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feedback-related negativity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101928/are-positive-and-negative-reinforcement-different-insights-from-a-free-operant-differential-outcomes-effect
#1
Michael A Magoon, Thomas S Critchfield, Dustin Merrill, M Christopher Newland, W Joel Schneider
Although theoretical discussions typically assume that positive and negative reinforcement differ, the literature contains little unambiguous evidence that they produce differential behavioral effects. To test whether the two types of consequences control behavior differently, we pitted money-gain positive reinforcement and money-loss-avoidance negative reinforcement, scheduled through identically programmed variable-cycle schedules, against each other in concurrent schedules. Contingencies of response-produced feedback, normally different in positive and negative reinforcement, were made symmetrical...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098430/behavioral-and-electrophysiological-alterations-for-reinforcement-learning-in-manic-and-euthymic-patients-with-bipolar-disorder
#2
Vin Ryu, Ra Yeon Ha, Su Jin Lee, Kyooseob Ha, Hyun-Sang Cho
AIMS: Bipolar disorder is characterized by behavioral changes such as risk-taking and increasing goal-directed activities, which may result from altered reward processing. Patients with bipolar disorder show impaired reward learning in situations that require the integration of reinforced feedback over time. In this study, we examined the behavioral and electrophysiological characteristics of reward learning in manic and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder using a probabilistic reward task...
January 18, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093302/aging-and-risky-decision-making-new-erp-evidence-from-the-iowa-gambling-task
#3
Elisa Di Rosa, Daniela Mapelli, Giorgio Arcara, Piero Amodio, Stefano Tamburin, Sami Schiff
Several pieces of evidence have highlighted the presence of an age-related decline in risky decision-making (DM), but the reason of this decline is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neural correlates of feedback processing in risky DM. Twenty-one younger (age <50 years) and 15 older (age >50 years) adults were tested with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) during Event Related Potentials (ERP) recording. The analysis was focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P3, two ERP components that represent different stages of feedback processing...
January 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088407/far-off-and-close-up-dry-matter-intake-modulate-indicators-of-immunometabolic-adaptations-to-lactation-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-pasture-based-transition-dairy-cows
#4
M Vailati-Riboni, G Farina, F Batistel, A Heiser, M D Mitchell, M A Crookenden, C G Walker, J K Kay, S Meier, J R Roche, J J Loor
The common practice of increasing dietary energy density during the close-up dry period (last ∼3 wk prepartum) has been recently associated with a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving. Despite these reports, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off, nonlactating period is a common management policy aimed at achieving optimum calving body condition score (BCS) in pasture-based systems, as cows are generally thinner than total mixed ration cows at the end of lactation. Our hypothesis was that both far-off and close-up overfeeding influence the peripartum adipose tissue changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074874/modeling-confirmation-bias-and-polarization
#5
Michela Del Vicario, Antonio Scala, Guido Caldarelli, H Eugene Stanley, Walter Quattrociocchi
Online users tend to select claims that adhere to their system of beliefs and to ignore dissenting information. Confirmation bias, indeed, plays a pivotal role in viral phenomena. Furthermore, the wide availability of content on the web fosters the aggregation of likeminded people where debates tend to enforce group polarization. Such a configuration might alter the public debate and thus the formation of the public opinion. In this paper we provide a mathematical model to study online social debates and the related polarization dynamics...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068481/micrornas-and-periodontal-homeostasis
#6
X Luan, X Zhou, J Trombetta-eSilva, M Francis, A K Gaharwar, P Atsawasuwan, T G H Diekwisch
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small RNAs that control gene expression in all aspects of eukaryotic life, primarily through RNA silencing mechanisms. The purpose of the present review is to introduce key miRNAs involved in periodontal homeostasis, summarize the mechanisms by which they affect downstream genes and tissues, and provide an introduction into the therapeutic potential of periodontal miRNAs. In general, miRNAs function synergistically to fine-tune the regulation of biological processes and to remove expression noise rather than by causing drastic changes in expression levels...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066106/modulation-of-hippocampal-gene-expression-of-microrna-146a-microrna-155-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-inflammatory-signaling-by-troxerutin-in-healthy-and-diabetic-rats
#7
Raana Yavari, Reza Badalzadeh, Mohammad Reza Alipour, Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei
OBJECTIVES: Inflammation plays a critical role in the progression of diabetic complications such as neurological disorders. Previous reports have indicated the memory-improving effect of troxerutin, in rat hippocampus, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Hence, we have investigated the effect of troxerutin pretreatment on gene expressions of inflammation-related microRNAs (miRs), miR-146a and miR-155, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway in the hippocampus of healthy and diabetic rats...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061864/identification-of-brassinosteroid-genes-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#8
Claudia Corvalán, Sunghwa Choe
BACKGROUND: Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal phytohormones that are involved in diverse physiological processes and affect many important traits, such as plant stature, stress tolerance, leaf angle, fertility, and grain filling. BR signaling and biosynthetic pathways have been studied in various plants, such as the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana; however, relatively little is known about these pathways in monocots. RESULTS: To characterize BR-related processes in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon, we studied the response of these plants to the specific BR biosynthesis inhibitor, propiconazole (Pcz)...
