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frontal selection positivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239656/attentional-effects-of-hand-proximity-occur-later-in-older-adults-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#1
Catherine L Reed, Summer N Clay, Abigail O Kramer, David S Leland, Alan A Hartley
Research with young adults has shown hand proximity biases attention both early (by the time stimuli are categorized as relevant for action) and later, selectively for goal-relevant-stimuli. We examined age-related changes in this multisensory integration of vision and proprioception by comparing behavior and event-related potentials (ERPs) between younger and older adults. In a visual detection task, the hand was placed near or kept far from target and nontarget stimuli matched for frequency and visual features...
December 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118108/network-configurations-in-the-human-brain-reflect-choice-bias-during-rapid-face-processing
#2
Tao Tu, Noam Schneck, Jordan Muraskin, Paul Sajda
Network interactions are likely to be instrumental in processes underlying rapid perception and cognition. Specifically, high-level and perceptual regions must interact to balance pre-existing models of the environment with new incoming stimuli. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI allows for the temporal characterization of brain-network interactions combined with improved anatomical localization of regional activity. In this paper we use simultaneous EEG/fMRI and multivariate dynamical systems (MDS) analysis to characterize network relationships between constitute brain areas that reflect a subject's choice for a face versus non-face categorization task...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115706/seizure-susceptible-brain-regions-in-glioblastoma-identification-of-patients-at-risk
#3
Nuria Cayuela, Marta Simó, Carles Majós, X Rifà-Ros, Jaime Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Pablo Ripollés, Noemí Vidal, Julia Miró, Francisco Gil, Miguel Gil-Gil, Gerard Plans, Francesc Graus, Jordi Bruna
BACKGROUND: The main aim of this study was to identify which glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients have a higher risk to present seizures during follow-up. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed GBM were reviewed (n=306), and classified in patients with (Group 1) and without (Group 2) seizures at onset. Group 2 was split into patients with seizures during follow-up (Group 2A) and patients who never had seizures (Group 2B). Anatomical location of GBM was identified and compared by voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (discovery set)...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079342/the-neural-correlates-of-visual-imagery-vividness-an-fmri-study-and-literature-review
#4
Jon Fulford, Fraser Milton, David Salas, Alicia Smith, Amber Simler, Crawford Winlove, Adam Zeman
Using the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire we selected 14 high-scoring and 15 low-scoring healthy participants from an initial sample of 111 undergraduates. The two groups were matched on measures of age, IQ, memory and mood but differed significantly in imagery vividness. We used fMRI to examine brain activation while participants looked at, or later imagined, famous faces and famous buildings. Group comparison revealed that the low-vividness group activated a more widespread set of brain regions while visualising than the high-vividness group...
October 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065805/acute-white-matter-abnormalities-in-sports-related-concussion-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study-from-the-ncaa-dod-care-consortium
#5
Sourajit Mitra Mustafi, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Kevin M Koch, Andrew S Nencka, Timothy Meier, John D West, Christopher C Giza, John DiFiori, Kevin K Guskiewicz, Jason Mihalik, Stephen M LaConte, Stefan M Duma, Steven P Broglio, Andrew J Saykin, Michael McCrea, Thomas McAllister, Yu-Chien Wu
Sport-related concussion (SRC) is an important public health issue. While standardized assessment tools are useful in the clinical management of acute concussion, the underlying pathophysiology of SRC and the time course of physiological recovery after injury remain unclear. In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to detect white-matter alterations in football players within 48 hours after SRC. As part of the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium study of SRC, 30 American football players diagnosed with acute concussion, and 28 matched controls received clinical assessments and underwent advanced MRI scans...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061698/the-right-temporoparietal-junction-supports-speech-tracking-during-selective-listening-evidence-from-concurrent-eeg-fmri
#6
Sebastian Puschmann, Simon Steinkamp, Imke Gillich, Bojana Mirkovic, Stefan Debener, Christiane M Thiel
Listening selectively to one out of several competing speakers in a "cocktail party" situation is a highly demanding task. It relies on a widespread cortical network, including auditory sensory but also frontal and parietal brain regions involved in controlling auditory attention. Previous work has shown that, during selective listening, ongoing neural activity in auditory sensory areas is dominated by the attended speech stream, whereas competing input is suppressed. The relationship between these attentional modulations in the sensory tracking of the attended speech stream and frontoparietal activity during selective listening is however not understood...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060607/resting-state-brain-correlates-of-cardiovascular-complexity
#7
G Valenza, A Duggento, L Passamonti, S Diciotti, C Tessa, N Toschi, R Barbieri
While estimates of complex heartbeat dynamics have provided effective prognostic and diagnostic markers for a wide range of pathologies, brain correlates of complex cardiac measures in general and of complex sympatho-vagal dynamics in particular are still unknown. In this study we combine resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and physiological signal acquisition from 34 healthy subjects selected from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) repository with inhomogeneous point-process approximate and sample heartbeat entropy measures (ipApEn and ipSampEn) to investigate brain areas involved in complex cardiovascular control...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053832/reward-deficits-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-include-insensitivity-to-negative-stimuli
#8
David C Perry, Samir Datta, Virginia E Sturm, Kristie A Wood, Jessica Zakrzewski, William W Seeley, Bruce L Miller, Joel H Kramer, Howard J Rosen
During reward processing individuals weigh positive and negative features of a stimulus to determine whether they will pursue or avoid it. Though patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia display changes in their pursuit of rewards, such as food, alcohol, money, and sex, the basis for these shifts is not clearly established. In particular, it is unknown whether patients' behaviour results from excessive focus on rewards, insensitivity to punishment, or to dysfunction in a particular stage of reward processing, such as anticipation, consumption, or action selection...
