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Anita Harrewijn, Melle J W van der Molen, Irene M van Vliet, Renaud L M Tissier, P Michiel Westenberg
Social anxiety disorder is an invalidating psychiatric disorder characterized by extreme fear and avoidance of one or more social situations in which patients might experience scrutiny by others. The goal of this two-generation family study was to delineate behavioral and electrocortical endophenotypes of social anxiety disorder related to social evaluation. Nine families of patients with social anxiety disorder (their spouse and children, and siblings of these patients with spouse and children) performed a social judgment paradigm in which they believed to be evaluated by peers...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Marlena Duda, Hongjiu Zhang, Hong-Dong Li, Dennis P Wall, Margit Burmeister, Yuanfang Guan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with strong evidence of genetic contribution, and increased research efforts have resulted in an ever-growing list of ASD candidate genes. However, only a fraction of the hundreds of nominated ASD-related genes have identified de novo or transmitted loss of function (LOF) mutations that can be directly attributed to the disorder. For this reason, a means of prioritizing candidate genes for ASD would help filter out false-positive results and allow researchers to focus on genes that are more likely to be causative...
March 6, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Yanyan Qi, Haiyan Wu, Xun Liu
Social value orientation (SVO) is a personality trait that is closely associated with social comparison preference. However, little is known about how the different types of SVO (i.e., proself vs. prosocial) modulate the behaviour and neural underpinnings of its interaction with social context. In the present study, we examined electrophysiological correlates captured when individuals with different SVOs engaged in a gambling game with two other players (a socially disliking player, person A, vs. a socially liking player, person B)...
March 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Davide Gheza, Rudi De Raedt, Chris Baeken, Gilles Pourtois
Effort expenditure has an aversive connotation and it can lower hedonic feelings. In this study, we explored the electrophysiological correlates of the complex interplay of reward processing with cost anticipation. To this aim, healthy adult participants performed a gambling task where the outcome (monetary reward vs. no-reward) and its expectancy were manipulated on a trial by trial basis while 64-channel EEG was recorded. Crucially, on some trials, the no-reward outcome could be transformed to a rewarding one, pending effort expenditure by means of an orthogonal dot clicking task, enabling us to compare at the electrophysiological level reward processing when cost was anticipated or not...
February 26, 2018: NeuroImage
Sihua Xu, Yu Pan, Zhe Qu, Zhuo Fang, Zijing Yang, Fan Yang, Fenghua Wang, Hengyi Rao
Human decisions are more easily affected by a larger amount of money than a smaller one. Although numerous studies have used hypothetical money as incentives to motivate human behavior, the validity of hypothetical versus real monetary rewards remains controversial. In the present study, we used event-related potential (ERP) with the balloon analogue risk task to investigate how magnitudes of real and hypothetical monetary rewards modulate risk-taking behavior and feedback-related negativity (FRN). Behavioral data showed that participants were more risk averse after negative feedback with increased magnitude of real monetary rewards, while no behavior differences were observed between large and small hypothetical monetary rewards...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Miles Wischnewski, Dennis J L G Schutter
The meaning of reward and punishment signals depends on context. Receiving a small reward where a larger reward could have been obtained can be considered a punishment, while a small loss in the context of avoiding a larger loss can be experienced as a reward. The aim of this study was to investigate the electrophysiological processes associated with absolute and relative reward and punishment signals. Twenty healthy right-handed volunteers performed a decision-making task and were instructed to judge which of two neutral objects was the most expensive...
