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Zahra Jafari, Marjan Motamedi, Nilufar Jalalizand, Gholam R Shokoohi, Arezu Charsizadeh, Hossein Mirhendi
Background and Purpose: The epidemiological alteration in the distribution of Candida species, as well as the significantly increasing trend of either intrinsic or acquired resistance of some of these fungi highlights the need for a reliable method for the identification of the species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the methods facilitating the quick and precise identification of Candida species. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of CHROMagar, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and PCR-fragment size polymorphism (PCR-FSP) assays in the identification of Candida species to determine the benefits and limitations of these methods...
September 2017: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
Xiaoyang Chen, Qiao Dai, Xingcheng Li, Yalin Lu, Yang Zhang
In this study, as-cast Mg⁻6Sn⁻2Zn (wt.%) alloy was subjected to friction stir processing (FSP) and the microstructure and tensile properties of FSP Mg⁻6Sn⁻2Zn samples were investigated. It was found that, in the stir zone (SZ) of FSP Mg⁻6Sn⁻2Zn samples, α-Mg grains were significantly refined via dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and the Mg₂Sn phase was broken and partially dissolved. The microstructure in SZ was nonuniform and DRXed grains in the SZ-up regions were coarser than those in the SZ-down regions...
April 23, 2018: Materials
Karthikeyan Selvam, Priya Mandal, Harpreet Singh Grewal, Harpreet Singh Arora
Cavitation erosion remains the primary cause of material degradation in fluid machinery components operating at high speed. Micro-jets/shock waves caused by implosion of bubbles on material surface results in significant material loss and premature failure of the components. The presence of corrosive medium further exuberates this effect, causing rapid degradation. Here, we demonstrate a novel pathway to control cavitation erosion-corrosion by tailoring the surface properties using submerged friction stir processing (FSP), a severe plastic deformation process...
June 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Sara Vieira, Albina R Franco, Emanuel M Fernandes, Sara Amorim, Helena Ferreira, Ricardo A Pires, Rui L Reis, Albino Martins, Nuno M Neves
Fish sarcoplasmic proteins (FSP) constitute around 25-30% of the total fish muscle protein. As the FSP are water soluble, FSP were isolated from fresh cod (Gadus morhua) by centrifugation. By SDS-PAGE, it was possible to determine the composition of FSP extracts (FSP-E). The FSP-E undergo denaturation at 44.12 ± 2.34° C, as characterized by differential scanning calorimetry thermograms (DSC). The secondary structure of FSP-E is mainly composed by α-helix structure, as determined by circular dichroism...
April 5, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
B Sadeghi, P Cavaliere, M Shamanian, M Sanayei, J A Szpunar, M Nosko
In the present study, Spark Plasma Sintered (SPSed) aluminium matrix composites were severely deformed through Friction stir processing (FSP). Pure aluminium powders and bimodal sized Al2 O3 particles (80 nm and 25 μm) were firstly mixed by ball milling and then consolidated by spark plasma sintering. The effect of the heat input as well the bimodal particle size of the alumina on the materials' microstructure and texture development was evaluated by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The EBSD analysis clearly showed that the SPSed nanocomposites possessed bimodal aluminium matrix grain structure as well as a crystallography characterised by random texture...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
Chih-Wei Huang, Jong-Ning Aoh
In the present work, we proposed a novel friction stir processing (FSP) to produce a locally reinforced aluminum matrix composite (AMC) by stirring copper-coated SiC particulate reinforcement into Al6061 alloy matrix. Electroless-plating process was applied to deposit the copper surface coating on the SiC particulate reinforcement for the purpose of improving the interfacial adhesion between SiC particles and Al matrix. The core-shell SiC structure provides a layer for the atomic diffusion between aluminum and copper to enhance the cohesion between reinforcing particles and matrix on one hand, the dispersion of fine copper in the Al matrix during FSP provides further dispersive strengthening and solid solution strengthening, on the other hand...
