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frontal selection positivity

Emily T Baltz, Ege A Yalcinbas, Rafael Renteria, Christina M Gremel
Recent hypotheses have posited that orbital frontal cortex (OFC) is important for using inferred consequences to guide behavior. Less clear is OFC's contribution to goal-directed or model-based behavior, where the decision to act is controlled by previous experience with the consequence or outcome. Investigating OFC's role in learning about changed outcomes separate from decision-making is not trivial and often the two are confounded. Here we adapted an incentive learning task to mice, where we investigated processes controlling experience-based outcome updating independent from inferred action control...
June 13, 2018: ELife
Robert D Melara, Shalini Singh, Denise A Hien
Two groups of healthy young adults were exposed to 3 weeks of cognitive training in a modified version of the visual flanker task, one group trained to discriminate the target (discrimination training) and the other group to ignore the flankers (inhibition training). Inhibition training, but not discrimination training, led to significant reductions in both Garner interference, indicating improved selective attention, and in Stroop interference, indicating more efficient resolution of stimulus conflict. The behavioral gains from training were greatest in participants who showed the poorest selective attention at pretest...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Magdalena Senderecka, Michał Ociepka, Magdalena Matyjek, Bartłomiej Kroczek
The present study had three main objectives. First, we aimed to evaluate whether short-duration affective states induced by negative and positive words can lead to increased error-monitoring activity relative to a neutral task condition. Second, we intended to determine whether such an enhancement is limited to words of specific valence or is a general response to arousing material. Third, we wanted to assess whether post-error brain activity is associated with incidental memory for negative and/or positive words...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Corrado Sandini, Daniela Zöller, Elisa Scariati, Maria C Padula, Maude Schneider, Marie Schaer, Dimitri Van De Ville, Stephan Eliez
Background: Schizophrenia is currently considered a neurodevelopmental disorder of connectivity. Still few studies have investigated how brain networks develop in children and adolescents who are at risk for developing psychosis. 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) offers a unique opportunity to investigate the pathogenesis of schizophrenia from a neurodevelopmental perspective. Structural covariance (SC) is a powerful approach to explore morphometric relations between brain regions that can furthermore detect biomarkers of psychosis, both in 22q11DS and in the general population...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Letícia Heineck Alvarenga, Martha Simões Ribeiro, Ilka Tiemy Kato, Silvia Cristina Núñez, Renato Araujo Prates
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been used to treat periodontal disease, thus the aim of this study was to investigate red light (ʎ = 660 nm) attenuation in gingival tissue. This clinical trial included 30 patients with chronic periodontitis; three incisors from each patient were selected for the experimental procedures. A laser source with a radiant power output of 100 mW was used. Two digital photographs were taken of each selected incisor (in frontal and occlusal position). The images were analyzed in the ImageJ program...
May 25, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Marten Vares, Mait Metelitsa, Kadri Kõiv, Margit Kaldmäe, Karita Laugus, Kai Tiitsaar, Ruth Shimmo, Jaanus Harro
High level of positive affectivity acts as a protective factor against adverse effects of stress and decreases vulnerability to mood disorders and drug abuse. Fifty-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (50-kHz USV) index the level of positive affect in the rat, whereas stable, trait-like inter-individual differences in terms of vocalization activity exist. Previously we have demonstrated that chronic stress can alter the effect of repeated amphetamine administration on 50-kHz vocalizations, and this effect is different in rats with high and low positive affectivity...
May 24, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Guozhen Zhao, Yulin Zhang, Yan Ge, Yan Zheng, Xianghong Sun, Kan Zhang
Emotions are processed asymmetrically by the human brain. Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) as measured by electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), is a sensitive indicator of asymmetric brain activity in the frontal cortex. The current study aimed to analyze the frontal EEG asymmetries in terms of valence and motivational direction. We presented 37 participants with three film excerpts that were selected from the standard emotional film database to elicit three target emotions: tenderness, anger, and neutrality...
May 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vijay Agarwal, Daniel L Barrow
Selecting appropriate patient position for surgery must take into consideration a variety of factors. For an interhemispheric approach to distal anterior cerebral artery (DACA) aneurysms, the patient may be positioned with the head either horizontal or vertical with respect to the floor. We preferentially place the patient in the supine position with the shoulder elevated and the head turned parallel to the floor with the side of the approach down and the vertex tilted 45° up. In this way, gravity is utilized to allow the right frontal lobe to fall away from the falx, eliminating the need for retraction...
May 18, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Nuttida Rungratsameetaweemana, Sirawaj Itthipuripat, Annalisa Salazar, John T Serences
Two factors play an important role in shaping perception: the allocation of selective attention to behaviorally relevant sensory features, and prior expectations about regularities in the environment. Signal detection theory proposes distinct roles of attention and expectation on decision-making such that attention modulates early sensory processing whereas expectation influences the selection and execution of motor responses. Challenging this classic framework, recent studies suggest that expectations about sensory regularities enhance the encoding and accumulation of sensory evidence during decision-making...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Roland Pfister, Alexander T El Gammal, Eugen Bellon, Esther K Diekhof
Nurturing behavior may be critically influenced by the interplay of different hormones. The neuropeptide oxytocin is known to promote maternal behavior and its reduction has been associated with postpartum depression risk and child neglect. Contrariwise, the observed decrease in testosterone level during early parenthood may benefit caretaking behavior, whereas increased testosterone may reduce attention to infants. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the interactive influence of testosterone and oxytocin on selective attention to and neural processing of the baby schema (BS)...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anan Shtaya, Joy Roach, Ahmed-Ramadan Sadek, Benjamin Gaastra, Jonathan Hempenstall, Diederik Bulters
OBJECTIVE External ventricular drain (EVD) insertion is one of the most common emergency neurosurgical procedures. EVDs are traditionally inserted freehand (FH) in an emergency setting, but often result in suboptimal positioning. Image-guided surgery (IGS) is selectively used to assist placement. However, the accuracy and practicality of IGS use is yet to be reported. In this study, the authors set out to assess if IGS is practical and improves the accuracy of EVD placement. METHODS Case notes and images obtained in patients who underwent frontal EVD placement were retrospectively reviewed...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Tsutomu Takahashi, Michio Suzuki
To date, a large number of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have been conducted in schizophrenia, which generally demonstrate gray matter reduction predominantly in the frontal and temporo-limbic regions, as well as gross brain abnormalities (e.g., a deviated sulcogyral pattern). Although the causes as well as timing and course of these findings remain elusive, these morphologic changes (especially gross brain abnormalities and medial temporal lobe atrophy) are likely present at illness onset, possibly reflecting early neurodevelopmental abnormalities...
