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feedback-related negativity

Jonathan M Highsmith, Karl L Wuensch, Tuan Tran, Alexandra J Stephenson, D Erik Everhart
ERP studies commonly utilize gambling-based reinforcement tasks to elicit feedback negativity (FN) responses. This study used a pattern learning task in order to limit gambling-related fallacious reasoning and possible affective responses to gambling, while investigating relationships between the FN components between high and low reward expectation conditions. Eighteen undergraduates completed measures of reinforcement sensitivity, trait and state affect, and psychophysiological recording. The pattern learning task elicited a FN component for both high and low win expectancy conditions, which was found to be independent of reward expectation and showed little relationship with task and personality variables...
April 18, 2016: Brain Informatics
Diana-Mirela Cândea, Aurora Szentágotai-Tătar
Evidence shows that people with high social anxiety levels ruminate about distressing social events, which contributes to the maintenance of social anxiety symptoms. The present study aimed to explore the role of shame in maintaining post-event rumination (PER) following a negative social event (an impromptu speech with negative feedback) in a student sample (N = 104). Participants reported negative rumination related to the event one day and one week after the speech. PER measured one day after the speech was not associated with social anxiety symptoms and state anxiety...
October 15, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Takujiro Homma, Junichi Fujii
Heat stress induces intracellular protein denaturation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which elicits unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells. UPR involves three ER-localized sensor proteins: the inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), the dsRNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6). However, the precise mechanism by which cells deal with heat stress remains to be elucidated. We report herein that heat stress effectively activates all branches of the UPR...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Nese Direk, Marieke J H J Dekker, Annemarie I Luik, Clemens Kirschbaum, Yolanda B de Rijke, Albert Hofman, Witte J G Hoogendijk, Henning Tiemeier
Determinants of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning are increasingly explored in population-based studies. However, functional tests measuring the negative feedback of the HPA axis cannot easily be implemented into large observational studies. Furthermore, high doses of dexamethasone often completely suppress the HPA axis in healthy persons. This study aimed to detect the effects of the health, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors, psychiatric problems and cognitive functions on the negative feedback of the HPA axis using a very low-dose (0...
2016: PloS One
Lucas Vanhaelewyn, Paolo Schumacher, Dirk Poelman, Christian Fankhauser, Dominique Van Der Straeten, Filip Vandenbussche
Ultraviolet B (UV-B) light is a part of the solar radiation which has significant effects on plant morphology, even at low doses. In Arabidopsis, many of these morphological changes have been attributed to a specific UV-B receptor, UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8). Recent findings showed that next to phototropin regulated phototropism, UVR8 mediated signaling is able of inducing directional bending towards UV-B light in etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis, in a phototropin independent manner. In this study, kinetic analysis of phototropic bending was used to evaluate the relative contribution of each of these pathways in UV-B mediated phototropism...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Tao Jiang, Liuna Geng, Yanmei Tang, Lijuan Ye
The present study examined how negative feedback influenced implicit self-evaluations and how individuals' level of relational self-construal (RelSC) moderated these relationships. One hundred Chinese university students completed the relational-interdependent self-construal scale and were randomly assigned into one of three conditions (social exclusion, personal failure, or control). After receiving the manipulation, participants completed two Brief Implicit Association Tests (BIATs) that measured their implicit self-liking and self-competence...
September 26, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Katja Czieselsky, Mel Prescott, Robert Porteous, Pauline Campos, Jenny Clarkson, Frederik J Steyn, Rebecca E Campbell, Allan E Herbison
Using a new tail-tip bleeding procedure and a sensitive ELISA, we describe here the patterns of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion i) throughout the mouse estrous cycle, ii) in ovariectomized mice, iii) in ovariectomized, estradiol-treated mice that model estrogen negative and positive feedback, and iv) in transgenic GNR23 mice that exhibit allele-dependent reductions in GnRH neuron number. Pulsatile LH secretion was evident at all stages of the estrous cycle with LH pulse frequency being approximately one pulse per hour in metestrous, diestrous, and proestrous mice but much less frequent at estrus (<1 pulse/4h)...
October 7, 2016: Endocrinology
Hollie S Jones, Emily L Williams, David Marchant, S Andy Sparks, Craig A Bridge, Adrian W Midgley, Lars R Mc Naughton
The provision of performance-related feedback during exercise is acknowledged as an influential external cue used to inform pacing decisions. The provision of this feedback in a challenging or deceptive context allows research to explore how feedback can be used to improve performance and influence perceptual responses. However, the effects of deception on both acute and residual responses have yet to be explored, despite potential application for performance enhancement. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of challenging and deceptive feedback on perceptual responses and performance in self-paced cycling time trials (TT) and explored whether changes in performance are sustained in a subsequent TT following the disclosure of the deception...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Yael Arbel, Hao Wu
The efficiency with which one processes external feedback contributes to the speed and quality of one's learning. Previous findings that the feedback related negativity (FRN) event related potential (ERP) is modulated by learning outcomes suggested that this ERP reflects the extent to which feedback is used by the learner to improve performance. To further test this suggestion, we measured whether the FRN and the fronto-central positivity (FCP) that follows it are modulated by learning slopes, and as a function of individual differences in learning outcomes...
