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Risk Prediction model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098436/bringing-3d-tumor-models-to-the-clinic-predictive-value-for-personalized-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Kathrin Halfter, Barbara Mayer
Current decision-guiding algorithms in cancer drug treatment are based on decades of research and numerous clinical trials. For the majority of patients, this data is successfully applied for a systemic disease management. For a number of patients however, treatment stratification according to clinically based risk criteria will not be sufficient. The most effective treatment options are ideally identified prior to the start of clinical drug therapy. This review will discuss the implementation of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models as a preclinical testing paradigm for the efficacy of clinical cancer treatment...
January 18, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098303/topologically-inferring-pathway-activity-for-precise-survival-outcome-prediction-breast-cancer-as-a-case
#2
Wei Liu, Wei Wang, Guohua Tian, Wenming Xie, Li Lei, Jiujin Liu, Wanxun Huang, Liyan Xu, Enmin Li
Accurately predicting the survival outcome of patients is of great importance in clinical cancer research. In the past decade, building survival prediction models based on gene expression data has received increasing interest. However, the existing methods are mainly based on individual gene signatures, which are known to have limited prediction accuracy on independent datasets and unclear biological relevance. Here, we propose a novel pathway-based survival prediction method called DRWPSurv in order to accurately predict survival outcome...
January 18, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098161/modelling-of-occupational-exposure-to-inhalable-nickel-compounds
#3
Benjamin Kendzia, Beate Pesch, Dorothea Koppisch, Rainer Van Gelder, Katrin Pitzke, Wolfgang Zschiesche, Thomas Behrens, Tobias Weiss, Jack Siemiatycki, Jerome Lavoué, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Roger Stamm, Thomas Brüning
The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m(3) and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m(3). We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097003/application-of-a-systems-pharmacology-model-for-translational-prediction-of-herg-mediated-qtc-prolongation
#4
Verena Gotta, Zhiyi Yu, Frank Cools, Karel van Ammel, David J Gallacher, Sandra A G Visser, Frederick Sannajust, Pierre Morissette, Meindert Danhof, Piet H van der Graaf
Drug-induced QTc interval prolongation (Δ QTc) is a main surrogate for proarrhythmic risk assessment. A higher in vivo than in vitro potency for hERG-mediated QTc prolongation has been suggested. Also, in vivo between-species and patient populations' sensitivity to drug-induced QTc prolongation seems to differ. Here, a systems pharmacology model integrating preclinical in vitro (hERG binding) and in vivo (conscious dog Δ QTc) data of three hERG blockers (dofetilide, sotalol, moxifloxacin) was applied (1) to compare the operational efficacy of the three drugs in vivo and (2) to quantify dog-human differences in sensitivity to drug-induced QTc prolongation (for dofetilide only)...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096933/the-association-of-male-pattern-baldness-and-risk-of-cancer-and-high-grade-disease-among-men-presenting-for-prostate-biopsy
#5
Ghazi Al Edwan, Bimal Bhindi, David Margel, Karen Chadwick, Antonio Finelli, Alexandre Zlotta, John Trachtenberg, Neil Fleshner
INTRODUCTION: Androgens have been implicated in both male pattern baldness (MPB) and prostate cancer (PCa). We set out to prospectively determine if men with independently assessed MPB are at higher risk for PCa at biopsy and determine if any grade associations exist. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 394 eligible patients presenting for prostate biopsy and independently determined their MPB pattern using the validated modified Norwood classification system (0: no balding; 1: frontal balding; 2: mild vertex balding; 3: moderate vertex balding; 4: sever vertex balding)...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096923/role-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-prediction-of-gleason-score-upgrading-and-disease-upstaging-in-low-risk-prostate-cancer-patients-eligible-for-active-surveillance
#6
Mehmet Ilker Gokce, Semih Tangal, Nurullah Hamidi, Evren Suer, Muhammed Arif Ibis, Yasar Beduk
INTRODUCTION: Active surveillance (AS) is an option for management of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). However, grade and stage progression is an important consideration. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a useful marker of cancer-related inflammation. In this study, we aimed to identify the roles of neutrophil count (NC), lymphocyte count (LC), and NLR to predict Gleason score (GS) upgrading, disease upstaging, and biochemical recurrence rates (BCR) in low-risk PCa patients. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data of 210 low-risk PCa patients eligible for AS, but who underwent radical prostatectomy...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096911/depression-and-catastrophizing-predict-suicidal-ideation-in-tertiary-care-patients-with-interstitial-cystitis-bladder-pain-syndrome
#7
Dean A Tripp, J Curtis Nickel, Adrijana Krsmanovic, Michel Pontari, Robert Moldwin, Robert Mayer, Lesley K Carr, Claire C Yang, Jorgen Nordling
INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate psychosocial factors as predictors of suicidal ideation (SI) in a tertiary care outpatient sample of women suffering from interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). METHODS: The patients are women managed at tertiary care centres (n=190). Controls were recruited from the community (n=117). Both groups completed questionnaires on demographics, pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire), IC/BPS symptoms, and psychological variables...