January 6, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057457/sustainable-theory-of-a-logistic-model-fisher-information-approach
#9
Avan Al-Saffar, Eun-Jin Kim
Information theory provides a useful tool to understand the evolution of complex nonlinear systems and their sustainability. In particular, Fisher information has been evoked as a useful measure of sustainability and the variability of dynamical systems including self-organising systems. By utilising Fisher information, we investigate the sustainability of the logistic model for different perturbations in the positive and/or negative feedback. Specifically, we consider different oscillatory modulations in the parameters for positive and negative feedback and investigate their effect on the evolution of the system and Probability Density Functions (PDFs)...
January 2, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055275/the-nr4a-subfamily-of-nuclear-receptors-potential-new-therapeutic-targets-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-diseases
#10
Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo, Marta Tajes, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera
Introduction Prolonged inflammatory response contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic disease-related disturbances. Among nuclear receptors (NRs), the orphan NR4A subfamily, which includes Nur77 (NR4A1), Nurr1 (NR4A2) and NOR1 (NR4A3), has recently emerged as a therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammation. Areas covered This review focuses on the capacity of NR4A receptors to counter-regulate the development of the inflammatory response, with a special focus on the molecular transrepression mechanisms...
January 5, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054818/it-s-not-me-it-s-not-you-it-s-us-an-empirical-examination-of-relational-attributions
#11
Marion B Eberly, Erica C Holley, Michael D Johnson, Terence R Mitchell
It has recently been suggested that attribution theory expand its locus of causality dimension beyond internal and external attributions to include relational (i.e., interpersonal) attributions (Eberly, Holley, Johnson, & Mitchell, 2011). The current investigation was designed to empirically focus on relationship dynamics, specifically where 1 member of the relationship receives negative performance-related feedback. We use quantitative and qualitative data from 7 samples (5 samples for scale validation in Study 1 and 2 for hypothesis testing in Studies 2 and 3) that provide empirical support for the existence and impact of relational attributions...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051173/microbial-taxa-and-functional-genes-shift-in-degraded-soil-with-bacterial-wilt
#12
Hongchun Zhang, Rui Wang, Shu Chen, Gaofu Qi, Zhili He, Xiuyun Zhao
Soil degradation is a serious global problem, but little is known about how soil microbial communities respond to soil degradation as well as their feedback to ecosystem functioning. In this study, we found the microbial community composition, structure and functional potential significantly altered in the degraded soils with bacterial wilt (termed as degraded soils). Compared with healthy soils, OTU richness of beneficial microorganisms were significantly decreased, but OTU richness of pathogenic microorganisms were significantly increased in the degraded soils...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051156/ingroup-outgroup-membership-modulates-fairness-consideration-neural-signatures-from-erps-and-eeg-oscillations
#13
Yiwen Wang, Zhen Zhang, Liying Bai, Chongde Lin, Roman Osinsky, Johannes Hewig
Previous studies have shown that ingroup/outgroup membership influences individual's fairness considerations. However, it is not clear yet how group membership influences brain activity when a recipient evaluates the fairness of asset distribution. In this study, subjects participated as recipients in an Ultimatum Game with alleged members of both an experimentally induced ingroup and outgroup. They either received extremely unequal, moderately unequal, or equal offers from proposers while electroencephalogram was recorded...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050805/electrophysiological-correlates-reflect-the-integration-of-model-based-and-model-free-decision-information
#14
Ben Eppinger, Maik Walter, Shu-Chen Li
In this study, we investigated the interplay of habitual (model-free) and goal-directed (model-based) decision processes by using a two-stage Markov decision task in combination with event-related potentials (ERPs) and computational modeling. To manipulate the demands on model-based decision making, we applied two experimental conditions with different probabilities of transitioning from the first to the second stage of the task. As we expected, when the stage transitions were more predictable, participants showed greater model-based (planning) behavior...
