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Risk Prediction model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156829/mdm4-genetic-variants-predict-hpv16-positive-tumors-of-patients-with-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-oropharynx
#1
Zhongming Lu, Hua Zhang, Ye Tao, Xiangping Li, Guojun Li
The increasing incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (SCCOP) is majorly attributed to the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Both HPV and MDM4 play a critical role in inhibition of p53 activity, thus affecting HPV tumor status of SCCOP. Three polymorphisms in MDM4 were genotyped from blood genomic DNA samples and HPV16 status in tumor specimens was examined. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were calculated for the associations between these polymorphisms and HPV16 status...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156773/association-of-acyp2-and-mphosph6-genetic-polymorphisms-with-the-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-carriers
#2
Yingai Zhang, Shunlan Wang, Xiaohong Wen, Shufang Zhang, Yijun Yang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the dominant histologic type of primary liver cancer, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of HCC in the chronic HBV. Our study was investigated the association between the polymorphisms of ACYP2 and MPHOSPH6 genes and the risk of HCC induced by HBV infection. A total of 490 subjects were divided into two groups: 248 HBV patients with HCC (Case group), and 242 HBV patients without HCC (Control group). Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156759/smoking-and-gender-modify-the-effect-of-twist-on-patient-survival-in-head-and-neck-squamous-carcinoma
#3
Yun Zhu, Wenjuan Zhang, Ping Wang
Purpose: TWIST is a critical factor for predicting prognosis in several human cancers. Here, we study the prognostic significance of TWIST1 and TWIST2 in Head and Neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) as well as interactions of TWISTs with both gender and smoking in patient survival. Methods: upper quartile normalized RNA-seq V2 RSEM values of TWIST1 and TWIST2 expressions were retrieved from a TCGA HNSCC dataset. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to assess the associations of TWIST1 and TWIST2 with patient survival, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazards ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156498/first-things-first-risk-model-performance-metrics-should-reflect-the-clinical-application
#4
Kathleen F Kerr, Holly Janes
Developing new measures of risk model performance is an active line of research, often motivated by the conventional wisdom that area under the ROC curve is an 'insensitive' measure of the additional predictive capacity offered by new biomarkers. Without endorsing area under the ROC curve, we argue that this charge is not substantiated. Three articles in this issue discuss alternative metrics of risk model performance: NRI(p) (two-category net reclassification index at the event rate), integrated discrimination index, and R-squared statistics...
December 10, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156480/-frailty-prevalence-in-the-resident-population-of-germany-70%C3%A2-%C3%A2-79-years-of-age-a-population-based-approach
#5
Judith Fuchs, Markus Busch, Christa Scheidt-Nave
In all countries life expectancy is rising, and many older persons spend a longer period in good health. Nevertheless, frailty is present in older people and can be considered as a risk factor for limitations. The "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) 2008 - 2011 comprised interviews, examinations and tests. Data on 1110 community-dwelling people aged 70 to 79 years participating in DEGS1 with full records on frailty were analysed. Physical frailty was defined as exhaustion (SF-36 item), low grip strength, slowness (Timed Up-and-Go test > 15 seconds or unable to perform) and low physical activity (no sports or exertion)...
November 2017: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156019/the-aspartate-transaminase-alanine-transaminase-deritis-ratio-predicts-mid-term-mortality-and-renal-and-respiratory-dysfunction-after-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation
#6
Kevin Pilarczyk, Henning Carstens, Jens Heckmann, Ali Canbay, Achim Koch, Nikolaus Pizanis, Heinz Jakob, Markus Kamler
OBJECTIVES: Preoperative liver dysfunction is a well-known risk factor for adverse events after major surgery. However, there is only little data regarding the precise role of the Model of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and the De Ritis ratio (DRR, alanine transaminase/aspartate aminotransferase) as a predictor for outcome after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing LVAD implantation at our institution between January 2012 and August 2014 was performed...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156008/urinalysis-for-the-diagnosis-of-glomerulonephritis-role-of-dysmorphic-red-blood-cells
#7
Abdurrahman M Hamadah, Kamel Gharaibeh, Kristin C Mara, Katherine A Thompson, John C Lieske, Samar Said, Samih H Nasr, Nelson Leung
Background: Dysmorphic red blood cells (dRBCs) on urine microscopy have been associated with glomerulonephritis (GN). We assessed the prevalence and ability of dRBCs to differentiate GN from other kidney diseases. Methods: Adult patients with kidney biopsy performed between 2012 and 2015 at a single center who had a concurrent urinalysis were retrospectively studied. The association of ≥25% dRBCs with the presence of glomerular pathology was assessed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed on significantly associated variables...