February 23, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Xukai Zhang, Yi Lei, Hang Yin, Peng Li, Hong Li
Performance-related feedback plays an important role in improving human being's adaptive behavior. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), previous studies have associated a particular component, i.e., reward positivity (RewP), with outcome evaluation processing and found that this component was affected by waiting time before outcome evaluation. Prior research has also suggested that anxious individuals are more prone to detecting threats and susceptible to negative emotions, and show different patterns of brain activity in outcome evaluation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Xiangru Zhu, Huijun Zhang, Lili Wu, Suyong Yang, Haiyan Wu, Wenbo Luo, Ruolei Gu, Yue-Jia Luo
Individual self-construal (independent vs. interdependent) could be temporarily modulated by the priming effect. Our previous studies have found that when Chinese participants gambled for mother and for self, outcome feedback evoked comparable neural responses between two conditions. However, it remains unclear if the response to rewards for mother and for self would differ after independence self-construal priming. In this study, we manipulated participants' self-construal (independent vs. interdependent) before a simple gambling task...
February 20, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Kristen P Morie, Jia Wu, Nicole Landi, Marc N Potenza, Linda C Mayes, Michael J Crowley
Impaired cognitive control is a consequence of cocaine exposure. Difficulty with feedback processing may underlie this impairment. We examined neural correlates of feedback processing using event-related potentials (ERPs) in 49 prenatally cocaine-exposed (PCE) and 34 nondrug exposed (NDE) adolescents. Adolescents performed a reward-feedback task with win/no-win feedback in a chance-based task. We investigated amplitude and latency of the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 ERP components and source-based estimates elicited during feedback processing...
February 20, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Fuhong Li, Jing Wang, Bin Du, Bihua Cao
Feedback has two main components. One is valence that indicates the wrong or correct behavior, and the other is the informative value that refers to what we can learn from feedback. Aimed to explore the neural distinction of these two components, we provided participants with a segmented Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, in which they received either positive or negative feedback at different steps. The informative value was manipulated in terms of the order of feedback presentation. The results of event-related potentials time-locked to the feedback presentation confirmed that valence of feedback was processed in a broad epoch, especially in the time window of feedback-related negativity (FRN), reflecting detection of correct or wrong card sorting behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
James E Glazer, Nicholas J Kelley, Narun Pornpattananangkul, Vijay A Mittal, Robin Nusslock
Most reward-related electroencephalogram (EEG) studies focus exclusively on the feedback-related negativity (FRN, also known as feedback negativity or FN, medial-frontal negativity or MFN, feedback error-related negativity or fERN, and reward positivity or RewP). This component is usually measured approximately 200-300 ms post-feedback at a single electrode in the frontal-central area (e.g., Fz or FCz). The present review argues that this singular focus on the FRN fails to leverage EEG's greatest strength, its temporal resolution, by underutilizing the rich variety of event-related potential (ERP) and EEG time-frequency components encompassing the wider temporal heterogeneity of reward processing...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Ellen Greimel, Sarolta Bakos, Iris Landes, Thomas Töllner, Jürgen Bartling, Gregor Kohls, Gerd Schulte-Körne
The brain's reward system undergoes major changes during adolescence, and an increased reactivity to social and nonsocial incentives has been described as a typical feature during this transitional period. Little is known whether there are sex differences in the brain's responsiveness to social or monetary incentives during adolescence. The aim of this event-related potential (ERP) study was to compare the neurophysiological underpinnings of monetary and social incentive processing in adolescent boys versus girls...
February 13, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Carina Fernandes, Rita Pasion, Ana R Gonçalves, Fernando Ferreira-Santos, Fernando Barbosa, Isabel P Martins, João Marques-Teixeira
This study examines age-related differences in behavioral responses to risk and in the neurophysiological correlates of feedback processing. Our sample was composed of younger, middle-aged, and older adults, who were asked to decide between 2 risky options, in the gain and loss domains, during an EEG recording. Results evidenced group-related differences in early and later stages of feedback processing, indexed by differences in the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P3 amplitudes. Specifically, in the loss domain, younger adults showed higher FRN amplitudes after non-losses than after losses, whereas middle-aged and older adults had similar FRN amplitudes after both...
