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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331318/developmental-changes-in-the-feedback-related-negativity-from-8-to-14%C3%A2-years
#1
Yael Arbel, Kayleigh N McCarty, Mark Goldman, Emanuel Donchin, Ty Brumback
The study examined age related changes in the magnitude of the Feedback Related Negativity (FRN) in 8-14 year old children performing a variation of a Go/No-Go task. Participants were presented with four stimuli and tasked with mapping each of them either to a response or to a "no response" by trial and error guided by feedback. Feedback was valid for two stimuli (Go and No-Go) and invalid (.5 positive; .5 negative feedback) for the other two stimuli. The amplitude of the FRN was evaluated as a function of age separately for Go and No-Go trials...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330008/electrophysiological-brain-indices-of-risk-behavior-modification-induced-by-contingent-feedback
#2
Alberto Megías, Miguel Angel Torres, Andrés Catena, Antonio Cándido, Antonio Maldonado
The main aim of this research was to study the effects of response feedback on risk behavior and the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved, as a function of the feedback contingency. Sixty drivers were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups: contingent, non-contingent and no feedback. The participants' task consisted of braking or not when confronted with a set of risky driving situations, while their electroencephalographic activity was continuously recorded. We observed that contingent feedback, as opposed to non-contingent feedback, promoted changes in the response bias towards safer decisions...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280996/crnet-an-efficient-sampling-approach-to-infer-functional-regulatory-networks-by-integrating-large-scale-chip-seq-and-time-course-rna-seq-data
#3
Xi Chen, Jinghua Gu, Xiao Wang, Jin-Gyoung Jung, Tian-Li Wang, Leena Hilakivi-Clarke, Robert Clarke, Jianhua Xuan
Motivation: NGS techniques have been widely applied in genetic and epigenetic studies. Multiple ChIP-seq and RNA-seq profiles can now be jointly used to infer functional regulatory networks (FRNs). However, existing methods suffer from either oversimplified assumption on transcription factor (TF) regulation or slow convergence of sampling for FRN inference from large-scale ChIP-seq and time-course RNA-seq data. Results: We developed an efficient Bayesian integration method (CRNET) for FRN inference using a two-stage Gibbs sampler to estimate iteratively hidden TF activities and the posterior probabilities of binding events...
December 21, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196772/correlation-of-cue-locked-frn-and-feedback-locked-frn-in-the-auditory-monetary-incentive-delay-task
#4
Elena Krugliakova, Vasily Klucharev, Tommaso Fedele, Alexey Gorin, Aleksandra Kuznetsova, Anna Shestakova
Reflecting the discrepancy between received and predicted outcomes, the reward prediction error (RPE) plays an important role in learning in a dynamic environment. A number of studies suggested that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) component of an event-related potential, known to be associated with unexpected outcomes, encodes RPEs. While FRN was clearly shown to be sensitive to the probability of outcomes, the effect of outcome magnitude on FRN remains to be further clarified. In studies on the neural underpinnings of reward anticipation and outcome evaluation, a monetary incentive delay (MID) task proved to be particularly useful...
December 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196018/differentiating-the-influence-of-incidental-anger-and-fear-on-risk-decision-making
#5
Qiwei Yang, Ding Zhao, Yan Wu, Ping Tang, Ruolei Gu, Yue-Jia Luo
Previous research has revealed that incidental emotions of different valence (positive/negative/neutral) produce distinct impacts on risk decision-making. This study went on to compare the effects of different emotions of which the valence are identical. We focused on anger and fear, both of which are negative emotions but differ in motivational and appraisal dimensions. Participants finished a forced-choice gambling task, during which incidental emotions (anger/fear/happy) were elicited by facial stimuli selected from the Chinese Facial Affective Picture System...
November 28, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183792/when-two-become-one-electrocortical-correlates-of-the-integration-of-multiple-action-consequences
#6
Roman Osinsky, Kristina Holst, Natalie Ulrich
In a recent study we have demonstrated that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) reflects the integrated value of instantaneous and delayed decision consequences (Osinsky et al. 2017). In the present work, we extend this research by using a novel choice task in which instant and delayed consequence values of a single decision outcome can be manipulated independently of each other in a trial-wise manner. Fifty-nine healthy participants completed this task while EEG was recorded. Twenty-two of them returned one week later for a retesting, allowing for investigating temporal stability of individual FRN indices...
