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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404953/hydrogen-rich-saline-attenuates-spinal-cord-hemisection-induced-testicular-injury-in-rats
#1
Li Ge, Li-Hua Wei, Chang-Qing Du, Guo-Hua Song, Ya-Zhuo Xue, Hao-Shen Shi, Ming Yang, Xin-Xin Yin, Run-Ting Li, Xue-Er Wang, Zhen Wang, Wen-Gang Song
To study how hydrogen-rich saline (HS) promotes the recovery of testicular biological function in a hemi-sectioned spinal cord injury (hSCI) rat model, a right hemisection was performed at the T11-T12 of the spinal cord in Wistar rats. Animals were divided into four groups: normal group; vehicle group: sham-operated rats administered saline; hSCI group: subjected to hSCI and administered saline; HRST group: subjected to hSCI and administered HS. Hind limb neurological function, testis index, testicular morphology, mean seminiferous tubular diameter (MSTD) and seminiferous epithelial thickness (MSET), the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), mitofusin-2 (MFN-2), and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1), cell ultrastructure, and apoptosis of spermatogenic cells were studied...
March 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402477/coercive-and-legitimate-authority-impact-tax-honesty-evidence-from-behavioral-and-erp-experiments
#2
Katharina Gangl, Daniela M Pfabigan, Claus Lamm, Erich Kirchler, Eva Hofmann
Cooperation in social systems such as tax honesty is of central importance in our modern societies. However, we know little about cognitive and neural processes driving decisions to evade or pay taxes. This study focuses on the impact of perceived tax authority and examines the mental chronometry mirrored in ERP data allowing a deeper understanding about why humans cooperate in tax systems. We experimentally manipulated coercive and legitimate authority and studied its impact on cooperation and underlying cognitive (experiment 1, 2) and neuronal (experiment 2) processes...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384228/doxycycline-protects-against-ros-induced-mitochondrial-fragmentation-and-iso-induced-heart-failure
#3
Adam Riba, Laszlo Deres, Krisztian Eros, Aliz Szabo, Klara Magyar, Balazs Sumegi, Kalman Toth, Robert Halmosi, Eszter Szabados
In addition to their anti-bacterial action, tetracyclines also have complex biological effects, including the modification of mitochondrial protein synthesis, metabolism and gene-expression. Long-term clinical studies have been performed using tetracyclines, without significant side effects. Previous studies demonstrated that doxycycline (DOX), a major tetracyclin antibiotic, exerted a protective effect in animal models of heart failure; however, its exact molecular mechanism is still unknown. Here, we provide the first evidence that DOX reduces oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and depolarization in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and beneficially alters the expression of Mfn-2, OPA-1 and Drp-1 -the main regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission-in our isoproterenol (ISO)-induced heart failure model, ultimately decreasing the severity of heart failure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356916/spasmolytic-and-antibacterial-activity-of-two-citrus-sinensis-osbeck-varieties-cultivated-in-mexico
#4
Amanda Sánchez-Recillas, Ana Ly Arroyo-Herrera, Jesús Alfredo Araujo-León, Emanuel Hernández Núñez, Rolffy Ortiz Andrade
Antibacterial activity on ATCC strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella choleraesuis and spasmolytic effect on contraction on rat ileum trips were determinate. Eight organic extracts (hexanic and methanolic) of albedo (mesocarp) and flavedo (pericarp) of two varieties (Valencian and National) of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck of Yucatán, México, were studied. Additionally, chromatographic fingerprints were obtained and correlated with their pharmacological effects...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154412/superresolution-imaging-identifies-that-conventional-trafficking-pathways-are-not-essential-for-endoplasmic-reticulum-to-outer-mitochondrial-membrane-protein-transport
#5
Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K Jaiswal, Anamaris M Colberg-Poley
Most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins traffic from the cytosol to mitochondria. Some of these proteins localize at mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), where mitochondria are closely apposed with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that the human cytomegalovirus signal-anchored protein known as viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we have examined the host pathways by which vMIA traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the OMM...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998959/exogenous-h2s-regulates-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-cross-talk-to-inhibit-apoptotic-pathways-in-stz-induced-type-i-diabetes
#6
Fan Yang, Xiangjing Yu, Ting Li, Jianjun Wu, YaJun Zhao, Jiaqi Liu, Aili Sun, Shiyun Dong, Jichao Wu, Xin Zhong, Changqing Xu, Fanghao Lu, Weihua Zhang
BACKGROUND: The upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a primary cause of cardiomyocyte apoptosis in Diabetes cardiomyopathy (DCM). Mitofusin-2 (Mfn-2) is a key protein that bridges the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum(ER). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-mediated cardioprotection is related to antioxidant effects. The present study demonstrated that H2S inhibited the interaction between the ER and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. METHODS: This study investigated cardiac function, ultrastructural changes in the ER and mitochondria, apoptotic rate using TUNEL and the expression of ER stress-associated proteins and mitochondrial apoptotic proteins in cardiac tissues in STZ-induced type I diabetic rats treated with or without NaHS (donor of H2S)...
