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Jasmina Bakic, Gilles Pourtois, Marieke Jepma, Romain Duprat, Rudi De Raedt, Chris Baeken
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) creates debilitating effects on a wide range of cognitive functions, including reinforcement learning (RL). In this study, we sought to assess whether reward processing as such, or alternatively the complex interplay between motivation and reward might potentially account for the abnormal reward-based learning in MDD. METHODS: A total of 35 treatment resistant MDD patients and 44 age matched healthy controls (HCs) performed a standard probabilistic learning task...
October 26, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Luisa Kessler, Johannes Hewig, Karina Weichold, Rainer K Silbereisen, Wolfgang H R Miltner
Adolescent risk taking is strongly influenced by peer presence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peer presence on the ERP after negative and positive feedback in the time range of the feedback-related negativity (FRN). Eighteen male adolescents completed a version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) under two conditions: playing alone and while observed by a peer. We recorded the ERPs after success or failure feedback and analyzed risk-taking behavior under both conditions...
October 26, 2016: Psychophysiology
Yael Arbel, Hao Wu
The efficiency with which one processes external feedback contributes to the speed and quality of one's learning. Previous findings that the feedback related negativity (FRN) event related potential (ERP) is modulated by learning outcomes suggested that this ERP reflects the extent to which feedback is used by the learner to improve performance. To further test this suggestion, we measured whether the FRN and the fronto-central positivity (FCP) that follows it are modulated by learning slopes, and as a function of individual differences in learning outcomes...
October 4, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Yan Gu, Xueping Hu, Weigang Pan, Chun Yang, Lijun Wang, Yiyuan Li, Antao Chen
Feedback information is essential for us to adapt appropriately to the environment. The feedback-related negativity (FRN), a frontocentral negative deflection after the delivery of feedback, has been found to be larger for outcomes that are worse than expected, and it reflects a reward prediction error derived from the midbrain dopaminergic projections to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as stated in reinforcement learning theory. In contrast, the prediction of response-outcome (PRO) model claims that the neural activity in the mediofrontal cortex (mPFC), especially the ACC, is sensitive to the violation of expectancy, irrespective of the valence of feedback...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lewis Forder, Benjamin James Dyson
Competitive environments in which individuals compete for mutually-exclusive outcomes require rational decision making in order to maximize gains but often result in poor quality heuristics. Reasons for the greater reliance on lose-shift relative to win-stay behaviour shown in previous studies were explored using the game of Rock, Paper, Scissors and by manipulating the value of winning and losing. Decision-making following a loss was characterized as relatively fast and relatively inflexible both in terms of the failure to modulate the magnitude of lose-shift strategy and the lack of significant neural modulation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nicole R Karcher, Bruce D Bartholow, Elizabeth A Martin, John G Kerns
Both positive psychotic symptoms and anhedonia are associated with striatal functioning, but few studies have linked risk for psychotic disorders to a neural measure evoked during a striatal dopamine-related reward and punishment-based learning task, such as a reversal learning task (RLT; Cools et al, 2009). The feedback-related negativity (FRN) is a neural response that in part reflects striatal dopamine functioning. We recorded EEG during the RLT in three groups: (a) people with psychotic experiences (PE; n=20) at increased risk for psychotic disorders; (b) people with extremely elevated social anhedonia (SocAnh; n=22); and (c) controls (n=20)...
October 12, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Anne-Marike Schiffer, Kayla Siletti, Florian Waszak, Nick Yeung
In any non-deterministic environment, unexpected events can indicate true changes in the world (and require behavioural adaptation) or reflect chance occurrence (and must be discounted). Adaptive behaviour requires distinguishing these possibilities. We investigated how humans achieve this by integrating high-level information from instruction and experience. In a series of EEG experiments, instructions modulated the perceived informativeness of feedback: Participants performed a novel probabilistic reinforcement learning task, receiving instructions about reliability of feedback or volatility of the environment...
August 27, 2016: NeuroImage
M J W Van der Molen, L M S Dekkers, P M Westenberg, F M Van der Veen, M W van der Molen
Social connectedness theory posits that the brain processes social rejection as a threat to survival. Recent electrophysiological evidence suggests that midfrontal theta (4-8Hz) oscillations in the EEG provide a window on the processing of social rejection. Here we examined midfrontal theta dynamics (power and inter-trial phase synchrony) during the processing of social evaluative feedback. We employed the Social Judgment paradigm in which 56 undergraduate women (mean age = 19.67 years) were asked to communicate their expectancies about being liked vs...
August 23, 2016: NeuroImage
Benjamin Weismüller, Christian Bellebaum
Learning from feedback is a prerequisite for adapting to the environment. Prediction error signals coded by midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are projected to the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). It has been suggested that neuronal activity shifts away from the DA system when feedback is delayed. The feedback-related negativity (FRN), an ERP that is generated in the ACC and has been shown to be sensitive to feedback valence and prediction error magnitude, was found to be reduced for delayed feedback...
November 2016: Psychophysiology
Qingguo Ma, Liang Meng, Qiang Shen
Previous studies examining empathy have revealed the neural substrates of how the physical pain of others is represented in the human brain. However, little is known about the empathic modulation of behavioral and neural responses to others' economic payoffs, especially in the social context. In the present study, we engaged participants in a revised Dictator Game as observers who observe the powerless players receiving varied offers proposed by the dominant players, establishing the link between empathy and fairness perception...
