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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205495/facets-of-pantomime
#1
Georg Goldenberg
OBJECTIVES: Exploring the nature of defective pantomime in apraxia. METHODS: Critical review of behavioral associations and dissociations between defective pantomime, imitation of gestures, and real tool use. Analysis of congruencies between crucial lesions for pantomime, imitation, and tool use. RESULTS: There are behavioral double dissociations between pantomime and imitation, and their cerebral substrates show very little overlap. Whereas defective pantomime is bound to temporal and inferior frontal lesions, imitation is mainly affected by parietal lesions...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166368/efficacy-of-mglu2-positive-allosteric-modulators-alone-and-in-combination-with-levetiracetam-in-the-mouse-6-hz-model-of-psychomotor-seizures
#2
Cameron S Metcalf, Brian D Klein, Misty D Smith, Tim Pruess, Marc Ceusters, Hilde Lavreysen, Stefan Pype, Nancy Van Osselaer, Roy Twyman, H Steve White
OBJECTIVE: The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 (mGlu2 ) possesses both orthosteric and allosteric modulatory sites, are expressed in the frontal cortex and limbic structures, and can affect excitatory synaptic transmission. Therefore, mGlu2 is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of epilepsy. The present study seeks to evaluate the anticonvulsant potential of mGlu2 -acting compounds. METHODS: The anticonvulsant efficacy of two selective mGlu2 -positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) (JNJ-42153605 and JNJ-40411813/ADX71149) and one mGlu2/3 receptor agonist (LY404039) were evaluated alone and in combination with the antiseizure drug levetiracetam (LEV) in the mouse 6 Hz model...
February 6, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149366/relationships-between-movements-of-the-lower-limb-joints-and-the-pelvis-in-open-and-closed-kinematic-chains-during-a-gait-cycle
#3
Zdenek Svoboda, Miroslav Janura, Patrik Kutilek, Eva Janurova
Lots of athletic skills performed during practice or competition are initiated by the legs, where athletes either walk or run prior to executing specific skills. Kinematic chains are used to describe the relationships between body segments and joints during movement. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between movements of lower limb segments and the pelvis in open and closed kinematic chains while walking. The experimental group consisted of 32 males (age 23.3 ± 2.5 years, body mass 78...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131622/perinatal-nicotine-treatment-induces-transient-increases-in-nacho-protein-levels-in-the-rat-frontal-cortex
#4
Franziska Wichern, Majbrit M Jensen, Ditte Z Christensen, Jens D Mikkelsen, Marjorie C Gondré-Lewis, Morten S Thomsen
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) regulator chaperone (NACHO) was recently identified as an important regulator of nAChR maturation and surface expression. Here we show that NACHO levels decrease during early postnatal development in rats. This decrease occurs earlier and to a greater degree in the frontal cortex (FC) compared with the hippocampus (HIP). We further show that rats exposed to nicotine during pre- and postnatal development exhibit significantly higher NACHO levels in the FC at postnatal day (PND) 21, but not at PND60...
January 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122388/clinical-study-of-3d-imaging-and-3d-printing-technique-for-patient-specific-instrumentation-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#5
Bing Qiu, Fei Liu, Bensen Tang, Biyong Deng, Fang Liu, Weimin Zhu, Dong Zhen, Mingyuan Xue, Mingjiao Zhang
Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) was designed to improve the accuracy of preoperative planning and postoperative prosthesis positioning in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, better understanding needs to be achieved due to the subtle nature of the PSI systems. In this study, 3D printing technique based on the image data of computed tomography (CT) has been utilized for optimal controlling of the surgical parameters. Two groups of TKA cases have been randomly selected as PSI group and control group with no significant difference of age and sex (p > 0...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077315/inhibition-of-inos-alleviates-cognitive-deficits-and-depression-in-diabetic-mice-through-downregulating-the-no-sgc-cgmp-pkg-signal-pathway
#6
Xiao Yan Zhou, Fang Zhang, Chang Jiang Ying, Jing Chen, Ling Chen, Jing Dong, Yue Shi, Mang Tang, Xiao Tong Hu, Zhi Hua Pan, Na Na Xu, Kui Yang Zheng, Ren Xian Tang, Yuan Jian Song
Diabetes mellitus often results in a number of complications involving impaired brain function, including cognitive deficits and depression. However, the potential mechanisms for diabetes-related cognitive deficits and depression are not fully understood. Neurons in the hippocampal, cortical and amygdala functional regions are more susceptible to damage during hyperglycemia. Neuroprotection in the brain can rescue cognitive deficits and depression induced by hyperglycemia. This study investigated the potential mechanisms underlying diabetes-related congnitive deficits and depression, determined whether the inflammatory factor inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the nitric oxide (NO)/soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway, play key roles in cognitive deficits and depression associated...
