation-end-products-dietary-restriction-effects-on-bacterial-gut-microbiota-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-a-randomized-open-label-controlled-trial
#2
Rabi Yacoub, Melinda Nugent, Weijin Cai, Girish N Nadkarni, Lee D Chaves, Sham Abyad, Amanda M Honan, Shruthi A Thomas, Wei Zheng, Sujith A Valiyaparambil, Mark A Bryniarski, Yijun Sun, Michael Buck, Robert J Genco, Richard J Quigg, John C He, Jaime Uribarri
The modern Western diet is rich in advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We have previously shown an association between dietary AGEs and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in a population of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). In the current pilot study we explored the effects of dietary AGEs on the gut bacterial microbiota composition in similar patients. AGEs play an important role in the development and progression of cardiovascular (CVD) disease. Plasma concentrations of different bacterial products have been shown to predict the risk of incident major adverse CVD events independently of traditional CVD risk factors, and experimental animal models indicates a possible role AGEs might have on the gut microbiota population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931051/interleukin-17-positive-mast-cells-influence-outcomes-from-bcg-for-patients-with-cis-data-from-a-comprehensive-characterisation-of-the-immune-microenvironment-of-urothelial-bladder-cancer
#3
Alexander C Dowell, Ellen Cobby, Kaisheng Wen, Adam J Devall, Vinnie During, Jane Anderson, Nicholas D James, Kar K Cheng, Maurice P Zeegers, Richard T Bryan, Graham S Taylor
The tumour immune microenvironment is considered to influence cancer behaviour and outcome. Using a panel of markers for innate and adaptive immune cells we set out to characterise and understand the bladder tumour microenvironment of 114 patients from a prospective multicentre cohort of newly-diagnosed bladder cancer patients, followed-up for 4.33±1.71 years. We found IL-17-positive cells were significantly increased in primary and concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS), p<0.0001, a highly malignant lesion which is the most significant single risk factor for disease progression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930918/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-predicts-death-in-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-patients-admitted-to-the-intensive-care-unit-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Nicolas Moreau, Xavier Wittebole, Yvan Fleury, Patrice Forget, Pierre-François Laterre, Castanares-Zapatero Diego
The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an inflammation score recognized as associated with outcome. While inflammation has been shown to correlate with the development of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), we sought to investigate the role of NLR in predicting 90-day mortality in cirrhotic patients experiencing ACLF.We performed a retrospective cohort study involving a total of 108 consecutive cirrhotic patients admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU). NLR, clinical and biological data were recorded...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930855/distal-adding-on-phenomenon-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-patients-with-thoracolumbar-vertebra-fusion-a-case-control-study
#5
Wei Xu, Chao Chen, Yifan Li, Changwei Yang, Ming Li, Zhikun Li, Xiaodong Zhu
The adding-on phenomenon is a common complication in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients after correction surgery. However, the risk factors of previous studies and the optimal treatment strategies remain controversial. The aim of this study was to identify new risk factors for the adding-on phenomenon after posterior correction surgery in AIS patients and compare different treatment strategies to guide the selection of the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV).All types of Lenke AIS patients who received correction surgery at our center from January 2009 to July 2014 were analyzed...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930807/breadth-of-genetic-testing-selected-by-patients-at-risk-of-hereditary-breast-and-ovarian-cancer
#6
J Brian Szender, Jasmine Kaur, Katherine Clayback, Mollie L Hutton, June Mikkelson, Kunle Odunsi, Cara Dresbold
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of patients at risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome to select the extent of genetic testing personally preferred and the impact of demographic factors on the breadth of testing pursued. METHODS: A single-institution cohort was enumerated consisting of patients referred for clinical genetic counseling secondary to risk of HBOC syndrome. This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients seen for genetic counseling; all patients completed an epidemiologic questionnaire and provided personal and family medical histories...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930751/dementia-predicting-cognitive-risk-score-and-its-correlation-with-cortical-thickness-in-parkinson-disease
#7
Byoung Seok Ye, Seun Jeon, Jee Hyun Ham, Jae Jung Lee, Jong Min Lee, Hye Sun Lee, Phil Hyu Lee, Young H Sohn
BACKGROUND: We developed a risk score system to predict risks of developing dementia in individual Parkinson disease (PD) patients using baseline neuropsychological tests. METHODS: A total of 216 nondemented PD patients underwent a baseline neuropsychological evaluation and were followed up for a mean of 2.7 (±1.1) years. Univariate Cox regression models controlled for age, gender, and education selected neuropsychological tests individually predicting dementia risk...