October 6, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155848/an-electronic-health-record-based-model-predicts-statin-adherence-ldl-cholesterol-and-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-united-states-military-health-system
#8
Joseph E Lucas, Taylor C Bazemore, Celan Alo, Patrick B Monahan, Deepak Voora
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (or "statins") are important and commonly used medications to lower cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular disease. Nearly half of patients stop taking statin medications one year after they are prescribed leading to higher cholesterol, increased cardiovascular risk, and costs due to excess hospitalizations. Identifying which patients are at highest risk for not adhering to long-term statin therapy is an important step towards individualizing interventions to improve adherence. Electronic health records (EHR) are an increasingly common source of data that are challenging to analyze but have potential for generating more accurate predictions of disease risk...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155799/risk-of-prevalent-and-incident-dementia-associated-with-insulin-like-growth-factor-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-3
#9
O P Almeida, G J Hankey, B B Yeap, S A Paul Chubb, J Gollege, L Flicker
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) influences cell proliferation and survival. In the extracellular environment, IGF-1 circulates bound to proteins (IGF-binding proteins; IGFBP), some of which have physiological effects that seem independent of IGF-1, including the brain (for example, IGFBP-3). We completed a systematic review of the association between dementia and IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, and a cross-sectional and longitudinal study designed to investigate if lower plasma concentration of these proteins increased the risk of prevalent and incident dementia...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155735/quantification-of-monocyte-transmigration-and-foam-cell-formation-from-individuals-with-chronic-inflammatory-conditions
#10
Thomas A Angelovich, Anna C Hearps, Anna Maisa, Theodoros Kelesidis, Anthony Jaworowski
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of CAD, is initiated by the transmigration of innate immune monocytes to inflammatory sites of deposited lipid called fatty streaks, which are present in arterial walls of medium to large arteries. The key pathogenic feature of lesions at this early stage of atherosclerosis is the maturation of monocytes which migrate into arteries to form foam cells or lipid-laden macrophages. Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that risk of atherosclerosis is increased by chronic inflammatory conditions accompanying diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and HIV, as well as general ageing, and that this risk is predicted by monocyte activation...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155647/it-does-not-occur-by-chance-a-mediation-model-of-the-influence-of-workers-characteristics-work-environment-factors-and-near-misses-on-agricultural-machinery-related-accidents
#11
Federica Caffaro, Margherita Micheletti Cremasco, Michele Roccato, Eugenio Cavallo
Agriculture is among the most hazardous productive sectors, and farm machinery is a major source of injury. In the present study, a mediated model was used to test the role played by workers' characteristics, work environment factors, and near misses in predicting agricultural machinery-related accidents in a sample of Italian users (n = 290). Hours worked per week (via the mediation of an adverse work environment) showed a positive association and years of work experience (via the mediation of risk perception) showed a negative association with the probability of being involved in a near miss, which in turn showed a positive association with the probability of being involved in a machinery-related accident...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155224/medical-encounter-mental-health-diagnoses-non-fatal-injury-and-polypharmacy-indicators-of-risk-for-accident-death-in-the-us-army-enlisted-soldiers-2004-2009
#12
Lisa Lewandowski-Romps, Heather M Schroeder, Patricia A Berglund, Lisa J Colpe, Kenneth Cox, Keith Hauret, Jeffrey D Hay, Bruce Jones, Roderick J A Little, Colter Mitchell, Michael Schoenbaum, Paul Schulz, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Steven G Heeringa
Accidents are a leading cause of deaths in U.S. active duty personnel. Understanding accident deaths during wartime could facilitate future operational planning and inform risk prevention efforts. This study expands prior research, identifying health risk factors associated with U.S. Army accident deaths during the Afghanistan and Iraq war. Military records for 2004-2009 enlisted, active duty, Regular Army soldiers were analyzed using logistic regression modeling to identify mental health, injury, and polypharmacy (multiple narcotic and/or psychotropic medications) predictors of accident deaths for current, previously, and never deployed groups...
November 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155186/prediction-of-prostate-cancer-risk-among-men-undergoing-combined-mri-targeted-and-systematic-biopsy-using-novel-pre-biopsy-nomograms-that-incorporate-mri-findings
#13
Marc A Bjurlin, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Saradwata Sarkar, Herbert Lepor, William C Huang, Richard Huang, Rajesh Venkataraman, Samir S Taneja
OBJECTIVE: To develop nomograms that predict the probability of overall PCa and clinically significant PCa (Gleason ≥7) on MRI targeted, and combined MRI-targeted and systematic, prostate biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 2012 to August 2014, MR-US fusion targeted prostate biopsy was performed on 464 men with suspicious regions identified on pre-biopsy 3T MRI along with systematic 12 core biopsy. Logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate predictors of overall and clinically significant PCa, and corresponding nomograms were generated for men who were not previously biopsied or had one or more prior negative biopsies...