November 2016: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096663/pressure-ulcers-in-palliative-ward-patients-hyponatremia-and-low-blood-pressure-as-indicators-of-risk
#8
Danuta Sternal, Krzysztof Wilczyński, Jan Szewieczek
BACKGROUND: Prevention strategies for pressure ulcer formation remain critical in patients with an advanced illness. We analyzed factors associated with the development of pressure ulcers in patients hospitalized in a palliative care ward setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of 329 consecutive patients with a mean age (± standard deviation) of 70.4±11.8 years (range: 30-96 years, median 70.0 years; 55.3% women), who were admitted to the Palliative Care Department between July 2012 and May 2014...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096530/associations-between-body-mass-index-related-genetic-variants-and-adult-body-composition-the-fenland-cohort-study
#9
E A D Clifton, F R Day, E De Lucia Rolfe, N G Forouhi, S Brage, S J Griffin, N J Wareham, K K Ong
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Body mass index (BMI) is a surrogate measure of adiposity but does not distinguish fat from lean or bone mass. The genetic determinants of BMI are thought to predominantly influence adiposity but this has not been confirmed. Here we characterise the association between BMI-related genetic variants and body composition in adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Among 9667 adults aged 29-64 years from the Fenland study, a genetic risk score for BMI (BMI-GRS) was calculated for each individual as the weighted sum of BMI-increasing alleles across 96 reported BMI-related variants...
January 18, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096363/an-rna-based-signature-enables-high-specificity-detection-of-circulating-tumor-cells-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Mark Kalinich, Irun Bhan, Tanya T Kwan, David T Miyamoto, Sarah Javaid, Joseph A LiCausi, John D Milner, Xin Hong, Lipika Goyal, Srinjoy Sil, Melissa Choz, Uyen Ho, Ravi Kapur, Alona Muzikansky, Huidan Zhang, David A Weitz, Lecia V Sequist, David P Ryan, Raymond T Chung, Andrew X Zhu, Kurt J Isselbacher, David T Ting, Mehmet Toner, Shyamala Maheswaran, Daniel A Haber
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed into the bloodstream by invasive cancers, but the difficulty inherent in identifying these rare cells by microscopy has precluded their routine use in monitoring or screening for cancer. We recently described a high-throughput microfluidic CTC-iChip, which efficiently depletes hematopoietic cells from blood specimens and enriches for CTCs with well-preserved RNA. Application of RNA-based digital PCR to detect CTC-derived signatures may thus enable highly accurate tissue lineage-based cancer detection in blood specimens...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096287/prediction-models-for-exacerbations-in-patients-with-copd
#11
REVIEW
Beniamino Guerra, Violeta Gaveikaite, Camilla Bianchi, Milo A Puhan
Personalised medicine aims to tailor medical decisions to the individual patient. A possible approach is to stratify patients according to the risk of adverse outcomes such as exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Risk-stratified approaches are particularly attractive for drugs like inhaled corticosteroids or phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors that reduce exacerbations but are associated with harms. However, it is currently not clear which models are best to predict exacerbations in patients with COPD...
