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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634488/antiherding-in-financial-decision-increases-valuation-of-return-on-investment-an-event-related-potential-study
#1
Cuicui Wang, Jia Jin, João Paulo Vieito, Qingguo Ma
Using event-related potentials, this study investigated how financial herding or antiherding affected the valuation of subsequent outcomes. For each trial, subjects decided whether to buy the stock according to its net money flow information which could be used to reflect the strength of buying power or selling power of the stock. The return on investment (ROI) as feedback included the increase or decrease percentage after subjects' responses. Results showed that, compared with herding, antiherding induced larger discrepancies of FRN and P300 amplitude between positive ROI and negative ROI, indicating that individuals under antiherding condition had stronger motivation and paid more attention in the evaluation process of ROI...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601965/event-related-potentials-reflect-impaired-temporal-interval-learning-following-haloperidol-administration
#2
Sarah E Forster, Patrick Zirnheld, Anantha Shekhar, Stuart R Steinhauer, Brian F O'Donnell, William P Hetrick
BACKGROUND: Signals carried by the mesencephalic dopamine system and conveyed to anterior cingulate cortex are critically implicated in probabilistic reward learning and performance monitoring. A common evaluative mechanism purportedly subserves both functions, giving rise to homologous medial frontal negativities in feedback- and response-locked event-related brain potentials (the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the error-related negativity (ERN), respectively), reflecting dopamine-dependent prediction error signals to unexpectedly negative events...
June 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592831/genetic-variation-of-dopamine-and-serotonin-function-modulates-the-feedback-related-negativity-during-altruistic-punishment
#3
Sören Enge, Hendrik Mothes, Monika Fleischhauer, Andreas Reif, Alexander Strobel
Why do humans cooperate and often punish norm violations of others? In the present study, we sought to investigate the genetic bases of altruistic punishment (AP), which refers to the costly punishment of norm violations with potential benefit for other individuals. Recent evidence suggests that norm violations and unfairness are indexed by the feedback-related negativity (FRN), an anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) generated neural response to expectancy violations. Given evidence on the role of serotonin and dopamine in AP as well as in FRN-generation, we explored the impact of genetic variation of serotonin and dopamine function on FRN and AP behavior in response to unfair vs...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578921/impaired-social-cognition-in-schizophrenia-during-the-ultimatum-game-an-eeg-study
#4
Sibylle K Horat, Grégoire Favre, Anne Prévot, Joseph Ventura, François R Herrmann, Isabelle Gothuey, Marco C G Merlo, Pascal Missonnier
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has a core feature of cognitive dysfunctions. Since these deficits are predictive for patients' functional outcome, understanding their origin is of great importance to improve their daily lives. A specific component of the deficit involves social decision-making, which can be studied using the Ultimatum Game (UG). In this task, a "proposer" proposes a share of money to a "responder", who can either accept or reject this offer. If the responder accepts the proposal, both win money...
June 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569521/how-dispositional-social-risk-seeking-promotes-trusting-strangers-evidence-based-on-brain-potentials-and-neural-oscillations
#5
Yiwen Wang, Yiming Jing, Zhen Zhang, Chongde Lin, Emilio A Valadez
Trust is a risky social decision because betrayal may occur. It's not clear how individual differences in social risk-seeking propensity modulate brain processes of trusting strangers. We examined event-related potentials and time-frequency power to investigate this question while 40 participants played the one-shot trust game. Twenty high social risk-seekers (HSR) and 20 low social risk-seekers (LSR) made trusting or distrusting decisions regarding unknown trustees while their electroencephalogram activity was recorded...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539079/a-cognitive-stressor-for-event-related-potential-studies-the-portland-arithmetic-stress-task
#6
Rachel Atchley, Roger Ellingson, Daniel Klee, Tabatha Memmott, Barry Oken
In this experiment, we developed and evaluated the Portland Arithmetic Stress Task (PAST) as a cognitive stressor to evaluate acute and sustained stress reactivity for event-related potential (ERP) studies. The PAST is a titrated arithmetic task adapted from the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), with added experimental control over presentation parameters, improved and synchronized acoustic feedback and generation of timing markers needed for physiological analyzes of real-time brain activity. Thirty-one older adults (M = 60 years) completed the PAST...