January 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Annet Bluschke, Jacqueline Schuster, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
It is far from conclusive what distinguishes the inattentive (ADD) and the combined (ADHD-C) subtype of ADHD on the neuronal level. Theoretical considerations suggest that especially interval timing processes may dissociate these subtypes from each other. Combining high-density EEG recordings with source localization analyses, we examine whether there are ADHD-subtype specific modulations of neurophysiological processes subserving interval timing in matched groups of ADD (n = 16), ADHD-C (n = 16) and controls (n = 16)...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maximilian Lueckel, Christian Panitz, Urs M Nater, Erik M Mueller
External and internal performance feedback triggers not only neural but also cardiac modulations, suggesting communication between brain and heart during feedback processing. Using Cardio-Electroencephalographic Covariance Tracing (CECT), it has accordingly been shown that feedback-evoked centromedial single-trial EEG at the P300 latency intraindividually predicts subsequent changes in heart period - the so called N300H phenomenon. While previous findings suggest that the N300H depends on serotonin, its relationship to central dopamine and noradrenaline is currently unknown...
January 27, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Miles Wischnewski, Harold Bekkering, Dennis J L G Schutter
During decision making, individuals are prone to rely on external cues such as expert advice when the outcome is not known. However, the electrophysiological correlates associated with outcome uncertainty and the use of expert advice are not completely understood. The feedback-related negativity (FRN), P3a, and P3b are event-related brain potentials (ERPs) linked to dissociable stages of feedback and attentional processing during decision making. Even though these ERPs are influenced by both reward- and punishment-related feedback, it remains unclear how extrinsic information during uncertainty modulates these brain potentials...
January 29, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Yael Arbel, Kayleigh N McCarty, Mark Goldman, Emanuel Donchin, Ty Brumback
The study examined age related changes in the magnitude of the Feedback Related Negativity (FRN) in 8-14 year old children performing a variation of a Go/No-Go task. Participants were presented with four stimuli and tasked with mapping each of them either to a response or to a "no response" by trial and error guided by feedback. Feedback was valid for two stimuli (Go and No-Go) and invalid (.5 positive; .5 negative feedback) for the other two stimuli. The amplitude of the FRN was evaluated as a function of age separately for Go and No-Go trials...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Alberto Megías, Miguel Angel Torres, Andrés Catena, Antonio Cándido, Antonio Maldonado
The main aim of this research was to study the effects of response feedback on risk behavior and the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved, as a function of the feedback contingency. Sixty drivers were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups: contingent, non-contingent and no feedback. The participants' task consisted of braking or not when confronted with a set of risky driving situations, while their electroencephalographic activity was continuously recorded. We observed that contingent feedback, as opposed to non-contingent feedback, promoted changes in the response bias towards safer decisions...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Xi Chen, Jinghua Gu, Xiao Wang, Jin-Gyoung Jung, Tian-Li Wang, Leena Hilakivi-Clarke, Robert Clarke, Jianhua Xuan
Motivation: NGS techniques have been widely applied in genetic and epigenetic studies. Multiple ChIP-seq and RNA-seq profiles can now be jointly used to infer functional regulatory networks (FRNs). However, existing methods suffer from either oversimplified assumption on transcription factor (TF) regulation or slow convergence of sampling for FRN inference from large-scale ChIP-seq and time-course RNA-seq data. Results: We developed an efficient Bayesian integration method (CRNET) for FRN inference using a two-stage Gibbs sampler to estimate iteratively hidden TF activities and the posterior probabilities of binding events...
December 21, 2017: Bioinformatics
Elena Krugliakova, Vasily Klucharev, Tommaso Fedele, Alexey Gorin, Aleksandra Kuznetsova, Anna Shestakova
Reflecting the discrepancy between received and predicted outcomes, the reward prediction error (RPE) plays an important role in learning in a dynamic environment. A number of studies suggested that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) component of an event-related potential, known to be associated with unexpected outcomes, encodes RPEs. While FRN was clearly shown to be sensitive to the probability of outcomes, the effect of outcome magnitude on FRN remains to be further clarified. In studies on the neural underpinnings of reward anticipation and outcome evaluation, a monetary incentive delay (MID) task proved to be particularly useful...
January 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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