September 21, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930697/overexpression-of-muc1-and-genomic-alterations-in-its-network-associate-with-prostate-cancer-progression
#8
Xiaozeng Lin, Yan Gu, Anil Kapoor, Fengxiang Wei, Tariq Aziz, Diane Ojo, Yanzhi Jiang, Michael Bonert, Bobby Shayegan, Huixiang Yang, Khalid Al-Nedawi, Pierre Major, Damu Tang
We investigate the association of MUC1 with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), bone metastasis, and PC recurrence. MUC1 expression was studied in patient-derived bone metastasis and CRPCs produced by prostate-specific PTEN(-/-) mice and LNCaP xenografts. Elevations in MUC1 expression occur in CRPC. Among nine patients with hormone-naïve bone metastasis, eight express MUC1 in 61% to 100% of PC cells. Utilizing cBioPortal PC genomic data, we organized a training (n=300), testing (n=185), and validation (n=194) cohort...
September 17, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930297/estimated-radiation-exposure-of-german-commercial-airline-cabin-crew-in-the-years-1960-2003-modeled-using-dose-registry-data-for-2004-2015
#9
Daniel Wollschläger, Gaël Paul Hammer, Thomas Schafft, Steffen Dreger, Maria Blettner, Hajo Zeeb
Exposure to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin is an occupational risk factor in commercial aircrew. In a historic cohort of 26,774 German aircrew, radiation exposure was previously estimated only for cockpit crew using a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Here, a new method for retrospectively estimating cabin crew dose is developed. The German Federal Radiation Registry (SSR) documents individual monthly effective doses for all aircrew. SSR-provided doses on 12,941 aircrew from 2004 to 2015 were used to model cabin crew dose as a function of age, sex, job category, solar activity, and male pilots' dose; the mean annual effective dose was 2...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930066/alcohol-policies-and-alcohol-involved-homicide-victimization-in-the-united-states
#10
Timothy S Naimi, Ziming Xuan, Sharon M Coleman, Marlene C Lira, Scott E Hadland, Susanna E Cooper, Timothy C Heeren, Monica H Swahn
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the alcohol policy environment and alcohol involvement in homicide victims in the United States, overall and by sociodemographic groups. METHOD: To characterize the alcohol policy environment, the presence, efficacy, and degree of implementation of 29 alcohol policies were used to determine Alcohol Policy Scale (APS) scores by state and year. Data about homicide victims from 17 states from 2003 to 2012 were obtained from the National Violent Death Reporting System...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930062/single-motherhood-alcohol-dependence-and-smoking-during-pregnancy-a-propensity-score-analysis
#11
Mary Waldron, Kathleen K Bucholz, Min Lian, Christina N Lessov-Schlaggar, Ruth Huang Miller, Michael T Lynskey, Valerie S Knopik, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath
OBJECTIVE: Few studies linking single motherhood and maternal smoking during pregnancy consider correlated risk from problem substance use beyond history of smoking and concurrent use of alcohol. In the present study, we used propensity score methods to examine whether the risk of smoking during pregnancy associated with single motherhood is the result of potential confounders, including alcohol dependence. METHOD: Data were drawn from mothers participating in a birth cohort study of their female like-sex twin offspring (n = 257 African ancestry; n = 1,711 European or other ancestry)...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930046/canadian-benchmarks-for-acute-injury-care
#12
Lynne Moore, David Evans, Natalie L Yanchar, Jaimini Thakore, Henry Thomas Stelfox, Sayed Morad Hameed, Richard Simons, John Kortbeek, Julien Clément, François Lauzier, Alexis F Turgeon
BACKGROUND: Acute care injury outcomes vary substantially across Canadian provinces and trauma centres. Our aim was to develop Canadian benchmarks to monitor mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS) for injury admissions. METHODS: Benchmarks were derived using data from the Canadian National Trauma Registry on patients with major trauma admitted to any level I or II trauma centre in Canada and from the following patient subgroups: isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI), isolated thoracoabdominal injury, multisystem blunt injury, age 65 years or older...
October 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929716/-developing-an-algorithm-based-on-health-and-social-sources-to-stratify-general-population-in-different-levels-of-health-socio-sanitary-frailty-and-disability
#13
Laura Andreoni, Antonio Giampiero Russo
OBJECTIVES: to describe an innovative algorithm to classify the general population, in homogeneous groups of severity and complexity of disease and real needs, by using three dimensions: health, frailty, and disability. DESIGN: retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study includes the population covered by the Agency for health protection of Metropolitan Area of Milan (3,4 million of habitants). We identified two cohorts of residents: the first at 01...