December 20, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920125/structures-of-human-mitofusin-1-provide-insight-into-mitochondrial-tethering
#7
Yuanbo Qi, Liming Yan, Caiting Yu, Xiangyang Guo, Xin Zhou, Xiaoyu Hu, Xiaofang Huang, Zihe Rao, Zhiyong Lou, Junjie Hu
Mitochondria undergo fusion and fission. The merging of outer mitochondrial membranes requires mitofusin (MFN), a dynamin-like GTPase. How exactly MFN mediates membrane fusion is poorly understood. Here, we determined crystal structures of a minimal GTPase domain (MGD) of human MFN1, including the predicted GTPase and the distal part of the C-terminal tail (CT). The structures revealed that a helix bundle (HB) formed by three helices extending from the GTPase and one extending from the CT closely attaches to the GTPase domain, resembling the configuration of bacterial dynamin-like protein...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913356/a-framework-for-integrating-multiple-biological-networks-to-predict-microrna-disease-associations
#8
Wei Peng, Wei Lan, Zeng Yu, Jianxin Wang, Yi Pan
MicroRNAs have close relationship with human diseases. Therefore, identifying disease related MicroRNAs plays an important role in disease diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. However, designing an effective computational method which can make good use of various biological resources and correctly predict the associations between MicroRNA and disease is still a big challenge. Previous researchers have pointed out that there are complex relationships among microRNAs, diseases and environment factors. There are inter-relationships between microRNAs, diseases or environment factors based on their functional similarity or phenotype similarity or chemical structure similarity and so on...
March 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881711/mitochondrial-fusion-reaching-the-end-of-mitofusin-s-tether
#9
Luke E Formosa, Michael T Ryan
In this issue, Qi et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201609019) provide structural insights into the mechanisms of mitochondrial outer membrane fusion by investigating the structure of mitofusin 1 (MFN1). This work proposes a new model to explain the important and elusive process of MFN-mediated mitochondrial fusion.
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801955/curcumin-prevents-mitochondrial-dynamics-disturbances-in-early-5-6-nephrectomy-relation-to-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-bioenergetics
#10
Omar Emiliano Aparicio-Trejo, Edilia Tapia, Eduardo Molina-Jijón, Omar Noel Medina-Campos, Norma Angélica Macías-Ruvalcaba, Juan Carlos León-Contreras, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Fernando E García-Arroyo, Magdalena Cristóbal, Laura Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, José Pedraza-Chaverri
Five-sixths nephrectomy (5/6NX) is a widely used model to study the mechanisms leading to renal damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, early alterations on renal function, mitochondrial dynamics, and oxidative stress have not been explored yet. Curcumin is an antioxidant that has shown nephroprotection in 5/6NX-induced renal damage. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of curcumin on early mitochondrial alterations induced by 5/6NX in rats. In isolated mitochondria, 5/6NX-induced hydrogen peroxide production was associated with decreased activity of complexes I and V, decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, alterations in oxygen consumption and increased MDA-protein adducts...