November 25, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163113/changes-of-attention-during-value-based-reversal-learning-are-tracked-by-n2pc-and-feedback-related-negativity
#7
Mariann Oemisch, Marcus R Watson, Thilo Womelsdorf, Anna Schubö
Previously learned reward values can have a pronounced impact, behaviorally and neurophysiologically, on the allocation of selective attention. All else constant, stimuli previously associated with a high value gain stronger attentional prioritization than stimuli previously associated with a low value. The N2pc, an ERP component indicative of attentional target selection, has been shown to reflect aspects of this prioritization, by changes of mean amplitudes closely corresponding to selective enhancement of high value target processing and suppression of high value distractor processing...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157751/preliminary-evidence-that-digit-length-ratio-2d-4d-predicts-neural-response-to-delivery-of-motivational-stimuli
#8
Troy A Webber, Heather E Soder, Geoffrey F Potts, Marina A Bornovalova
Reduced relative length of the 2nd to 4th digits (2D:4D) is thought to partially reflect fetal testosterone (FT) exposure, a process suspected to promote relatively permanent effects on the brain and behavior via structural and functional neuroadaptations. We examined the effect of 2D:4D on neural response - assessed by P2a and feedback-related negativity (FRN) event-related potentials (ERPs) - to motivational stimuli (reward or punishment) using two counterbalanced conditions of a passive S1/S2 outcome prediction design...
November 17, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147678/a-haplotype-associated-with-enhanced-mineralocorticoid-receptor-expression-facilitates-the-stress-induced-shift-from-cognitive-to-habit-learning
#9
Lisa Wirz, Martin Reuter, Jan Wacker, Andrea Felten, Lars Schwabe
Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" toward dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypothesized that MR gene variants contribute to these individual differences. In two experiments, healthy participants were genotyped, exposed to a stressor or control manipulation and performed a learning task that can be solved using hippocampal or dorsal striatal systems, while electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment I) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Experiment II) measurements were taken...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126885/medial-frontal-cortex-response-to-unexpected-motivationally-salient-outcomes
#10
Heather E Soder, Geoffrey F Potts
The medial frontal cortex (MFC) plays a central role allocating resources to process salient information, in part by responding to prediction errors. While there is some recent debate, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) is thought to index a reward prediction error by signaling outcomes that are worse than expected. A recent study utilizing electric shock provided data inconsistent with these accounts and reported that the omission of both appetitive (money) and aversive outcomes (electric shocks) elicited a medial frontal negativity...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111453/electrophysiological-correlates-of-near-outcome-and-outcome-sequence-processing-in-problem-gamblers-and-controls
#11
Natalie Ulrich, Johannes Hewig
The magnification of skill component in gambling as well as the gambler's and hot hand fallacies are gambling-related cognitive distortions. The magnification of skill component refers to the belief that one's ability can be used to win in gambling and that there is a reliable way to do so. The gambler's fallacy refers to the belief that a given outcome is unlikely to follow a preceding run of the same outcome (e.g. a coin coming up heads following a run of heads), while the hot hand fallacy refers to the belief that a streak of wins is going to continue...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100909/trait-anxiety-and-probabilistic-learning-behavioral-and-electrophysiological-findings
#12
Donghong Jiang, Dandan Zhang, Yuming Chen, Zhenhong He, Qiufeng Gao, Ruolei Gu, Pengfei Xu
Anxiety is a negative emotion that affects various aspects of people's daily life. To explain why individuals with high anxiety tend to make suboptimal decisions, we suggest that their learning ability might play an important role. Regarding that anxiety modulates both outcome expectation and attention allocation, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the function of feedback learning should be sensitive to individual level of anxiety. However, previous studies that directly examined this hypothesis were scarce...
October 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053930/social-dimension-and-complexity-differentially-influence-brain-responses-during-feedback-processing
#13
Daniela M Pfabigan, Marianne Gittenberger, Claus Lamm
Recent research emphasizes the importance of social factors during performance monitoring. Thus, the current study investigated the impact of social stimuli -such as communicative gestures- on feedback processing. Moreover, it addressed a shortcoming of previous studies, which failed to consider stimulus complexity as potential confounding factor. Twenty-four volunteers performed a time estimation task while their electroencephalogram was recorded. Either social complex, social non-complex, non-social complex, or non-social non-complex stimuli were used to provide performance feedback...
