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feedback-related negativity

F Müller-Sánchez, R Nevin, J M Comerford, R I Davies, G C Privon, E Treister
Theoretical models and numerical simulations have established a framework of galaxy evolution in which galaxies merge and create dual supermassive black holes (with separations of one to ten kiloparsecs), which eventually sink into the centre of the merger remnant, emit gravitational waves and coalesce. The merger also triggers star formation and supermassive black hole growth, and gas outflows regulate the stellar content1-3 . Although this theoretical picture is supported by recent observations of starburst-driven and supermassive black hole-driven outflows4-6 , it remains unclear how these outflows interact with the interstellar medium...
April 2018: Nature
Anna Wikman, Laura Kukkola, Helene Börjesson, Martin Cernvall, Joanne Woodford, Helena Grönqvist, Louise von Essen
BACKGROUND: Parenting a child through cancer is a distressing experience, and a subgroup of parents report negative long-term psychological consequences years after treatment completion. However, there is a lack of evidence-based psychological interventions for parents who experience distress in relation to a child's cancer disease after end of treatment. OBJECTIVE: One aim of this study was to develop an internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) for parents of children previously treated for cancer...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Robert J Klein, Michael D Robinson
Negative feedback has paradoxical features to it. This form of feedback can have informational value under some circumstances, but it can also threaten the ego, potentially upsetting behaviour as a result. To investigate possible consequences of the latter type, two experiments (total N = 159) presented positive or negative feedback within a sequence-prediction task that could not be solved. Following feedback, participants had to control their behaviours as effectively as possible in a motor control task...
April 19, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Limin Liu, Chong Wan, Wei Zhang, Longfei Guan, Guoxiong Tian, Fang Zhang, Wenjun Ding
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) leads to kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases, such as asthma, COPD, arrhythmias, lung cancer, etc., which are related to PM-induced inflammation. We have found that PM2.5 (aerodynamics diameter <2.5 µm) exposure induces inflammatory response both in vivo and in vitro. Since the toxicity of PM is tightly associated with its size and components, PM1 (aerodynamics diameter <1.0 µm) is supposed to be more toxic than PM2.5 . However, the mechanism of PM1 -induced inflammation is not clear...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Bin Du, Bihua Cao, Weiqi He, Fuhong Li
The ability to learn from feedback is important for children's adaptive behavior and school learning. Feedback has two main components, informative value and valence. How to disentangle these two components and what is the developmental neural correlates of using the informative value of feedback is still an open question. In this study, 23 children (7-10 years old) and 19 adults (19-22 years old) were asked to perform a rule induction task, in which they were required to find a rule, based on the informative value of feedback...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Maja Brydevall, Daniel Bennett, Carsten Murawski, Stefan Bode
In a dynamic world, accurate beliefs about the environment are vital for survival, and individuals should therefore regularly seek out new information with which to update their beliefs. This aspect of behaviour is not well captured by standard theories of decision making, and the neural mechanisms of information seeking remain unclear. One recent theory posits that valuation of information results from representation of informative stimuli within canonical neural reward-processing circuits, even if that information lacks instrumental use...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aliona Tsypes, Max Owens, Greg Hajcak, Brandon E Gibb
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in children is important for the identification and prevention of future suicide risk. However, although abnormalities in reward responsiveness might constitute one potential transdiagnostic mechanism of risk for NSSI, no studies have examined initial response to reward in children with a history of NSSI. The goal of the present study was to address this important gap in the literature. To objectively assess initial response to reward, we utilized the feedback negativity (FN) event-related potential, a well-established psychophysiological marker of reward responsiveness...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Christian Valt, Mona Katharina Sprengeler, Birgit Stürmer
The present study explored the relevance of internal signals for the dynamics of personal and nonpersonal feedback processing. To this end, pairs of participants performed concurrently a choice-response task and received external signals in four feedback contexts. In two contexts, feedback was informative about the personal performance (personal/private and personal/public); in the other two contexts, instructions suggested that feedback was informative about the other participant's performance (nonpersonal/other) or that it was random (nonpersonal/random)...
April 16, 2018: Psychophysiology
Elisabeth Reim, Danny Eichhorn, Jan D Roy, Philip O M Steinhoff, Klaus Fischer
Anthropogenic global change, including agricultural intensification and climate change, poses a substantial challenge to many herbivores due to a reduced availability of feeding resources. The concomitant food stress is expected to detrimentally affect performance, amongst others in dispersal-related traits. Thus, while dispersal is of utmost importance to escape from deteriorating habitat conditions, such conditions may negatively feedback on the ability to do so. Therefore, we here investigate the impact of larval and adult food stress on traits related to dispersal ability, including morphology, physiology, flight performance, and exploratory behavior, in a butterfly...
April 16, 2018: Insect Science
Jennifer E Merrill, Rochelle K Rosen, Holly K Boyle, Kate B Carey
College students may subjectively evaluate the consequences of drinking in unexpected ways, rating "negative" consequences as neutral or even positive experiences. We previously gathered qualitative evidence for several contextual factors that may influence one's subjective evaluations (e.g., social influences, intoxication level, concurrent positive consequences). The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively investigate whether student evaluations of consequences differ by various contextual factors...
April 16, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Anke Langenfeld, Caroline Bastiaenen, Judith Sieben, Jaap Swanenburg
BACKGROUND: Cervical spine (CS) range of motion (ROM) is commonly used to assess neck pain. However, this measurement is often limited by the clinician's experience and perception. Therefore, the integration of perceptual feedback of the patient can optimize and personalize treatment. OBJECTIVE: Develop and validate a questionnaire (S-ROM-Neck) to evaluate ROM of the CS from the patient's perspective. DESIGN: Validation study. METHODS: The assessment tool was developed and optimized during pretest sessions...