January 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096272/anti-leukemia-efficacy-and-mechanisms-of-action-of-sl-101-a-novel-anti-cd123-antibody-conjugate-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#12
Lina Han, Jeffrey L Jorgensen, Christopher Brooks, Ce Shi, Qi Zhang, Graciela M Nogueras González, Antonio Cavazos, Rongqing Pan, Hong Mu, Sa Wang, Jin Zhou, Gheath Alatrash, Stefan O Ciurea, Michael Rettig, John F DiPersio, Jorge E Cortes, Xuelin Huang, Hagop Kantarjian, Michael Andreeff, Farhad Ravandi-Kashani, Marina Konopleva
PURPOSE: The persistence of leukemia stem cells (LSC)-containing cells after induction therapy may contribute to minimal residual disease (MRD) and relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We investigated the clinical relevance of CD34+CD123+ LSC-containing cells and anti-leukemia potency of a novel antibody-conjugate SL-101 in targeting CD123+ LSCs. Experimental Methods and Results: In a retrospective study on 86 newly diagnosed AML patients, we demonstrated that a higher proportion of CD34+CD123+ LSC-containing cells in remission was associated with persistent MRD, and predicted shorter relapse-free survival in patients with poor-risk cytogenetics...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096200/family-history-of-breast-cancer-breast-density-and-breast-cancer-risk-in-a-u-s-breast-cancer-screening-population
#13
Thomas P Ahern, Brian L Sprague, Michael C S Bissell, Diana L Miglioretti, Diana S M Buist, Dejana Braithwaite, Karla Kerlikowske
BACKGROUND: The utility of incorporating detailed family history into breast cancer risk prediction hinges on its independent contribution to breast cancer risk. We evaluated associations between detailed family history and breast cancer risk while accounting for breast density. METHODS: We followed 222,019 participants aged 35-74 in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, of whom 2,456 developed invasive breast cancer. We calculated standardized breast cancer risks within joint strata of breast density and simple (1st-degree female relative) or detailed (1st-degree, 2nd-degree, or 1st- and 2nd-degree female relative) breast cancer family history...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095930/quantitative-risk-assessment-of-the-introduction-of-rabies-into-japan-through-the-importation-of-dogs-and-cats-worldwide
#14
N C L Kwan, K Sugiura, Y Hosoi, A Yamada, E L Snary
Japan has been free from rabies since 1958. A strict import regimen has been adopted since 2004 consisting of identification of an animal with microchip, two-time rabies vaccination, neutralizing antibody titration test and a waiting period of 180 days. The present study aims to quantitatively assess the risk of rabies introduction into Japan through the international importation of dogs and cats and hence provide evidence-based recommendations to strengthen the current rabies prevention system. A stochastic scenario tree model was developed and simulations were run using @RISK...
January 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095901/risk-assessment-tools-to-predict-location-of-discharge-and-need-for-supportive-services-for-medical-patients-after-discharge-from-hospital-a-systematic-review-protocol
#15
Daniel M Kobewka, Daniel McIsaac, Michaël Chassé, Kednapa Thavorn, Sunita Mulpuru, Luke T Lavallée, Shane English, Justin Presseau, Alan J Forster
BACKGROUND: Patients who are discharged from hospital after an acute medical illness often have impaired function that prevents them from returning to their previous place of residence. Assessing each patient's post-discharge needs takes time and resources but is important in order to reduce unplanned readmissions and adverse events post-discharge. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a systematic review to synthesize the evidence on prognostic models and their reported accuracy in predicting the location of discharge after a medical admission to an acute care hospital...