May 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929715/-evaluation-of-the-use-of-the-socioeconomic-deprivation-index-at-area-level-in-ecological-studies-on-environment-and-health
#14
Fabrizio Minichilli, Michele Santoro, Fabrizio Bianchi, Nicola Caranci, Marco De Santis, Roberto Pasetto
BACKGROUND: in SENTIERI surveillance system, the health risk assessment in the contaminated sites (CSs) was carried out considering the socioeconomic deprivation index (ID-SENTIERI) at the municipal level as a confounder. Pasetto et al. discussed the use of IDs in ecological studies and proposed to examine the role of ID-SENTIERI as a confounder. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the initial conditions necessary for the role of confounding, i.e., the verification of an association of the ID-SENTIERI with the risk of some of the diseases for which evidence of a relationship with the socioeconomic state (SES) is documented in the literature...
May 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929352/the-relative-sensitivity-of-freshwater-species-to-antimony-iii-implications-for-water-quality-guidelines-and-ecological-risk-assessments
#15
Maximilian Obinna Obiakor, Matthew Tighe, Zhen Wang, Chigozie Damian Ezeonyejiaku, Lily Pereg, Susan C Wilson
Antimony (Sb) is a pollutant in many jurisdictions, yet its threat to aquatic biota is unclear. Water quality guidelines (WQGs) for Sb are not well established and large uncertainty factors are commonly applied in derivation. We constructed freshwater species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for Sb(III) using available acute toxicity data sourced from temperate and tropical regional studies. A tiered ecological risk assessment (ERA) approach using risk quotients (RQs) was applied for characterisation of risks presented by Sb(III) concentrations measured in the freshwater environment...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928720/potential-risk-areas-of-aedes-albopictus-in-south-eastern-iran-a-vector-of-dengue-fever-zika-and-chikungunya
#16
Jalil Nejati, Rubén Bueno-Marí, Francisco Collantes, Ahmad A Hanafi-Bojd, Hassan Vatandoost, Zabihollah Charrahy, Seyed M Tabatabaei, Mohammad R Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Abdolghafar Hasanzehi, Mohammad R Shirzadi, Seyed H Moosa-Kazemi, Mohammad M Sedaghat
The possibility of the rapid and global spread of Zika, chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue fever by Aedes albopictus is well documented and may be facilitated by changes in climate. To avert and manage health risks, climatic and topographic information can be used to model and forecast which areas may be most prone to the establishment of Ae. albopictus. We aimed to weigh and prioritize the predictive value of various meteorological and climatic variables on distributions of Ae. albopictus in south-eastern Iran using the Analytical Hierarchy Process...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928176/controlling-nutritional-status-conut-score-as-a-predictor-of-all-cause-mortality-in-elderly-hypertensive-patients-a-prospective-follow-up-study
#17
Xiaonan Sun, Leiming Luo, Xiaoqian Zhao, Ping Ye
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of nutritional status on survival per Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score and Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) in patients with hypertension over 80 years of age. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 336 hypertensive patients over 80 years old were included in this study. OUTCOME MEASURES: All-cause deaths were recorded as Kaplan-Meier curves to evaluate the association between CONUT and all-cause mortality at follow-up...
September 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927946/validity-and-responsiveness-of-the-frail-scale-in-middle-aged-women
#18
Maja Susanto, Ruth E Hubbard, Paul A Gardiner
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and responsiveness of the FRAIL scale in middle-aged women, who are a group at high risk of developing frailty. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study from 1998 to 2013. SETTING: Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 10,412 women born in 1946-1951 from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). MEASUREMENTS: Frailty was measured by the 5-item FRAIL scale and assessed every 3 years from 1998 to 2013...
September 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927782/development-and-internal-validation-of-prediction-models-for-biochemical-failure-and-composite-failure-after-focal-salvage-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-for-local-radiorecurrent-prostate-cancer-presentation-of-risk-scores-for-individual-patient-prognoses
#19
Max Peters, Abi Kanthabalan, Taimur T Shah, Neil McCartan, Caroline M Moore, Manit Arya, Jochem R van der Voort van Zyp, Marinus A Moerland, Richard G Hindley, Mark Emberton, Hashim U Ahmed
PURPOSE: Patient selection for focal salvage remains difficult. Therefore, we developed and internally validated prediction models for biochemical failure (BF) and a composite endpoint (CE) following focal salvage high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for radiorecurrent prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective HIFU registry identified 150 cases (November 2006-August 2015). Recurrence was assessed with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with template prostate mapping biopsies, targeted biopsies, or systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies...
September 15, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927663/developing-biomarkers-for-predicting-clinical-relapse-in-pemphigus-patients-treated-with-rituximab
#20
Lauren N Albers, Yuan Liu, Na Bo, Robert A Swerlick, Ron J Feldman
BACKGROUND: Rituximab is an effective therapy for pemphigus, although relapses are common. OBJECTIVE: To identify biomarkers to predict relapse of pemphigus following rituximab treatment. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 62 patients with pemphigus treated with 99 rituximab cycles provided longitudinal clinical scoring and biomarker data, including levels of CD19(+) B cells, CD4(+) T cells, and desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) and desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) autoantibodies...
September 16, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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