June 19, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523218/valence-and-magnitude-ambiguity-in-feedback-processing
#7
Ruolei Gu, Xue Feng, Lucas S Broster, Lu Yuan, Pengfei Xu, Yue-Jia Luo
BACKGROUND: Outcome feedback which indicates behavioral consequences are crucial for reinforcement learning and environmental adaptation. Nevertheless, outcome information in daily life is often totally or partially ambiguous. Studying how people interpret this kind of information would provide important knowledge about the human evaluative system. METHODS: This study concentrates on the neural processing of partially ambiguous feedback, that is, either its valence or magnitude is unknown to participants...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503138/enhanced-feedback-related-negativity-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Eri Nitta, Keiichi Onoda, Fuminori Ishitobi, Ryota Okazaki, Seiji Mishima, Atsushi Nagai, Shuhei Yamaguchi
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, results in the impairment of executive function, including that of performance monitoring. Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is an electrophysiological measure reflecting the activity of this monitoring system via feedback signals, and is generated from the anterior cingulate cortex. However, there have been no reports on FRN in AD. Based on prior aging studies, we hypothesized that FRN would decrease in AD patients. To assess this, FRN was measured in healthy individuals and those with AD during a simple gambling task involving positive and negative feedback stimuli...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465046/social-value-orientation-modulates-the-frn-and-p300-in-the-chicken-game
#9
Yiwen Wang, D Michael Kuhlman, Kathryn Roberts, Bo Yuan, Zhen Zhang, Wei Zhang, Robert F Simons
Social dilemmas pervade daily life, business, and politics. The manners in which these dilemmas are resolved depend in part on the personal characteristics of those involved. One such characteristic is Social Value Orientation (SVO), a trait-like predisposition to maximize cooperative (Pro-Social) or non-cooperative (Pro-Self) outcomes in social relationships. The present study investigated the role of SVO in modulating neural responses to outcomes in a type of social dilemma known as the Chicken Game. The Chicken Game models real-world situations involving two parties independently making a decision between cooperation and aggression...
May 2, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425491/the-neural-dynamics-underlying-the-interpersonal-effects-of-emotional-expression-on-decision-making
#10
Xuhai Chen, Tingting Zheng, Lingzi Han, Yingchao Chang, Yangmei Luo
Although numerous studies explore the effects of emotion on decision-making, the existing research has mainly focused on the influence of intrapersonal emotions, leaving the influence of one person's emotions on another's decisions underestimated. To specify how interpersonal emotions shape decision-making and delineate the underlying neural dynamics involved, the present study examined brain responses to utilitarian feedback combined with angry or happy faces in competitive and cooperative contexts. Behavioral results showed that participants responded slower following losses than wins when competitors express happiness but responded faster following losses than wins when cooperators express anger...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408136/on-the-correct-side-of-performance-processing-of-internal-and-external-signals-in-response-speed-evaluation
#11
Christian Valt, Birgit Stürmer
Response appropriateness is not exclusively limited to accuracy. Nevertheless, the processing of parameters other than accuracy for response monitoring has been mostly neglected. The present experiment explored how the cognitive system processes response speed based on internal and external signals. Participants performed a response-choice task where correct responses were classified as fast, average, or slow. External signals informative about performance quality were presented after the response in most of the trials; in some trials, instead, participants had to judge their own performance...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396213/effects-of-loss-aversion-on-neural-responses-to-loss-outcomes-an-event-related-potential-study
#12
Katerina Kokmotou, Stephanie Cook, Yuxin Xie, Hazel Wright, Vicente Soto, Nicholas Fallon, Timo Giesbrecht, Athanasios Pantelous, Andrej Stancak
Loss aversion is the tendency to prefer avoiding losses over acquiring gains of the same amount. To shed light on the spatio-temporal processes underlying loss aversion, we analysed the associations between individual loss aversion and electrophysiological responses to loss and gain outcomes in a monetary gamble task. Electroencephalographic feedback-related negativity (FRN) was computed in 29 healthy participants as the difference in electrical potentials between losses and gains. Loss aversion was evaluated using non-linear parametric fitting of choices in a separate gamble task...
April 8, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346515/gender-differences-in-reward-and-punishment-for-monetary-and-social-feedback-in-children-an-erp-study
#13
Ying Ding, Encong Wang, Yuchen Zou, Yan Song, Xue Xiao, Wanyi Huang, Yanfang Li
Gender differences in feedback processing have been observed among adolescents and adults through event-related potentials. However, information on whether and how this feedback processing is affected by feedback valence, feedback type, and individual sensitivity in reward/punishment among children remains minimal. In this study, we used a guessing game task coupled with electroencephalography to investigate gender differences in feedback processing, in which feedback to reward and punishment was presented in the context of monetary and social conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334440/reward-processing-in-gain-versus-loss-context-an-erp-study
#14
Ya Zheng, Qi Li, Yuanyuan Zhang, Qi Li, Huijuan Shen, Qianhui Gao, Shiyu Zhou
Previous research has shown that consummatory ERP components are sensitive to contextual valence. The present study investigated the contextual valence effect across anticipatory and consummatory phases by requiring participants to play a simple gambling task during a gain context and a loss context. During the anticipatory phase, the cue-P3 was more positive in the gain context compared to the loss context, whereas the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) was comparable across the two contexts. With respect to the consummatory phase, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to the zero-value outcome was more negative in the gain versus loss context, whereas the feedback P3 (fb-P3) in response to the zero-value outcome was insensitive to contextual valence...