January 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077166/threonine-175-a-novel-pathological-phosphorylation-site-on-tau-protein-linked-to-multiple-tauopathies
#7
Alexander J Moszczynski, Wencheng Yang, Robert Hammond, Lee Cyn Ang, Michael J Strong
Microtubule associated protein tau (tau) deposition is associated with a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases collectively termed tauopathies. We have previously shown that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with cognitive impairment (ALSci) is associated with tau phosphorylation at Thr(175) and that this leads to activation of GSK3β which then induces phosphorylation at tau Thr(231). This latter step leads to dissociation of tau from microtubules and pathological tau fibril formation. To determine the extent to which this pathway is unique to ALS, we have investigated the expression of pThr(175) tau and pThr(231) tau across a range of frontotemporal degenerations...
January 11, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057091/-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-study-of-brain-function-changes-after-tips-operation-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#8
C Liu, H B Wang, Y Q Yu, M Q Wang, G B Zhang, L Y Xu, J M Wu
Objective: To investigate the brain function changes in cirrhosis patients after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) performed and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was analyzed. Methods: From January 2014 to February 2016, a total of 96 cirrhotic patients from invasive technology department and infection department in the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University were selected , the blood ammonia data of 96 cirrhotic patients with TIPS operation in four groups were collected after 1, 3, 6 and 12 month, and all subjects performed rs-fMRI scans...
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047337/su-f-j-42-comparison-of-varian-truebeam-cone-beam-ct-and-brainlab-exactrac-x-ray-for-cranial-radiotherapy
#9
J Li, W Shi, D Andrews, M Werner-Wasik, B Lu, Y Yu, A Dicker, H Liu
PURPOSE: To compare online image registrations of TrueBeam cone-beam CT (CBCT) and BrainLab ExacTrac x-ray imaging systems for cranial radiotherapy. METHOD: Phantom and patient studies were performed on a Varian TrueBeam STx linear accelerator (Version 2.5), which is integrated with a BrainLab ExacTrac imaging system (Version 6.1.1). The phantom study was based on a Rando head phantom, which was designed to evaluate isocenter-location dependence of the image registrations...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920723/sex-dependent-anti-stress-effect-of-an-%C3%AE-5-subunit-containing-gabaa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator
#10
Sean C Piantadosi, Beverly J French, Michael M Poe, Tamara Timić, Bojan D Marković, Mohan Pabba, Marianne L Seney, Hyunjung Oh, Beverley A Orser, Miroslav M Savić, James M Cook, Etienne Sibille
Rationale: Current first-line treatments for stress-related disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) act on monoaminergic systems and take weeks to achieve a therapeutic effect with poor response and low remission rates. Recent research has implicated the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of depression, including deficits in interneurons targeting the dendritic compartment of cortical pyramidal cells. Objectives: The present study evaluates whether SH-053-2'F-R-CH3 (denoted "α5-PAM"), a positive allosteric modulator selective for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors found predominantly on cortical pyramidal cell dendrites, has anti-stress effects...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890705/selective-rehearsal-is-affected-by-the-emotionality-of-the-encoding-context-in-item-method-directed-forgetting-an-event-related-potential-study
#11
Tzu-Ling Liu, Nai-Feng Chen, Shih-Kuen Cheng
Emotional items are often remembered more clearly than neutral items. However, whether stimuli embedded in an emotional context are more resistant to directed forgetting than those presented in a neutral context remains unclear. This question was tested by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in an item-method directed forgetting paradigm involving neutral words that were embedded in neutral or negative contexts. During the study phase, participants were asked to associate a neutral word with a negative or neutral picture...
November 24, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881949/neural-mechanisms-of-the-transformation-from-objective-value-to-subjective-utility-converting-from-count-to-worth
#12
Yoanna A Kurnianingsih, O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman
When deciding, we aim to choose the "best" possible outcome. This is not just selection of the option that is the most numerous or physically largest, as options are translated from objective value (count) to subjective value (worth or utility). We localized the neural instantiation of the value-to-utility transformation to the dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (daMCC), with independent replication. The daMCC encodes the context-specific information necessary to convert from count to worth. This encoding is not simply a representation of utility or preference, but the interaction of the two...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871700/laypeople-s-perceptions-of-frontal-smile-esthetics-a-systematic-review
#13
Simone Parrini, Gabriele Rossini, Tommaso Castroflorio, Arturo Fortini, Andrea Deregibus, Cesare Debernardi
INTRODUCTION: The emphasis on dental esthetics has increased in recent years. There are, however, differences in esthetic perceptions among professional and lay groups. The aim of this comprehensive review was to update previous reviews and answer the following research question: Can lay thresholds for acceptance of smile esthetic anomalies be defined? METHODS: A systematic search in the medical literature (PubMed, PMC, NLM, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical trials, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Google Scholar, and LILACs) was performed to identify all peer-reviewed articles reporting data regarding evaluations of laypeople's perceptions of dental esthetic factors...
