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frontal selection positivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652006/comparison-of-interpupillary-distance-and-combined-mesiodistal-width-of-maxillary-central-incisor-teeth-in-two-ethnic-groups-of-northeast-india-an-in-vivo-study
#1
Jogeswar Barman, Sangma Serin
Background: Anthropometric measurements of the face can be used as a guide in selecting proper sized anterior teeth. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the interpupillary distance (IPD) and the combined mesiodistal width of maxillary central incisors (MDW of MCIs) to establish their morphometric criterion and their significance in two ethnic groups of Northeast India. Methodology: A total of 120 participants consisting of 60 indigenous students each from Assam and Meghalaya in the age group of 18-25 years were selected after taking their written consent...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598839/auditory-and-audio-vocal-responses-of-single-neurons-in-the-monkey-ventral-premotor-cortex
#2
Steffen R Hage
Monkey vocalization is a complex behavioral pattern, which is flexibly used in audio-vocal communication. A recently proposed dual neural network model suggests that cognitive control might be involved in this behavior, originating from a frontal cortical network in the prefrontal cortex and mediated via projections from the rostral portion of the ventral premotor cortex (PMvr) and motor cortex to the primary vocal motor network in the brainstem. For the rapid adjustment of vocal output to external acoustic events, strong interconnections between vocal motor and auditory sites are needed, which are present at cortical and subcortical levels...
March 20, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584494/frontal-and-oblique-crash-tests-of-hiii-6-year-old-child-atd-using-real-world-observed-child-passenger-postures
#3
Katarina Bohman, Kristy B Arbogast, Helen Loeb, Judith L Charlton, Sjaan Koppel, Suzanne L Cross
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of frontal and oblique crashes when positioning a Hybrid III (HIII) 6-year-old child anthropometric test device (ATD) using observed child passenger postures from a naturalistic driving study (NDS). METHODS: Five positions for booster-seated children aged 4-7 years were selected, including one reference position according to the FMVSS 213 ATD seating protocol and 4 based on real-world observed child passenger postures from an NDS including 2 user positions with forward tilting torso and 2 that combined both forward and lateral inboard tilting of the torso...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574745/a-new-method-for-selecting-auricle-positions-in-skull-base-reconstruction-for-temporal-bone-cancer
#4
Kentaro Tanaka, Tomoyuki Yano, Tsutomu Homma, Atsunobu Tsunoda, Masaru Aoyagi, Seiji Kishimoto, Mutsumi Okazaki
OBJECTIVE: In advanced temporal bone carcinoma cases, we attempted to preserve as much of the auricle as possible from a cosmetic and functional perspective. Difficulties are associated with selecting an adequate position for reconstructed auricles intraoperatively. We improved the surgical procedure to achieve a good postoperative auricle position. METHODS: Nine patients were included in this study. All patients underwent subtotal removal of the temporal bone and resection of the external auditory canal while preserving most of the external ear, and lateral skull base reconstruction was performed with anterolateral thigh flaps...
March 25, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524253/5-alpha-reductase-inhibitor-treatment-for-frontal-fibrosing-alopecia-an-evidence-based-treatment-update
#5
Aizuri Murad, Wilma Bergfeld
BACKGROUND: Treatment for frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is challenging and its treatment regimen often mirrors other lymphocytic-predominant cicatricial alopecia. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) has been reported with some treatment success in severe cases of FFA. OBJECTIVE: To carry out evidence-based analysis of articles published on treatment efficacy and safety of 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor for the treatment of FFA. METHODS: Articles published on the use of 5ARI to treat FFA between 2005 to 2017 were reviewed, analysed and graded according to the American College of Physicians outcome study grading system...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515467/early-intervention-and-a-direction-of-novel-therapeutics-for-the-improvement-of-functional-outcomes-in-schizophrenia-a-selective-review
#6
REVIEW
Masayoshi Kurachi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Takashi Uehara, Michio Suzuki
Background: A recent review reported that the median proportion of patients recovering from schizophrenia was 13.5% and that this did not change over time. Various factors including the duration of untreated psychosis, cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and morphological changes in the brain influence the functional outcome of schizophrenia. The authors herein reviewed morphological changes in the brain of schizophrenia patients, effects of early intervention, and a direction of developing novel therapeutics to achieve significant improvement of the functional outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500152/cognitive-and-neuroimaging-features-and-brain-%C3%AE-amyloidosis-in-individuals-at-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-insight-pread-a-longitudinal-observational-study
#7
Bruno Dubois, Stephane Epelbaum, Francis Nyasse, Hovagim Bakardjian, Geoffroy Gagliardi, Olga Uspenskaya, Marion Houot, Simone Lista, Federica Cacciamani, Marie-Claude Potier, Anne Bertrand, Foudil Lamari, Habib Benali, Jean-François Mangin, Olivier Colliot, Remy Genthon, Marie-Odile Habert, Harald Hampel
BACKGROUND: Improved understanding is needed of risk factors and markers of disease progression in preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We assessed associations between brain β-amyloidosis and various cognitive and neuroimaging parameters with progression of cognitive decline in individuals with preclinical Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: The INSIGHT-preAD is an ongoing single-centre observational study at the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France. Eligible participants were age 70-85 years with subjective memory complaints but unimpaired cognition and memory (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score ≥27, Clinical Dementia Rating score 0, and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test [FCSRT] total recall score ≥41)...