March 23, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317173/extracellular-matrix-in-the-cns-induced-by-neuropathogenic-viral-infection
#15
Rihito Watanabe, Masatoshi Kakizaki
During the early phase of infection with an extremely neurovirulent murine coronavirus, cl-2, the ER-TR7 antigen (ERag)-positive fibers (ERfibs) associated with laminin and collagen III show a rapid increase in expression levels in the meninges, followed by an appearance of the antigens in the ventricle and brain parenchyma. Then, cl-2 invades the ventricle and ventricular wall along the newly assembled ERfibs after infection, using them as a pathway from the meninges, the initial site of infection. In the lymph nodes and spleen, ERag is mainly produced by fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), which play a key role in nursing the ERfibs to form a fibroblastic reticular network (FRN)...
March 20, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315726/social-distance-influences-the-outcome-evaluation-of-cooperation-and-conflict-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#16
Yezi Chen, Jiamei Lu, Yiwen Wang, Zhouqi Feng, Bo Yuan
Previous research shows that social distance plays an important role in promoting cooperation and that subtle cues that reduce social distance increase the tendency to cooperate. However, it is unclear how social distance influences our outcome evaluation of cooperative and conflict feedback. The present study investigated the influence of social distance on cooperative and conflict behavior and the evaluation process of the cooperative and conflict outcomes, using the event-related potentials (ERPs) technique...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284986/it-s-all-about-timing-an-electrophysiological-examination-of-feedback-based-learning-with-immediate-and-delayed-feedback
#17
Yael Arbel, Lucia Hong, Travis E Baker, Clay B Holroyd
Feedback regarding an individual's action can occur immediately or with a temporal delay. Processing of feedback that varies in its delivery time is proposed to engage different brain mechanisms. fMRI data implicate the striatum in the processing of immediate feedback, and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in the processing of delayed feedback. The present study offers an electrophysiological examination of feedback processing in the context of timing, by studying the effects of feedback timing on the feedback-related negativity (FRN), a product of the midbrain dopamine system, and elucidating whether the N170 ERP component could capture MTL activation associated with the processing of delayed feedback...
March 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276510/processing-of-fair-and-unfair-offers-in-the-ultimatum-game-under-social-observation
#18
Jutta Peterburs, Rolf Voegler, Roman Liepelt, Anna Schulze, Saskia Wilhelm, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Thomas Straube
Social context influences social decisions and outcome processing, partially depending on inter-individual differences. The present study investigated social context-dependent modulation of behavior and feedback processing in the ultimatum game (UG) in relation to inter-individual differences in social anxiety. Thirty-two healthy adults completed the UG both under social observation and without observation. Offers were allegedly either randomly generated by the computer or drawn from a pool of offers from previous human players...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224457/elevated-outcome-anticipation-and-outcome-evaluation-erps-associated-with-a-greater-preference-for-larger-but-delayed-rewards
#19
Narun Pornpattananangkul, Ajay Nadig, Storm Heidinger, Keegan Walden, Robin Nusslock
Although waiting for a reward reduces or discounts its value, some people have a stronger tendency to wait for larger rewards and forgo smaller-but-immediate rewards. This ability to delay gratification is captured by individual differences in so-called intertemporal choices in which individuals are asked to choose between larger-but-delayed versus smaller-but-immediate rewards. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether enhancement in two neurocognitive processes, outcome anticipation and outcome evaluation, modulate individual variability in intertemporal responses...
June 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199707/mood-congruent-tuning-of-reward-expectation-in-positive-mood-evidence-from-frn-and-theta-modulations
#20
Katharina Paul, Gilles Pourtois
Positive mood broadens attention and builds additional mental resources. However, its effect on performance monitoring and reward prediction errors remain unclear. To examine this issue, we used a standard mood induction procedure (based on guided imagery) and asked 45 participants to complete a gambling task suited to study reward prediction errors by means of the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and mid-frontal theta band power. Results showed a larger FRN for negative feedback as well as a lack of reward expectation modulation for positive feedback at the theta level with positive mood, relative to a neutral mood condition...
May 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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