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feedback-related negativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912011/reduced-snow-cover-alters-root-microbe-interactions-and-decreases-nitrification-rates-in-a-northern-hardwood-forest
#1
Patrick O Sorensen, Pamela H Templer, Lynn Christenson, Jorge Duran, Timothy Fahey, Melany C Fisk, Peter M Groffman, Jennifer L Morse, Adrien C Finzi
Snow cover is projected to decline during the next century in many ecosystems that currently experience a seasonal snowpack. Because snow insulates soils from frigid winter air temperatures, soils are expected to become colder and experience more winter soil freeze-thaw cycles as snow cover continues to decline. Tree roots are adversely affected by snowpack reduction, but whether loss of snow will affect root-microbe interactions remains largely unknown. The objective of this study was to distinguish and attribute direct (e...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909841/the-shaping-of-intrinsic-membrane-potential-oscillations-positive-negative-feedback-ionic-resonance-amplification-nonlinearities-and-time-scales
#2
Horacio G Rotstein
The generation of intrinsic subthreshold (membrane potential) oscillations (STOs) in neuronal models requires the interaction between two processes: a relatively fast positive feedback that favors changes in voltage and a slower negative feedback that opposes these changes. These are provided by the so-called resonant and amplifying gating variables associated to the participating ionic currents. We investigate both the biophysical and dynamic mechanisms of generation of STOs and how their attributes (frequency and amplitude) depend on the model parameters for biophysical (conductance-based) models having qualitatively different types of resonant currents (activating and inactivating) and an amplifying current...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906065/dystrophin-deficient-dogs-with-reduced-myostatin-have-unequal-muscle-growth-and-greater-joint-contractures
#3
Joe N Kornegay, Daniel J Bogan, Janet R Bogan, Jennifer L Dow, Jiahui Wang, Zheng Fan, Naili Liu, Leigh C Warsing, Robert W Grange, Mihye Ahn, Cynthia J Balog-Alvarez, Steven W Cotten, Monte S Willis, Candice Brinkmeyer-Langford, Hongtu Zhu, Joe Palandra, Carl A Morris, Martin A Styner, Kathryn R Wagner
BACKGROUND: Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of muscle growth whose inhibition promotes muscle growth and regeneration. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice in which myostatin is knocked out or inhibited postnatally have a less severe phenotype with greater total mass and strength and less fibrosis and fatty replacement of muscles than mdx mice with wild-type myostatin expression. Dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) have previously been noted to have increased muscle mass and reduced fibrosis after systemic postnatal myostatin inhibition...
April 4, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905558/microrna-mir-34-provides-robustness-to-environmental-stress-response-via-the-daf-16-network-in-c-elegans
#4
Meltem Isik, T Keith Blackwell, Eugene Berezikov
Diverse stresses and aging alter expression levels of microRNAs, suggesting a role for these posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression in stress modulation and longevity. Earlier studies demonstrated a central role for the miR-34 family in promoting cell cycle arrest and cell death following stress in human cells. However, the biological significance of this response was unclear. Here we show that in C. elegans mir-34 upregulation is necessary for developmental arrest, correct morphogenesis, and adaptation to a lower metabolic state to protect animals against stress-related damage...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905081/parasympathetic-cardio-regulation-during-social-interactions-in-individuals-with-obesity-the-influence-of-negative-body-image
#5
Anne Schrimpf, Jana Kube, Jane Neumann, Annette Horstmann, Arno Villringer, Michael Gaebler
Individuals with obesity in Western societies often face weight-related stigmatization and social exclusion. Recurrent exposure to prejudice and negative social feedback alters one's behavior in future social interactions. In this study, we aimed to investigate autonomic nervous system and affective responses to social interactions in individuals with obesity. Women and men with (n = 56) and without (n = 56) obesity participated in episodes of social inclusion and social exclusion using a virtual ball-tossing game...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903673/combining-anti-mir-155-with-chemotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-lung-cancers
#6
Katrien Van Roosbroeck, Francesca Fanini, Tetsuro Setoyama, Cristina Ivan, Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo, Enrique Fuentes-Mattei, Lianchun Xiao, Ivan Vannini, Roxana Redis, Lucilla D'Abundo, Xinna Zhang, Milena S Nicoloso, Simona Rossi, Vianey Gonzalez-Villasana, Rajesha Rupaimoole, Manuela Ferracin, Fortunato Morabito, Antonino Neri, Peter Ruvolo, Vivian R Ruvolo, Chad V Pecot, Dino Amadori, Lynne Aruzzo, Steliana Calin, Xuemei Wang, M James You, Alessandra Ferrajoli, Robert Z Orlowski, William Plunkett, Tara Lichtenberg, Ramana V Davuluri, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe, Massimo Negrini, Ignacio I Wistuba, Kantarjian Hagop, Anil K Sood, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Michael J Keating, Muller Fabbri, George A Calin
Purpose The oncogenic miR-155 is upregulated in many human cancers and its expression is increased in more aggressive and therapy resistant tumors, but the molecular mechanisms underlying miR-155-induced therapy resistance are not fully understood. The main objectives of this study were to determine the role of miR-155 in resistance to chemotherapy and to evaluate anti-miR-155 treatment to chemosensitize tumors. Experimental Design We performed in vitro studies on cell lines to investigate the role of miR-155 in therapy resistance...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902931/human-presynaptic-receptors
#7
REVIEW
Eberhard Schlicker, Thomas Feuerstein
Presynaptic receptors are sites at which transmitters, locally formed mediators or hormones inhibit or facilitate the release of a given transmitter from its axon terminals. The interest in the identification of presynaptic receptors has faded in recent years and it may therefore be justified to give an overview of their occurrence in the autonomic and central nervous system; this review will focus on presynaptic receptors in human tissues. Autoreceptors are presynaptic receptors at which a given transmitter restrains its further release, though in some instances may also increase its release...