February 27, 2018: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499240/transient-and-sustained-erp-activity-related-to-feedback-processing-in-the-probabilistic-selection-task
#8
Robert West, Kira Bailey, Stephen Anderson
Feedback processing represents a fundamental component of adaptive decision-making. Extensive research using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) has explored the medial frontal feedback negativity (FN), P3a, and P3b components in the context of feedback processing. Additionally, recent studies examining the neural correlates of feedback processing in a gambling task revealed transient and sustained ERP activity over the lateral frontal and posterior regions of the scalp. Consistent with the neuroimaging literature, source analysis has localized this ERP activity to the lateral and medial frontal cortex, as well as the temporal-occipital and medial occipital cortices...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477838/dissociable-components-of-spatial-neglect-associated-with-frontal-and-parietal-lesions
#9
Arnaud Saj, Vincent Verdon, Claude-Alain Hauert, Patrik Vuilleumier
Spatial neglect is a complex neuropsychological disorder, in which patients fail to detect and respond to contralesional stimuli. Recent studies suggest that these symptoms may reflect a combination of different component deficits, associated with different lesion substrates. Thus, damage to right lateral prefrontal and inferior parietal regions produce different degrees of left neglect on cancellation and line bisection tasks, respectively. Here we tested for dissociable behaviors across two tasks designed to assess distinct cognitive processes possibly mediating such components, in 14 patients with right focal lesion in either the frontal or parietal lobe...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469582/contrasting-hemispheric-asymmetries-for-emotional-processing-from-event-related-potentials-and-behavioral-responses
#10
Giulia Prete, Paolo Capotosto, Filippo Zappasodi, Luca Tommasi
OBJECTIVE: Four main theories concerning hemispheric asymmetries for emotional processing have been proposed: the right hemisphere hypothesis (RHH; the right hemisphere is specialized in processing all emotions), the valence hypothesis (VH; the left and the right hemispheres are superior in positive and negative emotion processing, respectively), the modified VH (the right-hemispheric superiority at posterior sites is followed by a valence-specific activity at frontal sites), and the motivational model (the left and the right hemispheres are superior in approaching-related and avoidance-related emotions, respectively)...
February 22, 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459588/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-evaluation-of-sinonasal-masses-with-histopathological-correlation
#11
M S Begum, U K Sarker, M A Islam, M A Sangma, P Paul, M A Rahman
Sinonasal mass is the abnormal growth of tissue from nasal cavity and mucosa of the paranasal sinuses. The growth may be benign or malignant. The benign lesion grows slowly and does not metastasize. The malignant lesion grows rapidly and metastasizes early. The aim of this study is to evaluate and diagnose the various types of sinonasal masses with MRI and its correlation with histopathological findings. This cross sectional descriptive study was carried out for a period of 02 years, from July 2015 to June 2017...
January 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459145/discovery-of-1-2-3-4-tetrahydropyrimido-1-2-a-benzimidazoles-as-novel-class-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-1-receptor-antagonists
#12
Takuto Kojima, Michiyo Mochizuki, Takafumi Takai, Yasutaka Hoashi, Sachie Morimoto, Masaki Seto, Minoru Nakamura, Katsumi Kobayashi, Yuu Sako, Maiko Tanaka, Naoyuki Kanzaki, Yohei Kosugi, Takahiko Yano, Kazuyoshi Aso
A new class of corticotropin releasing factor 1 (CRF1 ) receptor antagonists characterized by a tricyclic core ring was designed and synthesized. Novel tricyclic derivatives 2a-e were designed as CRF1 receptor antagonists based on conformation analysis of our original 2-anilinobenzimidazole CRF1 receptor antagonist. The synthesized tricyclic derivatives 2a-e showed CRF1 receptor binding activity with IC50 values of less than 400 nM, and the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimido-[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivative 2e was selected as a lead compound with potent in vitro CRF1 receptor binding activity (IC50 = 7...