April 13, 2018: Materials
Erin E Futrell, Steve T Jamison, Adam S Tenforde, Irene S Davis
Excessive vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) loadrates have been linked with running injuries. Increasing cadence (CAD) has been shown to reduce loadrates; however relationships between habitual cadence and loadrates across a population of runners have not been examined. PURPOSE: To examine the relationships between habitual running cadence and vertical loadrates in healthy and injured runners using habitual footstrike patterns. As CAD increased, we expected vertical loadrates would decrease...
April 2, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Wei Sun, Jia Liu, Jing Li, Di Wu, Jing Wang, Ming-Wu Wang, Jin-Song Zhang, Jiang-Yue Zhao
AIM: To evaluate human lens epithelium cell apoptosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by femtosecond laser in femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery (FLACS). METHODS: Sixty cataract patients with N2 to N3 stage according to the LOCS III were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups randomly: FLACS1 group (cataract surgery by FLACS with LenSx), FLACS2 group (cataract surgery by FLACS with LensAR) and manual group (cataract surgery by phacoemulsification)...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Lei Liu, Yaqin Wang, Zhongyang Hu, Pinting Yang, Xia Cao, Ting Yuan, Guilian Wang, Zhiheng Chen
To explore the correlation between cerebrovascular hemodynamic index (CVHI)accumulative score and subclinical arteriosclerosis indicators.
 Methods: A total of 27 184 cases were collected from the Health Management Center, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University. Linear regression analysis was carried out to confirm the correlations between CVHI accumulative score and the modified Framingham stroke profile (FSP), as well as between CVHI accumulative score and cerebrovascular diseases (ICVD) scale...
February 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
M A Chesnaye, S L Bell, J M Harte, D M Simpson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the specificity, sensitivity and detection time of various time-domain and multi-band frequency domain methods when detecting the auditory brainstem response (ABR). DESIGN: Simulations and subject recorded data were used to assess and compare the performance of the Hotelling's T2 test (applied in either time or frequency domain), two versions of the modified q-sample uniform scores test and both the Fsp and Fmp, which were evaluated using both conventional F-distributions with assumed degrees of freedom and a bootstrap approach...
June 2018: International Journal of Audiology
Verena Müller, Heinz Klünter, Dirk Fürstenberg, Hartmut Meister, Martin Walger, Ruth Lang-Roth
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether adults with cochlear implants benefit from a change of fine structure (FS) coding strategies regarding the discrimination of prosodic speech cues, timbre cues, and the identification of natural instruments. The FS processing (FSP) coding strategy was compared to 2 settings of the FS4 strategy. Method: A longitudinal crossover, double-blinded study was conducted. This study consisted of 2 parts, with 14 participants in the first part and 12 participants in the second part...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
Jinhua Peng, Zhen Zhang, Zhao Liu, Yaozu Li, Peng Guo, Wei Zhou, Yucheng Wu
Friction stir processing (FSP) was used to achieve grain refinement on Mg-Al-Zn alloys, which also brought in significant texture modification. The different micro-texture characteristics were found to cause irregular micro-hardness distribution in FSPed region. The effects of texture and grain size were investigated by comparative analyses with strongly textured rolling sheet. Grain refinement improved both strength and elongation in condition of a basal texture while such led to an increment in yield stress and a drop in elongation and ultimate stress when the basal texture was modified by FSP...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alfonsina Arriaga-Jiménez, Matthias Rös, Gonzalo Halffter
Insect diversity patterns of high mountain ecosystems remain poorly studied in the tropics. Sampling dung beetles of the subfamilies Aphodiinae, Scarabaeinae, and Geotrupinae was carried out at four volcanoes in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) in the Mexican transition zone at 2,700 and 3,400 MASL, and on the windward and leeward sides. Sampling units represented a forest-shrubland-pasture (FSP) mosaic typical of this mountain region. A total of 3,430 individuals of 29 dung beetle species were collected...