November 27, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899927/regulation-of-on-tree-vitamin-e-biosynthesis-in-olive-fruit-during-successive-growing-years-the-impact-of-fruit-development-and-environmental-cues
#8
Egli C Georgiadou, Vlasios Goulas, Thessaloniki Ntourou, George A Manganaris, Panagiotis Kalaitzis, Vasileios Fotopoulos
The term vitamin E refers to a group of eight lipophilic compounds known as tocochromanols. The tocochromanols are divided into two groups, that is, tocopherols and tocotrienols, with four forms each, namely α-, β-, γ-, and δ-. In order to explore the temporal biosynthesis of tocochromanols in olive (Olea europaea cv. 'Koroneiki') fruit during on-tree development and ripening over successive growing years, a combined array of analytical, molecular, bioinformatic, immunoblotting, and antioxidant techniques were employed...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891578/dual-specificity-phosphatase-15-regulates-erk-activation-in-schwann-cells
#9
José F Rodríguez-Molina, Camila Lopez-Anido, Ki H Ma, Chongyu Zhang, Tyler Olson, Katharina N Muth, Matthias Weider, John Svaren
Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the peripheral and central nervous system, respectively. Despite having different myelin components and different transcription factors driving their terminal differentiation there are shared molecular mechanisms between the two. Sox10 is one common transcription factor required for several steps in development of myelinating glia. However, other factors are divergent as Schwann cells need the transcription factor Egr2/Krox20 and oligodendrocytes require Myrf...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891556/comparing-self-regulation-associated-event-related-potentials-in-preschool-children-with-and-without-high-levels-of-disruptive-behavior
#10
Adam S Grabell, Sheryl L Olson, Twila Tardif, Meaghan C Thompson, William J Gehring
Deficient self-regulation plays a key role in the etiology of early onset disruptive behavior disorders and signals risk for chronic psychopathology. However, to date, there has been no research comparing preschool children with and without high levels of disruptive behavior using Event Related Potentials (ERPs) associated with specific self-regulation sub-processes. We examined 15 preschool children with high levels of disruptive behavior (35 % female) and 20 peers with low disruptive behavior (50 % female) who completed a Go/No-go task that provided emotionally valenced feedback...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888527/electrophysiological-correlates-of-decision-making-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Elisa Azcárraga-Guirola, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo, Julia Velázquez-Cardoso, Yamel Rito-García, Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco
Although previous studies have shown that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) may exhibit impaired decision making (DM), the specific neuro-cognitive processes that underlie this deficiency remain unknown. Inefficient DM may occur due to poor option assessment or a deficit in the evaluation of choice outcomes. This study uses, for the first time, the event-related potential (ERP) technique to analyze these DM subprocesses in patients with MS. Sixteen MS patients and nineteen control subjects performed a DM task based on the Iowa Gambling Task while a digital EEG was recorded...
November 5, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887980/the-interaction-between-state-and-dispositional-emotions-in-decision-making-an-erp-study
#12
Yingying Wang, Ruolei Gu, Yue-Jia Luo, Chenglin Zhou
In this study, to investigate the influence of incidental emotions on decision making in high-anxious individuals, participants were required to perform a monetary gambling task. Behavioral and electroencephalography responses were recorded to explore the stages of option assessment and outcome evaluation during decision making, respectively. Incidental emotions were elicited by facial expression pictures presented on the background, which included four conditions (control, neutral, fearful, and happy). Results showed smaller feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitudes in high-anxious participants than low-anxious participants in the control, neutral, and fearful conditions, but not in the happy condition, for small outcomes...
November 22, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885897/false-feedback-and-beliefs-influence-name-recall-in-younger-and-older-adults
#13
Carla M Strickland-Hughes, Robin Lea West, Kimberly A Smith, Natalie C Ebner
Feedback is an important self-regulatory process that affects task effort and subsequent performance. Benefits of positive feedback for list recall have been explored in research on goals and feedback, but the effect of negative feedback on memory has rarely been studied. The current research extends knowledge of memory and feedback effects by investigating face-name association memory and by examining the potential mediation of feedback effects, in younger and older adults, through self-evaluative beliefs...