November 16, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155020/the-uk-dcd-risk-score-a-new-proposal-to-define-futility-in-donation-after-circulatory-death-liver-transplantation
#14
Andrea Schlegel, Marit Kalisvaart, Irene Scalera, Richard W Laing, Hynek Mergental, Darius F Mirza, Thamara Perera, John Isaac, Philipp Dutkowski, Paolo Muiesan
OBJECTIVES: To design a new score on risk assessment in liver transplantation donated after circulatory death (DCD) based on donor and recipient parameters. BACKGROUND: Primary-non-function (PNF) and ischemic cholangiopathy (IC) are the most feared complications following DCD liver transplantation. METHODS: Using the United Kingdom (UK) national DCD database, a risk analysis was performed in adult recipients of DCD liver grafts in UK between 2000 and 2015 (n=1153)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154965/noninvasive-assessment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-clinical-prediction-rules-and-blood-based-biomarkers
#15
REVIEW
Eduardo Vilar-Gomez, Naga Chalasani
The correct identification of patients at increased risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis is a critical step in the assessment of NAFLD. Since liver biopsy is invasive, expensive and prone to sampling error, several clinical prediction rules and blood-based biomarkers have been developed as an attractive and affordable alternatives to guide clinicians to identify patients at high risk of NASH and advanced fibrosis. Current biomarkers constitute predictive models (e.g., NAFLD fibrosis score, FIB-4 index and BARD score) or direct measures of inflammation (e...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154691/optimal-screening-methods-to-detect-cardiac-disorders-in-athletes-an-evidence-based-review
#16
Zachary K Winkelmann, Ashley K Crossway
Reference/Citation:  Harmon KG, Zigman M, Drezner JA. The effectiveness of screening history, physical exam, and ECG to detect potentially lethal cardiac disorders in athletes: a systematic review/meta-analysis. J Electrocardiol. 2015;48(3):329-338. CLINICAL QUESTION:   Which screening method should be considered best practice to detect potentially lethal cardiac disorders during the preparticipation physical examination (PE) of athletes? DATA SOURCES:   The authors completed a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and SPORTDiscus from January 1996 to November 2014...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154655/cognitive-functioning-in-toddlerhood-the-role-of-gestational-age-attention-capacities-and-maternal-stimulation
#17
Marjanneke de Jong, Marjolein Verhoeven, Ignace T C Hooge, Arnoldina P G F Maingay-Visser, Louise Spanjerberg, Anneloes L van Baar
Why do many preterm children show delays in development? An integrated model of biological risk, children's capacities, and maternal stimulation was investigated in relation to cognitive functioning at toddler age. Participants were 200 Dutch children (gestational age = 32-41 weeks); 51% boys, 96% Dutch nationality, 71.5% highly educated mothers. At 18 months, attention capacities were measured using eye-tracking, and maternal attention-directing behavior was observed. Cognitive functioning was measured at 24 months using the Bayley-III-NL...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154644/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-adolescent-decision-making-with-the-iowa-gambling-task
#18
Brandon Almy, Michael Kuskowski, Stephen M Malone, Evan Myers, Monica Luciana
Many researchers have used the standard Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess decision-making in adolescence given increased risk-taking during this developmental period. Most studies are cross-sectional and do not observe behavioral trajectories over time, limiting interpretation. This longitudinal study investigated healthy adolescents' and young adults' IGT performance across a 10-year span. A total of 189 individuals (aged 9-23 at baseline) completed a baseline session and were followed at 2-year intervals yielding 5 time-points...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154639/developmental-relations-between-alcohol-expectancies-and-social-norms-in-predicting-alcohol-onset
#19
Tim Janssen, Hayley Treloar Padovano, Jennifer E Merrill, Kristina M Jackson
Expectations about alcohol's effects and perceptions of peers' behaviors and beliefs related to alcohol use are each shown to strongly influence the timing of drinking onset during adolescence. The present study builds on prior work by examining the conjoint effects of within-person changes in these social-cognitive factors on age of adolescent drinking onset. We related youths' alcohol status (i.e., alcohol-naive, initiation during study, prior initiation) to increases in positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies (AOEs), as well as increases in perceived peer/close friend alcohol use and acceptance, during adolescence...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154569/the-social-transmission-of-risk-maternal-stress-physiology-synchronous-parenting-and-well-being-mediate-the-effects-of-war-exposure-on-child-psychopathology
#20
Galit Halevi, Amir Djalovski, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Karen Yirmiya, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Lee Koren, Ruth Feldman
While chronic early stress increases child susceptibility to psychopathology, risk and resilience trajectories are shaped by maternal social influences whose role requires much further research in longitudinal studies. We examined the social transmission of risk by assessing paths leading from war-exposure to child symptoms as mediated by 3 sources of maternal social influence; stress physiology, synchronous parenting, and psychiatric disorder. Mothers and children living in a zone of continuous war were assessed in early childhood (1...
November 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
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