2018: PeerJ
Catherine B Anders, Josh E Eixenberger, Nevil A Franco, Rebecca J Hermann, Katherine D Rainey, Jordan J Chess, Alex Punnoose, Denise G Wingett
ZnO nanoparticles (nZnO) are commonly used in nanotechnology applications despite their demonstrated cytotoxicity against multiple cell types. This underscores the significant need to determine the physicochemical properties that influence nZnO cytotoxicity. In this study, we analyzed six similarly sized nZnO formulations, along with SiO2 -coated nZnO, bulk ZnO and ZnSO4 as controls. Four of the nZnO samples were synthesized using various wet chemical methods, while three employed high-temperature flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) techniques...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Science. Nano
Ming Wang, Neil White, Volker Grimm, Helen Hofman, David Doley, Grant Thorp, Bronwen Cribb, Ella Wherritt, Liqi Han, John Wilkie, Jim Hanan
Background and Aims: Functional-structural plant (FSP) models have been widely used to understand the complex interactions between plant architecture and underlying developmental mechanisms. However, to obtain evidence that a model captures these mechanisms correctly, a clear distinction must be made between model outputs used for calibration and thus verification, and outputs used for validation. In pattern-oriented modelling (POM), multiple verification patterns are used as filters for rejecting unrealistic model structures and parameter combinations, while a second, independent set of patterns is used for validation...
February 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Pedro Á Latorre-Román, Juan A Párraga-Montilla, Ignacio Guardia-Monteagudo, Felipe García-Pinillos
PURPOSE: This study aims to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no inversion [INV]/eversion [EVE] and no foot rotation) in preschool children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. METHODS: A total of 1356 children aged 3-6 years (673 boys and 683 girls) participated in this study. A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240 Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/ eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Hamed Aghajani Derazkola, Abdolreza Simchi
In this study, alumina-reinforced poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites (PMMA/Al2 O3 ) containing up to 20vol% nanoparticles with an average diameter of 50nm were prepared by friction stir processing. The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction on the microstructural features and mechanical properties of PMMA were studied. It is shown that by using a frustum pin tool and employing an appropriate processing condition, i.e. a rotational speed of 1600rpm/min and transverse velocity of 120mm/min, defect free nanocomposites at microscale with fine distribution of the nanoparticles can successfully been prepared...
March 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Melanie Canterberry, Samantha Francois, Taslim van Hattum, Lindsey Rudov, Thomas W Carton
BACKGROUND: Louisiana has one of the highest rates of overweight and obese children in the United States. The Healthy School Food Collaborative (HSFC) was created to allow New Orleans's schools to select their own healthy school Food Service Provider (FSP) with requirements for higher nutritional standards than traditional options. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether HSFC membership was associated with lunch consumption rates in elementary school children. METHODS: An 8-week plate waste study examining 18,070 trays of food among fourth and fifth graders was conducted...
February 2018: Journal of School Health
Jonas Janikovits, Meike Müller, Julia Krzykalla, Sandrina Körner, Fabian Echterdiek, Bernd Lahrmann, Niels Grabe, Martin Schneider, Axel Benner, Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz, Matthias Kloor
DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient cancers accumulate high numbers of coding microsatellite mutations, which lead to the generation of highly immunogenic frameshift peptide (FSP) neoantigens. MMR-deficient cells can grow out to clinically manifest cancers either if they evade immune cell attack or if local T-cells get exhausted. Therefore, a subset of MSI cancer patients responds particularly well to treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. We analyzed whether immune evasion in MMR-deficient cancer mediated by loss of HLA class I or II antigens is related to local immune cell activation status...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Franca J Bongers, Ronald Pierik, Niels P R Anten, Jochem B Evers
Background and Aims: Although phenotypic plasticity has been shown to be beneficial for plant competitiveness for light, there is limited knowledge on how variation in these plastic responses plays a role in determining competitiveness. Methods: A combination of detailed plant experiments and functional-structural plant (FSP) modelling was used that captures the complex dynamic feedback between the changing plant phenotype and the within-canopy light environment in time and 3-D space...
December 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
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