November 2016: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865969/age-related-alterations-in-functional-connectivity-patterns-during-working-memory-encoding-of-emotional-items
#14
Maryam Ziaei, Alireza Salami, Jonas Persson
Previous findings indicate age-related differences in frontal-amygdala connectivity during emotional processing. However, direct evidence for age differences in brain functional activation and connectivity during emotional processing and concomitant behavioral implications is lacking. In the present study, we examined the impact of aging on the neural signature of selective attention to emotional information during working memory (WM) encoding. Participants completed an emotional WM task in which they were asked to attend to emotional targets and ignore irrelevant distractors...
January 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848003/positional-plagiocephaly-following-ventriculoperitoneal-shunting-in-neonates-and-infancy-how-serious-is-it
#15
Stuart A G Roberts, Joseph D Symonds, Reema Chawla, Emma Toman, Jonathan Bishop, Guirish A Solanki
PURPOSE: We test the hypothesis that ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion significantly increases contralateral positional plagiocephaly. METHODS: We reviewed 339 children who had a VP shunt inserted at Birmingham Children's Hospital between 2006 and 2013, noting laterality of shunt insertion and frontal or occipital position. We ascertained the presence of post-operative positional plagiocephaly using the cranial vault asymmetry index. Multinomial logistic regression modelling was used to examine relationships between plagiocephaly, shunt position, gender and age...
November 15, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846290/altered-effective-connectivity-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-stroke-a-resting-state-fmri-study-with-granger-causality-analysis
#16
Zhiyong Zhao, Xiangmin Wang, Mingxia Fan, Dazhi Yin, Limin Sun, Jie Jia, Chaozheng Tang, Xiaohui Zheng, Yuwei Jiang, Jie Wu, Jiayu Gong
The primary motor cortex (M1) is often abnormally recruited in stroke patients with motor disabilities. However, little is known about the alterations in the causal connectivity of M1 following stroke. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the effective connectivity of the ipsilesional M1 is disturbed in stroke patients who show different outcomes in hand motor function. 23 patients with left-hemisphere subcortical stroke were selected and divided into two subgroups: partially paralyzed hands (PPH) and completely paralyzed hands (CPH)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833549/impaired-white-matter-connections-of-the-limbic-system-networks-associated-with-impaired-emotional-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Xiaoshu Li, Haibao Wang, Yanghua Tian, Shanshan Zhou, Xiaohu Li, Kai Wang, Yongqiang Yu
Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM). Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM) of the limbic system networks...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832952/cross-slope-and-level-walking-strategies-during-swing-in-individuals-with-lower-limb-amputation
#18
Coralie Villa, Isabelle Loiret, Karine Langlois, Xavier Bonnet, François Lavaste, Pascale Fodé, Hélène Pillet
OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively analyze prosthetic limb swing phase gait strategies used to adapt to cross slopes compared with flat surfaces. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Gait laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: A volunteer sample (N=49) of individuals with transfemoral amputation (n=17), individuals with transtibial amputation (n=15), and able-bodied individuals (n=17). INTERVENTIONS: Participants walked on flat and 6° (10%) inclined cross-slope surfaces at a self-selected walking speed...
November 7, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807161/bottom-up-versus-top-down-induction-of-sleep-by-zolpidem-acting-on-histaminergic-and-neocortex-neurons
#19
David S Uygun, Zhiwen Ye, Anna Y Zecharia, Edward C Harding, Xiao Yu, Raquel Yustos, Alexei L Vyssotski, Stephen G Brickley, Nicholas P Franks, William Wisden
: Zolpidem, a GABAA receptor-positive modulator, is the gold-standard drug for treating insomnia. Zolpidem prolongs IPSCs to decrease sleep latency and increase sleep time, effects that depend on α2 and/or α3 subunit-containing receptors. Compared with natural NREM sleep, zolpidem also decreases the EEG power, an effect that depends on α1 subunit-containing receptors, and which may make zolpidem-induced sleep less optimal. In this paper, we investigate whether zolpidem needs to potentiate only particular GABAergic pathways to induce sleep without reducing EEG power...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797812/astrogliopathy-predominates-the-earliest-stage-of-corticobasal-degeneration-pathology
#20
Helen Ling, Gabor G Kovacs, Jean Paul G Vonsattel, Karen Davey, Kin Y Mok, John Hardy, Huw R Morris, Thomas T Warner, Janice L Holton, Tamas Revesz
SEE KOBYLECKI AND MANN DOI101093/AWW267 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Animal models have shown that tau seeding and propagation are strain- and neural network-specific. The study of preclinical cases is valuable to gain insights into early pathological features of corticobasal degeneration and its progression. Three preclinical corticobasal degeneration cases and six age-matched end-stage corticobasal degeneration cases were included in this study. Tau immunohistochemistry performed in 20 brain regions and quantitative assessment of regional tau load using image analysis were performed...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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