November 25, 2016: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882638/anxiety-symptoms-prior-to-a-prostate-cancer-diagnosis-associations-with-knowledge-and-openness-to-treatment
#14
Amanda J Dillard, Laura D Scherer, Peter A Ubel, Stewart Alexander, Angela Fagerlin
AIM: Research suggests that anxiety may be a common response to a cancer diagnosis, but research is needed to examine anxiety before diagnosis. Anxiety before diagnosis may relate to the comprehension of relevant health information or openness to potential treatments. This study examined anxiety and these outcomes in men who were waiting to learn of a prostate cancer diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: One goal of this study was to determine whether anxiety would increase as men came closer to learning the results of their prostate cancer biopsy...
November 24, 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872610/relational-stability-in-the-expression-of-normality-variation-and-control-of-thyroid-function
#15
REVIEW
Rudolf Hoermann, John E M Midgley, Rolf Larisch, Johannes W Dietrich
Thyroid hormone concentrations only become sufficient to maintain a euthyroid state through appropriate stimulation by pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In such a dynamic system under constant high pressure, guarding against overstimulation becomes vital. Therefore, several defensive mechanisms protect against accidental overstimulation, such as plasma protein binding, conversion of T4 into the more active T3, active transmembrane transport, counter-regulatory activities of reverse T3 and thyronamines, and negative hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid feedback control of TSH...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870507/stress-and-reward-processing-in-bipolar-disorder-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#16
Lisa H Berghorst, Poornima Kumar, Doug N Greve, Thilo Deckersbach, Dost Ongur, Sunny J Dutra, Diego A Pizzagalli
OBJECTIVES: A link between negative life stress and the onset of mood episodes in bipolar disorder (BD) has been established, but processes underlying such a link remain unclear. Growing evidence suggests that stress can negatively affect reward processing and related neurobiological substrates, indicating that a dysregulated reward system may provide a partial explanation. The aim of this study was to test the impact of stress on reward-related neural functioning in BD. METHODS: Thirteen euthymic or mildly depressed individuals with BD and 15 controls performed a Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging during no-stress and stress (negative psychosocial stressor involving poor performance feedback and threat of monetary deductions) conditions...
November 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865628/the-genesis-and-presentation-of-anxiety-in-disorders-of-autonomic-over-excitation
#17
Andrew P Owens, David A Low, Valeria Iodice, Hugo D Critchley, Christopher J Mathias
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the genesis and presentation of previously-reported anxiety in disorders of autonomic overexcitation in relation to interoception, body vigilance and trauma to test our hypothesis that patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), vasovagal syncope (VVS) and essential hyperhidrosis (EH) represent atypical anxiety phenotypes in whom affective symptoms are more related to apprehension and vigilance of physiological (interoceptive) feedback than neurotic or trauma-related factors...
October 19, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864029/time-frequency-phase-synchrony-approaches-with-erps
#18
Selin Aviyente, Anne Tootell, Edward M Bernat
Time-frequency signal processing approaches are well-developed, and have been widely employed for the study of the energy distribution of event-related potential (ERP) data across time and frequency. Wavelet time-frequency transform (TFT) and Cohen's class of time-frequency distributions (TFD) are the most widely used in the field. While ERP TFT approaches have been most extensively developed for amplitude measures, reflecting the magnitude of regional neuronal activity, time-frequency phase-synchrony measures have gained increased utility in recent years for the assessment of functional connectivity...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859206/negative-plant-soil-feedbacks-increase-with-plant-abundance-and-are-unchanged-by-competition
#19
John L Maron, Alyssa Laney Smith, Yvette K Ortega, Dean E Pearson, Ragan M Callaway
Plant-soil feedbacks and interspecific competition are ubiquitous interactions that strongly influence the performance of plants. Yet few studies have examined whether the strength of these interactions corresponds with the abundance of plant species in the field, or whether feedbacks and competition interact in ways that either ameliorate or exacerbate their effects in isolation. We sampled soil from two intermountain grassland communities where we also measured the relative abundance of plant species. In greenhouse experiments, we quantified the direction and magnitude of plant-soil feedbacks for 10 target species that spanned a range of abundances in the field...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859203/intraspecific-diversity-buffers-the-inhibitory-effects-of-soil-biota
#20
Wenbo Luo, Ragan M Callaway, Daniel Z Atwater
Plant community productivity can increase with increasing intraspecific genotypic diversity. Previous studies have attributed the genetic diversity-productivity pattern to differential resource use among genotypes, as many studies have found for species. But here we ask whether suppression of productivity at low intraspecific diversity by soil biota might also drive a positive diversity-productivity relationship. In a previous study, we manipulated genetic diversity by varying the number of Pseudoroegneria accessions growing together in common garden plots, and used soil from that experiment to evaluate soil feedbacks...
August 2016: Ecology
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