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frontal selection positivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776708/the-effect-of-category-learning-on-visual-attention-and-visual-representation
#1
Jonathan R Folstein, Shamsi S Monfared, Trevor Maravel
Subordinate-level category learning recruits neural resources associated with perceptual expertise, including the N250 component of the ERP, a posterolateral negative wave maximal between 230 and 330 ms. The N250 is a relatively late visual ERP and could plausibly be driven by attention to the features of categorized objects. Indeed, it has a latency and scalp distribution similar to the selection negativity (SN), an ERP component long known to be sensitive to attentional selection of target features. To clarify sensitivity of the N250 to attention and to more generally investigate the effect of category learning on attentional modulation of learned features, we independently manipulated subordinate-level category learning and target detection in a speeded paradigm designed to optimally elicit the SN and accompanying frontal selection positivity (FSP)...
August 4, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746244/the-effect-of-unicycle-riding-course-on-trunk-strength-and-trunk-stability-functions-in-children
#2
Andrej Kocjan, Nejc Sarabon
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of unicycling on trunk strength and timing of automatic stability actions of the selected trunk muscles (multifidus, obliquus externus, erector spine). METHODS: Twenty healthy 12-year-old children (12 boys, 8 girls; age 12.1 ± 0.2 yrs; body height 1.57 ± 0.05 m; body mass 52.8 ± 10.6 kg) were assigned to experimental and control group. Experimental group performed a supervised 12-session course of unicycling...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741037/shifted-dynamic-interactions-between-subcortical-nuclei-and-inferior-frontal-gyri-during-response-preparation-in-persistent-developmental-stuttering
#3
F Luise Metzger, Tibor Auer, Gunther Helms, Walter Paulus, Jens Frahm, Martin Sommer, Nicole E Neef
Persistent developmental stuttering is associated with basal ganglia dysfunction or dopamine dysregulation. Here, we studied whole-brain functional connectivity to test how basal ganglia structures coordinate and reorganize sensorimotor brain networks in stuttering. To this end, adults who stutter and fluent speakers (control participants) performed a response anticipation paradigm in the MRI scanner. The preparation of a manual Go/No-Go response reliably produced activity in the basal ganglia and thalamus and particularly in the substantia nigra...
July 24, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740088/functional-correlates-of-tsh-ft3-and-ft4-in-alzheimer-disease-a-f-18-fdg-pet-ct-study
#4
Agostino Chiaravalloti, Francesco Ursini, Alessandro Fiorentini, Gaetano Barbagallo, Alessandro Martorana, Giacomo Koch, Mario Tavolozza, Orazio Schillaci
The present study was aimed to investigate the relationships between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), freeT3 (fT3) and freeT4 (fT4) and brain glucose consumption as detectable by means of 2-deoxy-2-(F-18) fluoro-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) in a selected population with Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated 87 subjects (37 males and 50 females, mean age 70 (±6) years old) with AD. All of them were subjected to TSH, fT3 and fT4 assay and to cerebrospinal fluid amyloid (Aβ1-42) and tau [phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) and total-tau (t-tau)] assay prior PET/CT examination...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727235/thermal-imaging-and-dermoscopy-for-detecting-inflammation-in-frontal-fibrosing-alopecia
#5
Anna Lis-Święty, Bartosz Miziołek, Irmina Ranosz-Janicka, Grażyna Bierzyńska-Macyszyn, Ligia Brzezińska-Wcisło
BACKGROUND: Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) is an inflammatory condition of the scalp, which leads to scarring and slowly progressive recession of frontotemporal and/or frontoparietal hairline. Choice of FFA treatment is highly dependent on accurate assessment of disease phase, as medical treatments are effective only during the initial inflammatory stage. METHODS: To objectively quantify the activity of the inflammatory process in FFA, 22 female patients were examined by both infrared thermography and optical dermoscopy before tissue sampling...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725962/optimal-positioning-of-the-nipple-areola-complex-in-men-using-the-mohrenheim-estimated-tangential-tracking-line-mett-line-an-intuitive-approach
#6
Tobias R Mett, Nicco Krezdorn, Rosalia Luketina, Maria K Boyce, Helga Henseler, Ramin Ipaktchi, Peter M Vogt
INTRODUCTION: The reconstruction of the body shape after post-bariatric surgery or high-grade gynecomastia involves, besides skin tightening, the repositioning of anatomical, apparent landmarks. The surgeon usually defines these during the preoperative planning. In particular, the positions of the nipple-areola complexes (NAC) should contribute to the gender-appropriate appearance. While in the female breast numerous methods have been developed to determine the optimal position of the NACs, there are only a few, metric and often impractical algorithms for positioning the nipples and areoles in the male...