October 7, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045559/segregated-excitatory-inhibitory-recurrent-subnetworks-in-layer-5-of-the-rat-frontal-cortex
#9
Mieko Morishima, Kenta Kobayashi, Shigeki Kato, Kazuto Kobayashi, Yasuo Kawaguchi
A prominent feature of neocortical pyramidal cells (PCs) is their numerous projections to diverse brain areas. In layer 5 (L5) of the rat frontal cortex, there are 2 major subtypes of PCs that differ in their long-range axonal projections, corticopontine (CPn) cells and crossed corticostriatal (CCS) cells. The outputs of these L5 PCs can be regulated by feedback inhibition from neighboring cortical GABAergic cells. Two major subtypes of GABAergic cells are parvalbumin (PV)-positive and somatostatin (SOM)-positive cells...
December 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038082/supraorbital-approach-for-resection-of-clinoidal-meningioma
#10
Rimal H Dossani, Piyush Kalakoti, Bharat Guthikonda
Meningiomas of the clinoid region pose formidable surgical challenge. Pterional craniotomy is the traditional approach, and often associated with high-risk post-surgical morbidities. In the current presentation, we describe an elderly male with a clinoidal meningioma that underwent a minimally invasive supra-orbital craniotomy for tumor resection. Patient presentation, neuroimaging, and surgical techniques (patient position, incision, anatomical consideration, and surgical steps) are described meticulously...
October 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018368/biclustered-independent-component-analysis-for-complex-biomarker-and-subtype-identification-from-structural-magnetic-resonance-images-in-schizophrenia
#11
Cota Navin Gupta, Eduardo Castro, Srinivas Rachkonda, Theo G M van Erp, Steven Potkin, Judith M Ford, Daniel Mathalon, Hyo Jong Lee, Bryon A Mueller, Douglas N Greve, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Agartz, Andrew R Mayer, Julia Stephen, Rex E Jung, Juan Bustillo, Vince D Calhoun, Jessica A Turner
Clinical and cognitive symptoms domain-based subtyping in schizophrenia (Sz) has been critiqued due to the lack of neurobiological correlates and heterogeneity in symptom scores. We, therefore, present a novel data-driven framework using biclustered independent component analysis to detect subtypes from the reliable and stable gray matter concentration (GMC) of patients with Sz. The developed methodology consists of the following steps: source-based morphometry (SBM) decomposition, selection and sorting of two component loadings, subtype component reconstruction using group information-guided ICA (GIG-ICA)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955208/nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-%C3%AE-9-and-%C3%AE-10-subunits-are-expressed-in-the-brain-of-mice
#12
Olena Lykhmus, Larysa P Voytenko, Katrin S Lips, Ivonne Bergen, Gabriela Krasteva-Christ, Douglas E Vetter, Wolfgang Kummer, Maryna Skok
The α9 and α10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits are likely to be the evolutionary precursors to the entire cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels, which includes acetylcholine, GABA, glycine and serotonin ionotropic receptors. nAChRs containing α9 and α10 subunits are found in the inner ear, dorsal root ganglia and many non-excitable tissues, but their expression in the central nervous system has not been definitely demonstrated. Here we show the presence of both α9 and α10 nAChR subunits in the mouse brain by RT-PCR and immunochemical approaches with a range of nAChR subunit-selective antibodies, which selectivity was demonstrated in the brain preparations of α7-/-, α9-/- and α10-/- mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942367/laughter-catches-attention
#13
Ana P Pinheiro, Carla Barros, Marcelo Dias, Sonja A Kotz
In social interactions, emotionally salient and sudden changes in vocal expressions attract attention. However, only a few studies examined how emotion and attention interact in voice processing. We investigated neutral, happy (laughs) and angry (growls) vocalizations in a modified oddball task. Participants silently counted the targets in each block and rated the valence and arousal of the vocalizations. A combined event-related potential and time-frequency analysis focused on the P3 and pre-stimulus alpha power to capture attention effects in response to unexpected events...