October 20, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987730/excess-lead-210-and-plutonium-239-240-two-suitable-radiogenic-soil-erosion-tracers-for-mountain-grassland-sites
#14
K Meusburger, P Porto, L Mabit, C La Spada, L Arata, C Alewell
The expected growing population and challenges associated with globalisation will increase local food and feed demands and enhance the pressure on local and regional upland soil resources. In light of these potential future developments it is necessary to define sustainable land use and tolerable soil loss rates with methods applicable and adapted to mountainous areas. Fallout-radionuclides (FRNs) are proven techniques to increase our knowledge about the status and resilience of agro-ecosystems. However, the use of the Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) method is complicated in the European Alps due to its heterogeneous input and the timing of the Chernobyl fallout, which occurred during a few single rain events on partly snow covered ground...
October 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983326/inter-trial-coherence-of-medial-frontal-theta-oscillations-linked-to-differential-feedback-processing-in-youth-and-young-adults-with-autism
#15
Stefon van Noordt, Jia Wu, Archana Venkataraman, Michael J Larson, Mikle South, Michael J Crowley
BACKGROUND: Impairment in prediction and appreciation for choice outcomes could contribute to several core symptoms of ASD. We examined electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations in 27 youth and young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 22 IQ-matched neurotypical controls while they performed a chance-based reward prediction task. METHOD: We re-analyzed our previously published ERP data (Larson et al., 2011) and examined theta band oscillations (4-8 Hz) at frontal midline sites, within a timing window that overlaps with the feedback-related negativity (FRN)...
May 2017: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981906/social-value-orientation-modulates-the-processing-of-outcome-evaluation-involving-others
#16
Xinmu Hu, Zhenhua Xu, Xiaoqin Mai
Social value orientation (SVO) is a stable personality trait that reflects how people evaluate interdependent outcomes for themselves and others in social environments. Generally, people can be classified into two types: proselfs and prosocials. The present study examined how SVO affects the processing of outcome evaluation temporally using the event-related potential (ERP). Young adults with two different SVO types participated in a simple gambling task in which they received outcome distributions for themselves and others...
August 22, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928096/burnout-is-associated-with-changes-in-error-and-feedback-processing
#17
Patrick D Gajewski, Sylvia Boden, Gabriele Freude, Guy G Potter, Michael Falkenstein
Burnout is a pattern of complaints in individuals with emotionally demanding jobs that is often seen as a precursor of depression. One often reported symptom of burnout is cognitive decline. To analyze cognitive control and to differentiate between subclinical burnout and mild to moderate depression a double-blinded study was conducted that investigates changes in the processing of performance errors and feedback in a task switching paradigm. Fifty-one of 76 employees from emotionally demanding jobs showed a sufficient number of errors to be included in the analysis...
September 18, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926739/electrophysiological-correlates-of-performance-monitoring-in-binge-drinking-impaired-error-related-but-preserved-feedback-processing
#18
Séverine Lannoy, Fabien D'Hondt, Valérie Dormal, Joël Billieux, Pierre Maurage
OBJECTIVE: Performance monitoring, which allows efficient behavioral regulation using either internal (error processing) or external (feedback processing) cues, has not yet been explored in binge drinking despite its adaptive importance in everyday life, particularly in the regulation of alcohol consumption. Capitalizing on a theoretical model of risky behaviors, the present study aimed at determining the behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of the cognitive (inhibition) and motivational (reward sensitivity) systems during performance monitoring...
September 2, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898358/relevance-of-the-implementation-of-teeth-in-three-dimensional-vocal-tract-models
#19
Louisa Traser, Peter Birkholz, Tabea Viktoria Flügge, Robert Kamberger, Michael Burdumy, Bernhard Richter, Jan Gerrit Korvink, Matthias Echternach
Purpose: Recently, efforts have been made to investigate the vocal tract using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to technical limitations, teeth were omitted in many previous studies on vocal tract acoustics. However, the knowledge of how teeth influence vocal tract acoustics might be important in order to estimate the necessity of implementing teeth in vocal tract models. The aim of this study was therefore to estimate the effect of teeth on vocal tract acoustics. Method: The acoustic properties of 18 solid (3-dimensional printed) vocal tract models without teeth were compared to the same 18 models including teeth in terms of resonance frequencies (fRn)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891972/erratum-balconi-m-et-al-evidences-from-rewarding-system-frn-and-p300-effect-in-internet-addiction-in-young-people-short-title-rewarding-system-and-eeg-in-internet-addiction-brain-sciences-2017-7-81
#20
Michela Balconi, Irene Venturella, Roberta Finocchiaro
We would like to submit the following erratum to our recently published paper [1] due to the error in the title.[...].
September 11, 2017: Brain Sciences
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