January 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095814/risk-factors-for-aspiration-pneumonia-after-definitive-chemoradiotherapy-or-bio-radiotherapy-for-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-a-monocentric-case-control-study
#16
Sadayuki Kawai, Tomoya Yokota, Yusuke Onozawa, Satoshi Hamauchi, Akira Fukutomi, Hirofumi Ogawa, Tsuyoshi Onoe, Tetsuro Onitsuka, Takashi Yurikusa, Akiko Todaka, Takahiro Tsushima, Yukio Yoshida, Yosuke Kito, Keita Mori, Hirofumi Yasui
BACKGROUND: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and bio-radiotherapy (BRT) are recognized as standard therapies for head and neck cancer (HNC). Aspiration pneumonia after CRT or BRT is a common late adverse event. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the cause-specific incidence of aspiration pneumonia after CRT or BRT and to identify its clinical risk factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 305 patients with locally advanced HNC treated by CRT or BRT between August 2006 and April 2015...
January 17, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095592/a-practical-approach-to-address-uncertainty-in-stakeholder-deliberations
#17
Robin Gregory, Ralph L Keeney
This article addresses the difficulties of incorporating uncertainty about consequence estimates as part of stakeholder deliberations involving multiple alternatives. Although every prediction of future consequences necessarily involves uncertainty, a large gap exists between common practices for addressing uncertainty in stakeholder deliberations and the procedures of prescriptive decision-aiding models advanced by risk and decision analysts. We review the treatment of uncertainty at four main phases of the deliberative process: with experts asked to describe possible consequences of competing alternatives, with stakeholders who function both as individuals and as members of coalitions, with the stakeholder committee composed of all stakeholders, and with decisionmakers...
January 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095428/linking-ecology-and-epidemiology-to-understand-predictors-of-multi-host-responses-to-an-emerging-pathogen-the-amphibian-chytrid-fungus
#18
Stephanie S Gervasi, Patrick R Stephens, Jessica Hua, Catherine L Searle, Gisselle Yang Xie, Jenny Urbina, Deanna H Olson, Betsy A Bancroft, Virginia Weis, John I Hammond, Rick A Relyea, Andrew R Blaustein
Variation in host responses to pathogens can have cascading effects on populations and communities when some individuals or groups of individuals display disproportionate vulnerability to infection or differ in their competence to transmit infection. The fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been detected in almost 700 different amphibian species and is implicated in numerous global amphibian population declines. Identifying key hosts in the amphibian-Bd system-those who are at greatest risk or who pose the greatest risk for others-is challenging due in part to many extrinsic environmental factors driving spatiotemporal Bd distribution and context-dependent host responses to Bd in the wild...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095411/optimal-management-strategies-for-primary-hpv-testing-for-cervical-screening-cost-effectiveness-evaluation-for-the-national-cervical-screening-program-in-australia
#19
Kate T Simms, Michaela Hall, Megan A Smith, Jie-Bin Lew, Suzanne Hughes, Susan Yuill, Ian Hammond, Marion Saville, Karen Canfell
BACKGROUND: Several countries are implementing a transition to HPV testing for cervical screening in response to the introduction of HPV vaccination and evidence indicating that HPV screening is more effective than cytology. In Australia, a 2017 transition from 2-yearly conventional cytology in 18-20 to 69 years to 5-yearly primary HPV screening in 25 to 74 years will involve partial genotyping for HPV 16/18 with direct referral to colposcopy for this higher risk group. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal management of women positive for other high-risk HPV types (not 16/18) ('OHR HPV')...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095405/defining-the-risk-of-zika-and-chikungunya-virus-transmission-in-human-population-centers-of-the-eastern-united-states
#20
Carrie A Manore, Richard S Ostfeld, Folashade B Agusto, Holly Gaff, Shannon L LaDeau
The recent spread of mosquito-transmitted viruses and associated disease to the Americas motivates a new, data-driven evaluation of risk in temperate population centers. Temperate regions are generally expected to pose low risk for significant mosquito-borne disease; however, the spread of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) across densely populated urban areas has established a new landscape of risk. We use a model informed by field data to assess the conditions likely to facilitate local transmission of chikungunya and Zika viruses from an infected traveler to Ae...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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