May 1, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Matthew A Albrecht, James A Waltz, James F Cavanagh, Michael J Frank, James M Gold
People with schizophrenia (PSZ) often fail to pursue rewarding activities despite largely intact in-the-moment hedonic experiences. Deficits in effort-based decision making in PSZ may be related to enhanced effects of cost or reduced reward, i.e., through the amplification of negative prediction errors or by dampened positive prediction errors (here, positive and negative prediction errors refer to outcomes that are better or worse than expected respectively). We administered a modified Simon task to people with schizophrenia (PSZ; N=46) and healthy controls (N=32)...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Robert L Baker, Richard B Souza, Mitchell J Rauh, Michael Fredericson, Michael D Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Iliotibial band syndrome has been associated with altered hip and knee kinematics in runners. Previous studies have recommended further research on neuromuscular factors at the hip. The frontal plane hip muscles have been a strong focus in strength comparison but not for electromyography investigation. OBJECTIVE: To compare hip surface electromyography, and frontal plane hip and knee kinematics, in runners with and without iliotibial band syndrome. DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study...
April 26, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Marie Luise Schreiter, Witold X Chmielewski, Christian Beste
The goal-directed control of behaviour critically depends on emotional regulation and constitutes the basis of mental well-being and social interactions. Within a socioemotional setting, it is necessary to prioritize effectively the relevant emotional information over interfering irrelevant emotional information to orchestrate cognitive resources and achieve appropriate behavior. Currently, it is elusive whether and how different socioemotional stimulus dimensions modulate cognitive control and conflict resolution...
June 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Jogeswar Barman, Sangma Serin
Background: Anthropometric measurements of the face can be used as a guide in selecting proper sized anterior teeth. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the interpupillary distance (IPD) and the combined mesiodistal width of maxillary central incisors (MDW of MCIs) to establish their morphometric criterion and their significance in two ethnic groups of Northeast India. Methodology: A total of 120 participants consisting of 60 indigenous students each from Assam and Meghalaya in the age group of 18-25 years were selected after taking their written consent...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Steffen R Hage
Monkey vocalization is a complex behavioral pattern, which is flexibly used in audio-vocal communication. A recently proposed dual neural network model suggests that cognitive control might be involved in this behavior, originating from a frontal cortical network in the prefrontal cortex and mediated via projections from the rostral portion of the ventral premotor cortex (PMvr) and motor cortex to the primary vocal motor network in the brainstem. For the rapid adjustment of vocal output to external acoustic events, strong interconnections between vocal motor and auditory sites are needed, which are present at cortical and subcortical levels...
March 20, 2018: Hearing Research
Katarina Bohman, Kristy B Arbogast, Helen Loeb, Judith L Charlton, Sjaan Koppel, Suzanne L Cross
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of frontal and oblique crashes when positioning a Hybrid III (HIII) 6-year-old child anthropometric test device (ATD) using observed child passenger postures from a naturalistic driving study (NDS). METHODS: Five positions for booster-seated children aged 4-7 years were selected, including one reference position according to the FMVSS 213 ATD seating protocol and 4 based on real-world observed child passenger postures from an NDS including 2 user positions with forward tilting torso and 2 that combined both forward and lateral inboard tilting of the torso...
February 28, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Kentaro Tanaka, Tomoyuki Yano, Tsutomu Homma, Atsunobu Tsunoda, Masaru Aoyagi, Seiji Kishimoto, Mutsumi Okazaki
OBJECTIVE: In advanced temporal bone carcinoma cases, we attempted to preserve as much of the auricle as possible from a cosmetic and functional perspective. Difficulties are associated with selecting an adequate position for reconstructed auricles intraoperatively. We improved the surgical procedure to achieve a good postoperative auricle position. METHODS: Nine patients were included in this study. All patients underwent subtotal removal of the temporal bone and resection of the external auditory canal while preserving most of the external ear, and lateral skull base reconstruction was performed with anterolateral thigh flaps...
March 25, 2018: Laryngoscope
A Murad, W Bergfeld
BACKGROUND: Treatment for frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is challenging, and its treatment regimen often mirrors other lymphocytic-predominant cicatricial alopecia. 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) has been reported with some treatment success in severe cases of FFA. OBJECTIVE: To carry out evidence-based analysis of articles published on treatment efficacy and safety of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor for the treatment of FFA. METHODS: Articles published on the use of 5ARI to treat FFA between 2005 and 2017 were reviewed, analysed and graded according to the American College of Physicians outcome study grading system...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
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