April 10, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
Elise D Kortink, Wouter D Weeda, Michael J Crowley, Bregtje Gunther Moor, Melle J W van der Molen
Monitoring social threat is essential for maintaining healthy social relationships, and recent studies suggest a neural alarm system that governs our response to social rejection. Frontal-midline theta (4-8 Hz) oscillatory power might act as a neural correlate of this system by being sensitive to unexpected social rejection. Here, we examined whether frontal-midline theta is modulated by individual differences in personality constructs sensitive to social disconnection. In addition, we examined the sensitivity of feedback-related brain potentials (i...
April 12, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Meredith Minear, Jennifer H Coane, Sarah C Boland, Leah H Cooney, Marissa Albat
The authors examined whether individual differences in fluid intelligence (gF) modulate the testing effect. Participants studied Swahili-English word pairs and repeatedly studied half the pairs or attempted retrieval, with feedback, for the remaining half. Word pairs were easy or difficult to learn. Overall, participants showed a benefit of testing over restudy. However, almost 1/3 of the sample had a negative testing effect and benefitted more from restudy than testing, as well as performing better overall...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Sonia A Cavigelli, Alexander D Bao, Rebecca A Bourne, Michael J Caruso, Jasmine I Caulfield, Mary Chen, Joshua M Smyth
Chronic mild stress can lead to negative health outcomes. Frequency, duration, and intensity of acute stressors can affect health-related processes. We tested whether the temporal pattern of daily acute stressors (clustered or dispersed across the day) affects depression-related physiology. We used a rodent model to keep stressor frequency, duration, and intensity constant, and experimentally manipulated the temporal pattern of acute stressors delivered during the active phase of the day. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three chronic mild stress groups: Clustered: stressors that occurred within 1 hour of each other (n = 21), Dispersed: stressors that were spread out across the active phase (n = 21), and Control: no stressors presented (n = 21)...
April 12, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Delia A Gheorghe, Muriel T N Panouillères, Nicholas D Walsh
Despite being overlooked in theoretical models of stress-related disorders, differences in cerebellar structure and function are consistently reported in studies of individuals exposed to current and early-life stressors. However, the mediating processes through which stress impacts upon cerebellar function are currently unknown. The aim of the current experiment was to test the effects of experimentally-induced acute stress on cerebellar functioning, using a classic, forward saccadic adaptation paradigm in healthy, young men and women...
March 27, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Philip R Blue, Jie Hu, Xiaolin Zhou
Promises are crucial for maintaining trust in social hierarchies. It is well known that not all promises are kept; yet the effect of social status on responses to promises being kept or broken is far from understood, as are the neural processes underlying this effect. Here we manipulated participants' social status before measuring their investment behavior as Investor in iterated Trust Game (TG). Participants decided how much to invest in their partners, who acted as Trustees in TG, after being informed that their partners of higher or lower social status either promised to return half of the multiplied sum (4 × invested amount), did not promise, or had no opportunity to promise...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ya Li, Yongchun Wang, Baoqiang Zhang, Yonghui Wang, Xiaolin Zhou
Dynamically evaluating the outcomes of our actions and thoughts is a fundamental cognitive ability. Given its excellent temporal resolution, the event-related potential (ERP) technology has been used to address this issue. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) component of ERPs has been studied intensively with the averaged linked mastoid reference method (LM). However, it is unknown whether FRN can be induced by an expectancy violation in an antonym relations context and whether LM is the most suitable reference approach...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Joshua Krissansen-Totton, Giada N Arney, David C Catling
The early Earth's environment is controversial. Climatic estimates range from hot to glacial, and inferred marine pH spans strongly alkaline to acidic. Better understanding of early climate and ocean chemistry would improve our knowledge of the origin of life and its coevolution with the environment. Here, we use a geological carbon cycle model with ocean chemistry to calculate self-consistent histories of climate and ocean pH. Our carbon cycle model includes an empirically justified temperature and pH dependence of seafloor weathering, allowing the relative importance of continental and seafloor weathering to be evaluated...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Cecile D Ladouceur, Patricia Z Tan, Vinod Sharma, Lauren M Bylsma, Jennifer S Silk, Greg J Siegle, Erika E Forbes, Dana L McMakin, Ronald E Dahl, Phillip C Kendall, Anthony Mannarino, Neal D Ryan
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are associated with an overactive action monitoring system as indexed by a larger error-related negativity (ERN). This study tests whether ERN magnitude changes following treatment, predicts response to treatment, and varies by treatment type. METHODS: The sample included 130 youth (9-14 years): youth with an anxiety disorder (ANX; n = 100) and healthy control (HC; n = 30) youth with no lifetime DSM-IV disorders. ANX youth were randomized to either a manualized cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) or a comparison child-centered therapy (CCT)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Mary Beth Miller, Angelo M DiBello, Kate B Carey, Eric R Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Blackouts - or periods of alcohol-induced amnesia for all or part of a drinking event - have been identified as independent predictors of alcohol-related harm that may be used to identify individuals who would benefit from intervention. However, little is known about the prevalence and impact of blackouts among Veterans. This study examined blackouts as a moderator of young adult Veteran response to a brief, online personalized normative feedback (PNF) intervention for heavy drinking...
March 30, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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