January 3, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043892/genetic-influences-on-functional-connectivity-associated-with-feedback-processing-and-prediction-error-phase-coupling-of-theta-band-oscillations-in-twins
#15
Şükrü Barış Demiral, Simon Golosheykin, Andrey P Anokhin
Detection and evaluation of the mismatch between the intended and actually obtained result of an action (reward prediction error) is an integral component of adaptive self-regulation of behavior. Extensive human and animal research has shown that evaluation of action outcome is supported by a distributed network of brain regions in which the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a central role, and the integration of distant brain regions into a unified feedback-processing network is enabled by long-range phase synchronization of cortical oscillations in the theta band...
December 31, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039918/regulation-of-reserve-mobilization-in-sunflower-during-late-seedling-establishment-under-continuous-darkness
#16
A P Avelino, D F A de Oliveira, H A Silva, C E C de Macêdo, E L Voigt
• Reserve mobilization, metabolite partitioning, and reserve-degrading enzyme activities were studied in sunflower seedlings cultivated in vitro under 12-h photoperiod or in the dark to investigate the involvement of source-sink relation and carbon starvation in the regulation of reserve mobilization under continuous darkness. • Reserves, metabolites, and enzyme activities were determined by standard spectrophotometric methods. • At the first 24 h of treatment (acclimation phase), darkness did not affect growth, but restricted carbon and nitrogen utilization, indicated by sugar and amino acid accumulation in the different seedling parts...
December 31, 2016: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039795/visuomotor-adaptability-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-decline
#17
Jeffrey Schaffert, Chi-Mei Lee, Rebecca Neill, Jin Bo
The current study examined the augmentation of error feedback on visuomotor adaptability in older adults with varying degrees of cognitive decline (assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; MoCA). Twenty-three participants performed a center-out computerized visuomotor adaptation task when the visual feedback of their hand movement error was presented in a regular (ratio=1:1) or enhanced (ratio=1:2) error feedback schedule. Results showed that older adults with lower scores on the MoCA had less adaptability than those with higher MoCA scores during the regular feedback schedule...
December 28, 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035348/nek2a-sufu-feedback-loop-regulates-gli-mediated-hedgehog-signaling-pathway
#18
Fen Zhou, Dengliang Huang, Yong Li, Guanghui Hu, Hai Rao, Quqin Lu, Shiwen Luo, Yao Wang
Suppressor of Fused (SuFu), one of the most conserved components of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, binds Gli transcription factors and impedes activation of target gene expression in mammalian cells. Despite the central importance of SuFu in the Hh pathway, little is known about SuFu regulation. In a previous study, we identified NIMA-related expressed kinase 2A (Nek2A) as a SuFu-interacting protein. Here, we show that Nek2A stabilizes SuFu through impairing ubiquitin/proteasome degradation of SuFu. In addition, Nek2A negatively regulates target genes of Hh signaling as well as Gli2 transcriptional activity...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029198/neural-responses-to-negative-outcomes-predict-success-in-community-based-substance-use-treatment
#19
Sarah E Forster, Peter R Finn, Joshua W Brown
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Activation in some specific brain regions has demonstrated promise as prognostic indicators in substance dependent individuals (SDIs) but this issue has not yet been explored in SDIs attending typical of community-based treatment. We used a data-driven, exploratory approach to identify brain-based predictors of treatment outcome in a representative community sample of SDIs. The predictive utility of brain-based measures was evaluated against clinical indicators, cognitive-behavioral performance, and self-report assessments...
December 28, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025061/understanding-resident-performance-mindfulness-and-communication-in-critical-care-rotations
#20
Kevin Real, Katelyn Fields-Elswick, Andrew C Bernard
OBJECTIVE: Evidence from the medical literature suggests that surgical trainees can benefit from mindful practices. Surgical educators are challenged with the need to address resident core competencies, some of which may be facilitated by higher levels of mindfulness. This study explores whether mindful residents perform better than their peers as members of the health care team. DESIGN: This study employed a multiphase, multimethod design to assess resident mindfulness, communication, and clinical performance...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
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