March 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775718/correcting-mitochondrial-fusion-by-manipulating-mitofusin-conformations
#11
Antonietta Franco, Richard N Kitsis, Julie A Fleischer, Evripidis Gavathiotis, Opher S Kornfeld, Guohua Gong, Nikolaos Biris, Ann Benz, Nir Qvit, Sara K Donnelly, Yun Chen, Steven Mennerick, Louis Hodgson, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Gerald W Dorn
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that exchange contents and undergo remodelling during cyclic fusion and fission. Genetic mutations in MFN2 (the gene encoding mitofusin 2) interrupt mitochondrial fusion and cause the untreatable neurodegenerative condition Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A). It has not yet been possible to directly modulate mitochondrial fusion, in part because the structural basis of mitofusin function is not completely understood. Here we show that mitofusins adopt either a fusion-constrained or a fusion-permissive molecular conformation, directed by specific intramolecular binding interactions, and demonstrate that mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial fusion can be regulated in mouse cells by targeting these conformational transitions...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734234/mangiferin-inhibits-il-1%C3%AE-induced-inflammatory-response-by-activating-ppar-%C3%AE-in-human-osteoarthritis-chondrocytes
#12
Yanlong Qu, Li Zhou, Chunlei Wang
Inflammation has been reported to play critical roles in the development of osteoarthritis. In the present study, we investigated whether mangiferin (MFN) had anti-inflammatory effects in IL-1β-stimulated human osteoarthritis chondrocytes. The cells were treated with various concentrations of MFN in the presence or absence of IL-1β. The production of MMP-1, MMP-3, PGE2, and NO was measured in this study. The expression of NF-kB and PPAR-γ was detected by western blot analysis. MFN inhibited IL-1β-induced inflammatory mediators PGE2 and NO production...
February 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647893/critical-reappraisal-confirms-that-mitofusin-2-is-an-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-tether
#13
Deborah Naon, Marta Zaninello, Marta Giacomello, Tatiana Varanita, Francesca Grespi, Sowmya Lakshminaranayan, Annalisa Serafini, Martina Semenzato, Stephanie Herkenne, Maria Isabel Hernández-Alvarez, Antonio Zorzano, Diego De Stefani, Gerald W Dorn, Luca Scorrano
The discovery of the multiple roles of mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) juxtaposition in cell biology often relied upon the exploitation of Mitofusin (Mfn) 2 as an ER-mitochondria tether. However, this established Mfn2 function was recently questioned, calling for a critical re-evaluation of Mfn2's role in ER-mitochondria cross-talk. Electron microscopy and fluorescence-based probes of organelle proximity confirmed that ER-mitochondria juxtaposition was reduced by constitutive or acute Mfn2 deletion...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623243/regulation-of-mitoflash-biogenesis-and-signaling-by-mitochondrial-dynamics
#14
Wenwen Li, Tao Sun, Beibei Liu, Di Wu, Wenfeng Qi, Xianhua Wang, Qi Ma, Heping Cheng
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles undergoing constant network reorganization and exhibiting stochastic signaling events in the form of mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes). Here we investigate whether and how mitochondrial network dynamics regulate mitoflash biogenesis and signaling. We found that mitoflash frequency was largely invariant when network fragmentized or redistributed in the absence of mitofusin (Mfn) 1, Mfn2, or Kif5b. However, Opa1 deficiency decreased spontaneous mitoflash frequency due to superimposing changes in respiratory function, whereas mitoflash response to non-metabolic stimulation was unchanged despite network fragmentation...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548349/ptd4-apoptin-induces-bcl-2-insensitive-apoptosis-in-human-cervical-carcinoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Xiao-Wen Liu, Ping Yuan, Jun Tian, Ling-Jun Li, Yu Wang, Song-Chun Huang, Lin Liu, Claude Backendorf, Mathieu H M Noteborn, Jun Sun
Worldwide, cervix carcinoma is among the most dangerous cancer types, and novel therapies are under development. Cancer treatments are often hampered because of lack of specificity. The chicken anemia virus-derived apoptin induces apoptosis selectively in tumor cells and leaves normal cells unharmed. Here, we have carried out in-vitro and in-vivo studies on the cytotoxic effect of apoptin in a cervix carcinoma model. Apoptin was fused to the protein transduction domain 4 (PTD4), enabling delivery of the fusion protein across cellular membranes...