December 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920103/existence-of-brain-5-ht1a-5-ht2a-isoreceptor-complexes-with-antagonistic-allosteric-receptor-receptor-interactions-regulating-5-ht1a-receptor-recognition
#14
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Xiang Li, Alexander O Tarakanov, David Savelli, Manuel Narváez, Kirill Shumilov, Yuniesky Andrade-Talavera, Antonio Jimenez-Beristain, Bartosz Pomierny, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Riccardo Cuppini, Patrizia Ambrogini, Maria Lindskog, Kjell Fuxe
Studies on serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors have established that disturbances in the ascending 5-HT neuron systems and their 5-HT receptor subtypes and collateral networks to the forebrain contribute to the etiology of major depression and are targets for treatment. The therapeutic action of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors is of proven effectiveness, but the mechanisms underlying their effect are still unclear. There are many 5-HT subtypes involved; some need to be blocked (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7), whereas others need to be activated (e...
August 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879544/brain-cortical-characteristics-of-lifetime-cognitive-ageing
#15
Simon R Cox, Mark E Bastin, Stuart J Ritchie, David Alexander Dickie, Dave C Liewald, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Paul Redmond, Natalie A Royle, Alison Pattie, Maria Valdés Hernández, Janie Corley, Benjamin S Aribisala, Andrew M McIntosh, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
Regional cortical brain volume is the product of surface area and thickness. These measures exhibit partially distinct trajectories of change across the brain's cortex in older age, but it is unclear which cortical characteristics at which loci are sensitive to cognitive ageing differences. We examine associations between change in intelligence from age 11 to 73 years and regional cortical volume, surface area, and thickness measured at age 73 years in 568 community-dwelling older adults, all born in 1936...
September 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871717/acromegaly-determination-using-discriminant-analysis-of-the-three-dimensional-facial-classification-in-taiwanese
#16
Ming-Hsu Wang, Jen-Der Lin, Chen-Nen Chang, Wen-Ko Chiou
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the size, angles and positional characteristics of facial anthropometry between "acromegalic" patients and control subjects. We also identify possible facial soft tissue measurements for generating discriminant functions toward acromegaly determination in males and females for acromegaly early self-awareness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Subjects participating in this study included 70 patients diagnosed with acromegaly (35 females and 35 males) and 140 gender-matched control individuals...
August 5, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871034/domain-general-brain-regions-do-not-track-linguistic-input-as-closely-as-language-selective-regions
#17
Idan A Blank, Evelina Fedorenko
Language comprehension engages a cortical network of left frontal and temporal regions. Activity in this network is language-selective, showing virtually no modulation by nonlinguistic tasks. In addition, language comprehension engages a second network consisting of bilateral frontal, parietal, cingulate, and insular regions. Activity in this "multiple demand" (MD) network scales with comprehension difficulty, but also with cognitive effort across a wide range of nonlinguistic tasks in a domain-general fashion...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836300/cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-initially-occurs-in-the-meningeal-vessels
#18
Shigeki Takeda, Kazunori Yamazaki, Teruo Miyakawa, Kiyoshi Onda
To clarify the frequency of CAA in the brain parenchyma and subarachnoid space (SAS), we counted sections of blood vessels showing positive staining for Aβ in the SAS, cerebral cortex (CC) and cerebral white matter (WM) using paraffin-embedded sections of the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes. The specimens had been taken for routine neuropathological examination from the brains of 105 Japanese patients (aged 40-95 years) selected from among 200 consecutive patients autopsied between 1989 and 2015 at our hospital...
August 23, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822943/sound-side-joint-contact-forces-in-below-knee-amputee-gait-with-an-esar-prosthetic-foot
#19
Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Firooz Salami, Amir Esrafilian, Daniel W W Heitzmann, Merkur Alimusaj, Cornelia Putz, Sebastian I Wolf
The incidence of knee and hip joint osteoarthritis in subjects with below knee amputation (BK) appears significantly higher compared to unimpaired subjects, especially in the intact side. However, it is controversial if constant higher loads on the sound side are one of the major factors for an increased osteoarthritis (OA) incidence in subjects with BK, beside other risk factors, e.g. with respect to metabolism. The aim wasto investigate joint contact forces (JCF) calculated by a musculoskeletal model in the intact side and to compare it with those of unimpaired subjects and to further elucidate in how far increased knee JCF are associated with increased frontal plane knee moments...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776708/the-effect-of-category-learning-on-visual-attention-and-visual-representation
#20
Jonathan R Folstein, Shamsi S Monfared, Trevor Maravel
Subordinate-level category learning recruits neural resources associated with perceptual expertise, including the N250 component of the ERP, a posterolateral negative wave maximal between 230 and 330 ms. The N250 is a relatively late visual ERP and could plausibly be driven by attention to the features of categorized objects. Indeed, it has a latency and scalp distribution similar to the selection negativity (SN), an ERP component long known to be sensitive to attentional selection of target features. To clarify sensitivity of the N250 to attention and to more generally investigate the effect of category learning on attentional modulation of learned features, we independently manipulated subordinate-level category learning and target detection in a speeded paradigm designed to optimally elicit the SN and accompanying frontal selection positivity (FSP)...
August 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
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