August 23, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Kenta Kimura, Motohiro Kimura
The evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback is reflected by an event-related brain potential component called feedback-related negativity (FRN) or reward positivity (RewP). Recent studies have shown that FRN/RewP is markedly reduced when the action-feedback interval is long (e.g. 6000 ms), indicating that an increase in the action-feedback interval can undermine the evaluative processing of the valence of action feedback. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not such undermined evaluative processing of delayed action feedback could be restored by improving the accuracy of the prediction in terms of the timing of action feedback...
September 28, 2016: Neuroreport
Xiaofei Dong, Xiumin Du, Bing Qi
OBJECTIVE: Studies using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) have distinguished between good and bad decision makers and have provided an explanation for deficits in decision making. Previous studies have demonstrated a link between Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) performance and IGT performance, but the results were not consistent and failed to explain why WCST performance can predict IGT performance. The present study aimed to demonstrate that WCST performance can predict IGT performance and to identify the cognitive component of the WCST that affects IGT performance using event-related potentials (ERPs)...
2016: PloS One
Isabel Padrón, José Fernández-Rey, Carlos Acuña, Jose L Pardo-Vazquez
In the last decades it has been shown that two components of the event-related potentials (ERPs), the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300, reflect the evaluation of the outcomes of a given course of action. Within the reinforcement learning theory, the prevailing interpretation of the relationship between FRN and P300 is the classical "independent coding model". This model proposes that the FRN is only sensitive to feedback valence whereas the P300 is only sensitive to feedback magnitude. However, these predictions have recently been challenged and the question remains unsolved...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Kenta Kimura, Motohiro Kimura, Sunao Iwaki
The present study aimed to investigate whether or not the evaluative processing of action feedback can be modulated by temporal prediction. For this purpose, we examined the effects of the predictability of the timing of action feedback on an ERP effect that indexed the evaluative processing of action feedback, that is, an ERP effect that has been interpreted as a feedback-related negativity (FRN) elicited by "bad" action feedback or a reward positivity (RewP) elicited by "good" action feedback. In two types of experimental blocks, the participants performed a gambling task in which they chose one of two cards and received an action feedback that indicated monetary gain or loss...
October 2016: Psychophysiology
Sihua Xu, Yu Pan, You Wang, Andrea M Spaeth, Zhe Qu, Hengyi Rao
Both real and hypothetical monetary rewards are widely used as reinforcers in risk taking and decision making studies. However, whether real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk taking and decision making in the same manner remains controversial. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) with a balloon analogue risk task (BART) paradigm to examine the effects of real and hypothetical monetary rewards on risk taking in the brain. Behavioral data showed reduced risk taking after negative feedback (money loss) during the BART with real rewards compared to those with hypothetical rewards, suggesting increased loss aversion with real monetary rewards...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tanja Endrass, Beate Schuermann, Stefan Roepke, Sonia Kessler-Scheil, Norbert Kathmann
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show deficits in reward-guided decision making and learning. The present study examined risk-taking behavior in combination with feedback processing. Eighteen BPD patients and 18 healthy controls performed a probabilistic two-choice gambling task, while an electroencephalogram was recorded. Options differed in risk, but were identical in expected value and outcome probability. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the feedback-related P300 were analyzed...
September 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Stefon J R Van Noordt, Allan Campopiano, Sidney J Segalowitz
Theta oscillations in the EEG have been linked to several ERPs that are elicited during performance-monitoring tasks, including the error-related negativity (ERN), no-go N2, and the feedback-related negativity (FRN). We used a novel paradigm to isolate independent components (ICs) in single subjects' (n = 27) EEG accounting for a medial frontal negativity (MFN) to response cue stimuli that signal a potential change in future response demands. Medial frontal projecting ICs that were sensitive to these response cues also described the ERNs, no-go N2s, and, to a lesser extent, the FRNs, that were elicited in letter flanker, go/no-go, and time-estimation tasks, respectively...
September 2016: Psychophysiology
I M Santos, A R Teixeira, A M Tomé, A T Pereira, P Rodrigues, P Vagos, J Costa, M L Carrito, B Oliveira, N A DeFilippis, C F Silva
The Halstead Category Test (HCT) is a neuropsychological test that measures a person's ability to formulate and apply abstract principles. Performance must be adjusted based on feedback after each trial and errors are common until the underlying rules are discovered. Event-related potential (ERP) studies associated with the HCT are lacking. This paper demonstrates the use of a methodology inspired on Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) applied to EEG signals, to remove high amplitude ocular and movement artifacts during performance on the test...
August 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Nicholas M Hobson, Michael Inzlicht
Much of human learning happens in the social world. A person's social identity - the groups to which they belong, the people with whom they identify - is a powerful cue that can affect our goal-directed behaviors, often implicitly. In the present experiment, we explored the underlying neural mechanisms driving these processes, testing hypotheses derived from social identity theory. In a within-subjects design, participants underwent a minimal group manipulation where they were randomly assigned to an arbitrary ingroup...
June 21, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Yiwen Wang, Zhen Zhang, Yiming Jing, Emilio A Valadez, Robert F Simons
This study investigates the brain correlates of decision making and outcome evaluation of generalized trust (i.e. trust in unfamiliar social agents)-a core component of social capital which facilitates civic cooperation and economic exchange. We measured 18 (9 male) Chinese participants' event-related potentials while they played the role of the trustor in a one-shot trust game with unspecified social agents (trustees) allegedly selected from a large representative sample. At the decision-making phase, greater N2 amplitudes were found for trustors' distrusting decisions compared to trusting decisions, which may reflect greater cognitive control exerted to distrust...
October 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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