February 8, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431647/neural-mechanisms-for-adaptive-learned-avoidance-of-mental-effort
#13
Asako Mitsuto Nagase, Keiichi Onoda, Jerome Clifford Foo, Tomoki Haji, Rei Akaishi, Shuhei Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki Sakai, Kenji Morita
Humans tend to avoid mental effort. Previous studies have demonstrated this tendency using various demand-selection tasks; participants generally avoid options associated with higher cognitive demand. However, it remains unclear whether humans avoid mental effort adaptively in uncertain and non-stationary environments, and if so, what neural mechanisms underlie this learned avoidance and whether they remain the same irrespective of cognitive-demand types. We addressed these issues by developing novel demand-selection tasks where associations between choice options and cognitive-demand levels change over time, with two variations using mental arithmetic and spatial reasoning problems (29:4 and 18:2 males:females)...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414555/specificity-of-electroclinical-features-in-the-diagnosis-of-ring-chromosome-20
#14
A B Gago-Veiga, R Toledano, I García-Morales, M A Pérez-Jiménez, J Bernar, A Gil-Nagel
BACKGROUND: Ring chromosome 20 (R20) syndrome is a chromosomal disorder characterized mainly by drug-resistant frontal lobe seizures, recurrent nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), and typical EEG features. The aim of this study was to investigate if this triad is common and specific to all patients with R20. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study (from 2000 to 2011), we selected patients who fulfilled at least two out of three criteria: drug-resistant frontal lobe seizures, recurrent NCSE, and characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) features...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411521/words-fail-lesion-symptom-mapping-of-errors-of-omission-in-post-stroke-aphasia
#15
Qi Chen, Erica Middleton, Daniel Mirman
Impaired object naming is a core deficit in post-stroke aphasia, which can manifest as errors of commission - producing an incorrect word or a non-word - or as errors of omission - failing to attempt to name the object. Detailed behavioural, computational, and neurological investigations of errors of commission have played a key role in the development of neurocognitive models of word production. In contrast, the neurocognitive basis of omission errors is radically underspecified despite being a prevalent phenomenon in aphasia and other populations...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378347/extraventricular-neurocytoma-in-the-left-frontal-lobe-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#16
Fan Chen, Rihua Jin, Xinmin Wu, Zengping Dong, Dawei Chen
BACKGROUND: Neurocytoma is a rare brain neoplasm of neuroepithelial origin that predominantly occurs in the ventricular system adjacent to the interventricular foramen and septum pellucidum. However, extraventricular neurocytoma is an extremely rare entity with poor clinical, radiological, and histopathological characterization. Herein, we report a case of an extraventricular parafalcine neurocytoma in the left frontal lobe. OBJECTIVES: This study will compile and examine reported cases of extraventricular neurocytoma in an attempt to provide an up-to-date summary of the condition...
January 25, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375045/increased-gene-expression-of-selected-vesicular-and-glial-glutamate-transporters-in-the-frontal-cortex-in-rats-exposed-to-voluntary-wheel-running
#17
J Graban, N Hlavacova, D Jezova
Though positive effects of exercise on mood and well being are well recognised, the central regulatory mechanisms are still not fully understood. The present study was aimed to testing the hypothesis that voluntary wheel running activates the gene expression of glutamate transporters in the brain cortex of rats. The animals were assigned to the control and voluntary wheel running groups. Voluntary wheel running rats had free access to a stainless steel activity wheel for 3 weeks. The daily running distance gradually increased to 6...
October 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374242/population-coding-of-grasp-and-laterality-related-information-in-the-macaque-fronto-parietal-network
#18
Jonathan A Michaels, Hansjörg Scherberger
Preparing and executing grasping movements demands the coordination of sensory information across multiple scales. The position of an object, required hand shape, and which of our hands to extend must all be coordinated in parallel. The network formed by the macaque anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and hand area (F5) of the ventral premotor cortex is essential in the generation of grasping movements. Yet, the role of this circuit in hand selection is unclear. We recorded from 1342 single- and multi-units in AIP and F5 of two macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) during a delayed grasping task in which monkeys were instructed by a visual cue to perform power or precision grips on a handle presented in five different orientations with either the left or right hand, as instructed by an auditory tone...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343928/exploration-of-lower-frequency-eeg-dynamics-and-cortical-alpha-asymmetry-in-long-term-rajyoga-meditators
#19
Kanishka Sharma, Sushil Chandra, Ashok Kumar Dubey
Background: Rajyoga meditation is taught by Prajapita Brahmakumaris World Spiritual University (Brahmakumaris) and has been followed by more than one million followers across the globe. However, rare studies were conducted on physiological aspects of rajyoga meditation using electroencephalography (EEG). Band power and cortical asymmetry were not studied with Rajyoga meditators. Aims: This study aims to investigate the effect of regular meditation practice on EEG brain dynamics in low-frequency bands of long-term Rajyoga meditators...
January 2018: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335082/-a-comparative-analysis-of-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-with-or-without-abnormal-findings-on-cranial-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jian-Zhao Zhang, Qian Chen, Ping Zheng, Li-Na Xie, Xiao-Li Yi, Hai-Tao Ren, Jian Yang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of children with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis with normal or abnormal cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings via a comparative analysis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. The clinical features and prognosis were compared between the children with normal and abnormal cranial MRI findings. RESULTS: In the 33 children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, the most common initial symptoms were seizures (61%) and involuntary movement (61%), followed by language disorder (54%), mental and behavioral abnormalities (52%), and disturbance of consciousness (30%)...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
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