November 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437868/curcumin-partly-ameliorates-irinotecan-induced-diarrhea-and-synergistically-promotes-apoptosis-in-colorectal-cancer-through-mediating-oxidative-stress
#16
Da-Jian Zhu, Yan-Feng Huang, Xiao-Wu Chen, Zhen-Tao Luo, Guo-Xin Wang, Chang-Chun Liu, Wei-Jie Zhang, Man-Zhao Ouyang
OBJECTIVE: Development of treatment resistance and adverse toxicity limits the gains made by irinotecan in patients with colorectal cancer. According to our previous studies, we found that curcumin could enhance the efficacy of irinotecan-induced apoptosis of colorectal tumor cells in vitro. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a combination treatment regimen of irinotecan and curcumin in the colorectal cancer xenograft model. RESULTS: Curcumin or irinotecan alone reduced the tumor volume, and the combination had the strongest anticancer effects...
July 14, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344016/developmental-effects-of-exposure-to-ultraviolet-b-radiation-on-the-freshwater-prawn-macrobrachium-olfersi-mitochondria-as-a-target-of-environmental-uvb-radiation
#17
Thaline de Quadros, Heloísa Schramm, Eliane C Zeni, Carmen Simioni, Silvana Allodi, Yara M R Müller, Dib Ammar, Evelise M Nazari
In South America, increased UVB radiation has become an important environmental issue that is potentially threatening aquatic ecosystems. Considering that species exhibit different degrees of sensitivity to UVB radiation and that embryos are more sensitive than organisms at later life stages, the aim of this study was to characterize the effects of UVB radiation on subcellular compartments of embryos of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi. This species lives and reproduces in clear and shallow waters, where UV radiation can fully penetrates...
October 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27338558/a-functional-classification-of-medial-frontal-negativity-erps-theta-oscillations-and-single-subject-effects
#18
Stefon J R Van Noordt, Allan Campopiano, Sidney J Segalowitz
Theta oscillations in the EEG have been linked to several ERPs that are elicited during performance-monitoring tasks, including the error-related negativity (ERN), no-go N2, and the feedback-related negativity (FRN). We used a novel paradigm to isolate independent components (ICs) in single subjects' (n = 27) EEG accounting for a medial frontal negativity (MFN) to response cue stimuli that signal a potential change in future response demands. Medial frontal projecting ICs that were sensitive to these response cues also described the ERNs, no-go N2s, and, to a lesser extent, the FRNs, that were elicited in letter flanker, go/no-go, and time-estimation tasks, respectively...
September 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27252377/dynamin-related-protein-1-inhibition-mitigates-bisphenol-a-mediated-alterations-in-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#19
Swati Agarwal, Anuradha Yadav, Shashi Kant Tiwari, Brashket Seth, Lalit Kumar Singh Chauhan, Puneet Khare, Ratan Singh Ray, Rajnish Kumar Chaturvedi
The regulatory dynamics of mitochondria comprises well orchestrated distribution and mitochondrial turnover to maintain the mitochondrial circuitry and homeostasis inside the cells. Several pieces of evidence suggested impaired mitochondrial dynamics and its association with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. We found that chronic exposure of synthetic xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA), a component of consumer plastic products, impaired autophagy-mediated mitochondrial turnover, leading to increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial fragmentation, and apoptosis in hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs)...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27237685/taking-it-easy-when-playing-ultimatum-game-with-a-down-syndrome-proposer-effects-on-behavior-and-medial-frontal-negativity
#20
Gabriel Gaudencio Rêgo, Camila Campanhã, Julia Horta Tabosa do Egito, Paulo Sérgio Boggio
The Ultimatum Game (UG) is an endowment sharing game in which a proposer suggests a division of an asset to a recipient, who must accept or reject it. Economic studies showed that despite recipients usually reject unfair offers, perception and reaction to unfairness is highly dependent on who is the proposer. Event related potentials (ERP) commonly detected in UG games are the Medial Frontal Negativity (MFN), a component detected in recipients facing unfair offers, and the P300, a component related to attentional and memory processes...
May 30, 2016: Social Neuroscience
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