July 19, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713312/neural-temporal-dynamics-of-facial-emotion-processing-age-effects-and-relationship-to-cognitive-function
#7
Xiaoyan Liao, Kui Wang, Kai Lin, Raymond C K Chan, Xiaoyuan Zhang
This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the effects of age on neural temporal dynamics of processing task-relevant facial expressions and their relationship to cognitive functions. Negative (sad, afraid, angry, and disgusted), positive (happy), and neutral faces were presented to 30 older and 31 young participants who performed a facial emotion categorization task. Behavioral and ERP indices of facial emotion processing were analyzed. An enhanced N170 for negative faces, in addition to intact right-hemispheric N170 for positive faces, was observed in older adults relative to their younger counterparts...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689051/projection-targets-of-medial-frontal-d1dr-expressing-neurons
#8
Sang-Woo Han, Young-Cho Kim, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Prefrontal neurons expressing D1-type dopamine receptors (D1DRs) have been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes including working memory and timing. Although D1DRs are most strongly expressed on layer V/VI projection neurons, it is unknown which brain areas are specifically targeted by these projections. Here we selectively marked D1DR neurons using cre-loxP techniques with AAV carrying mCherry fluorescent protein, and traced projection targets of D1DR+ neurons in the mouse medial frontal cortex (MFC)...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640899/normative-3d-opto-electronic-stereo-photogrammetric-posture-and-spine-morphology-data-in-young-healthy-adult-population
#9
Moreno D'Amico, Edyta Kinel, Piero Roncoletta
Observational cross-sectional study. The current study aims to yield normative data: i.e., the physiological standard for 30 selected quantitative 3D parameters that accurately capture and describe a full-skeleton, upright-standing attitude. Specific and exclusive consideration was given to three distinct categories: postural, spine morphology and pelvic parameters. To capture such 3D parameters, the authors selected a non-ionising 3D opto-electronic stereo-photogrammetric approach. This required the identification and measurement of 27 body landmarks, each specifically tagged with a skin marker...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579965/neural-correlates-of-psychotherapeutic-treatment-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-a-systematic-literature-review
#10
Kathrin Malejko, Birgit Abler, Paul L Plener, Joana Straub
OBJECTIVES: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disease with changes in neural circuitries. Neurobiological models conceptualize the symptoms of PTSD as correlates of a dysfunctional stress reaction to traumatic events. Functional imaging studies showed an increased amygdala and a decreased prefrontal cortex response in PTSD patients. As psychotherapeutic approaches represent the gold standard for PTSD treatment, it is important to examine its underlying neurobiological correlates...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575151/brain-inflammation-accompanies-amyloid-in-the-majority-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-cases-due-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Peter Parbo, Rola Ismail, Kim V Hansen, Ali Amidi, Frederik H Mårup, Hanne Gottrup, Hans Brændgaard, Bengt O Eriksson, Simon F Eskildsen, Torben E Lund, Anna Tietze, Paul Edison, Nicola Pavese, Morten G Stokholm, Per Borghammer, Rainer Hinz, Joel Aanerud, David J Brooks
See Kreisl (doi:10.1093/awx151) for a scientific commentary on this article.Subjects with mild cognitive impairment associated with cortical amyloid-β have a greatly increased risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that neuroinflammation occurs early in Alzheimer's disease and would be present in most amyloid-positive mild cognitive impairment cases. 11C-Pittsburgh compound B and 11C-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography was used to determine the amyloid load and detect the extent of neuroinflammation (microglial activation) in 42 mild cognitive impairment cases...
July 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521147/a-pilot-study-of-differential-brain-activation-to-suicidal-means-and-dna-methylation-of-cacna1c-gene-in-suicidal-attempt-patients
#12
Young Jong Kim, Hae Jeong Park, Geon-Ho Jahng, Sang Min Lee, Won Sub Kang, Su Kang Kim, Tae Kim, Ah Rang Cho, Jin Kyung Park
Suicide is a serious public health problem. In this study, we investigated functional brain changes to novel visual stimuli of suicidal means, DNA methylation status, and the relationship between the two markers. 14 suicidal attempt patients (SAs) and 22 healthy controls were included. Pictures of facial expressions and suicidal means were shown to subjects during fMRI scanning. 11 CpG sites within transcription factor binding site of CACNA1C gene were selected. In knives (K) vs. natural landscape (NL) condition, left middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area, BA 6 and 46) and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 9) were shown to be significantly higher brain activation in the SAs than the controls (p<0...
September 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505152/a-predictive-coding-account-of-bistable-perception-a-model-based-fmri-study
#13
Veith Weilnhammer, Heiner Stuke, Guido Hesselmann, Philipp Sterzer, Katharina Schmack
In bistable vision, subjective perception wavers between two interpretations of a constant ambiguous stimulus. This dissociation between conscious perception and sensory stimulation has motivated various empirical studies on the neural correlates of bistable perception, but the neurocomputational mechanism behind endogenous perceptual transitions has remained elusive. Here, we recurred to a generic Bayesian framework of predictive coding and devised a model that casts endogenous perceptual transitions as a consequence of prediction errors emerging from residual evidence for the suppressed percept...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482427/-correlation-between-the-clinical-symptoms-and-the-activation-pattern-of-brain-neurons-in-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#14
Q H Niu, J L Cheng, X Q Song, L Yang, C Y Chu, H Liu, L F Zhang, Y Li, Y H Li
Objective: To explore the correlation between clinical symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the activation pattern of brain neurons at resting. Methods: A total of 26 patients diagnosed with fist-episode OCD were selected and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning at resting state. The fMRI data were processed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI Analysis Toolkit (DPARSFA), and Resting State fMRI Data Analysis Toolkit (REST) software...
May 9, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479979/the-evolution-of-intelligence-in-mammalian-carnivores
#15
REVIEW
Kay E Holekamp, Sarah Benson-Amram
Although intelligence should theoretically evolve to help animals solve specific types of problems posed by the environment, it is unclear which environmental challenges favour enhanced cognition, or how general intelligence evolves along with domain-specific cognitive abilities. The social intelligence hypothesis posits that big brains and great intelligence have evolved to cope with the labile behaviour of group mates. We have exploited the remarkable convergence in social complexity between cercopithecine primates and spotted hyaenas to test predictions of the social intelligence hypothesis in regard to both cognition and brain size...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466554/motion-of-the-anterior-cruciate-ligament-during-internal-and-external-rotation-at-the-knee-a-cadaveric-study
#16
J Peeler, J Anderson, S Piotrowski, G Stranges
Despite advances in our understanding of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) anatomy and function, the change in position of the ACL during tibial rotation is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the movements of the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles of the ACL during 15° of medial and lateral rotation (with & without a shear force). Cadaveric knees (12 male/12 female) were dissected and mounted at 90° of knee flexion. Anthropometric features of the ACL and distal femur were recorded, and each bundle was marked at: femoral attachment (FA), midpoint of ligament (MP), and tibial attachment (TA)...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431821/near-infrared-spectroscopy-as-a-predictor-for-shunt-requirement-during-carotid-endarterectomy
#17
M Jonsson, D Lindström, A Wanhainen, K Djavani Gidlund, P Gillgren
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) continuously monitors regional cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) in the frontal lobes. This method may be used in patients during carotid endarterectomy to indicate the need for shunting. The aim of the study was to evaluate the value of NIRS in determining the need for selective shunting during CEA. A secondary aim was to compare NIRS with stump pressure. METHODS: Between January 2013 and October 2016, 185 patients from two vascular units, undergoing CEA under local anaesthesia were prospectively included...
April 18, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428766/episodic-specificity-in-acquiring-thematic-knowledge-of-novel-words-from-descriptive-episodes
#18
Meichao Zhang, Shuang Chen, Lin Wang, Xiaohong Yang, Yufang Yang
The current study examined whether thematic relations of the novel words could be acquired via descriptive episodes, and if yes, whether it could be generalized to thematically related words in a different scenario. In Experiment 1, a lexical decision task was used where the novel words served as primes for target words in four conditions: (1) corresponding concepts of the novel words, (2) thematically related words in the same episodes as that in learning condition, (3) thematically related words in different episodes, or (4) unrelated words served as targets...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401047/neuroimaging-studies-of-cognitive-remediation-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-and-critical-review
#19
Rafael Penadés, Alexandre González-Rodríguez, Rosa Catalán, Bàrbara Segura, Miquel Bernardo, Carme Junqué
AIM: To examine the effects of cognitive remediation therapies on brain functioning through neuroimaging procedures in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: A systematic, computerised literature search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline and PsychInfo databases. The search was performed through February 2016 without any restrictions on language or publication date. The search was performed using the following search terms: [("cogniti*" and "remediation" or "training" or "enhancement") and ("fMRI" or "MRI" or "PET" or "SPECT") and (schizophrenia or schiz*)]...
March 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384269/amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-first-episode-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-depressive-patients-a-5-year-retrospective-study
#20
Kerang Zhang, Zhifen Liu, Xiaohua Cao, Chunxia Yang, Yong Xu, Ting Xu, Cheng Xu, Zhi Yang
Despite different treatments and courses of illness, depressive symptoms appear similar in bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), causing BD with an onset of depressive episode being frequently misdiagnosed as MDD, and leading to inappropriate treatment and poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to explore underlying neural basis to distinguish BD from MDD. The medical records of 80 first-episode, drug-naïve depressive patients with an initial diagnosis of MDD and illness duration of at least 5 years were reviewed retrospectively for this study...
2017: PloS One
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