October 4, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Sylwia Mańka, Ewa Majewska
Literature data indicate a significant immunoregulatory role of melatonin. Melatonin exerts an effect directly affecting leucocytes bearing specific melatonin receptors or indirectly by means of melatonin regulating other hormones, opioids or cytokines. Despite numerous experiments, the influence of the hormone on the immune system is still controversial. Melatonin affects the immune response acting as both an activator and an inhibitor of the inflammatory process. The hormone acts as an "immunological buffer" activating impaired immunity in immunosuppression, chronic stress or old age as well as suppressing overreaction of the immune system...
October 4, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Yan Gu, Xueping Hu, Weigang Pan, Chun Yang, Lijun Wang, Yiyuan Li, Antao Chen
Feedback information is essential for us to adapt appropriately to the environment. The feedback-related negativity (FRN), a frontocentral negative deflection after the delivery of feedback, has been found to be larger for outcomes that are worse than expected, and it reflects a reward prediction error derived from the midbrain dopaminergic projections to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as stated in reinforcement learning theory. In contrast, the prediction of response-outcome (PRO) model claims that the neural activity in the mediofrontal cortex (mPFC), especially the ACC, is sensitive to the violation of expectancy, irrespective of the valence of feedback...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
D H Peng, C Ungewiss, P Tong, L A Byers, J Wang, J R Canales, P A Villalobos, N Uraoka, B Mino, C Behrens, I I Wistuba, R I Han, C A Wanna, M Fahrenholtz, K J Grande-Allen, C J Creighton, D L Gibbons
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, primarily due to distant metastatic disease. Metastatic lung cancer cells can undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulated by various transcription factors, including a double-negative feedback loop between the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family and ZEB1, but the precise mechanisms by which ZEB1-dependent EMT promotes malignancy remain largely undefined. Although the cell-intrinsic effects of EMT are important for tumor progression, the reciprocal dynamic crosstalk between mesenchymal cancer cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) is equally critical in regulating invasion and metastasis...
October 3, 2016: Oncogene
Grant Gillary, Ernst Niebur
The standard architecture of neocortex is a network with excitation and inhibition in closely maintained balance. These networks respond fast and with high precision to their inputs and they allow selective amplification of patterned signals. The stability of such networks is known to depend on balancing the strengths of positive and negative feedback. We here show that a second condition is required for stability which depends on the relative strengths and time courses of fast (AMPA) and slow (NMDA) currents in the excitatory projections...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Helen F McCreery, Nikolaus Correll, Michael D Breed, Samuel Flaxman
Coordinated collective behaviors often emerge from simple rules governing the interactions of individuals in groups. We model mechanisms of coordination among ants during cooperative transport, a challenging task that requires a consensus on travel direction. Our goal is to determine whether groups following simple behavioral rules can reach a consensus using minimal information. Using deterministic and stochastic models, we investigate behavioral factors that affect coordination. We define and investigate three types of behavioral rules governing individual behavior that differ in the information available: individuals either 1) have no information, 2) can measure transport success, or 3) measure success while also knowing whether they are aligned with the majority...
2016: PloS One
H L O McClelland, N Barbarin, L Beaufort, M Hermoso, P Ferretti, M Greaves, R E M Rickaby
Coccolithophores are single-celled photosynthesizing marine algae, responsible for half of the calcification in the surface ocean, and exert a strong influence on the distribution of carbon among global reservoirs, and thus Earth's climate. Calcification in the surface ocean decreases the buffering capacity of seawater for CO2, whilst photosynthetic carbon fixation has the opposite effect. Experiments in culture have suggested that coccolithophore calcification decreases under high CO2 concentrations ([CO2(aq)]) constituting a negative feedback...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Laurence Puillet, Denis Réale, Nicolas C Friggens
BACKGROUND: Feed efficiency of farm animals has greatly improved through genetic selection for production. Today, we are faced with the limits of our ability to predict the effect of selection on feed efficiency, partly because the relative importance of the components of this complex phenotype changes across environments. Thus, we developed a dairy cow model that incorporates the dynamic interplay between life functions and evaluated its behaviour with a global sensitivity analysis on two definitions of feed efficiency...
September 26, 2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Mariana Silva Ferreira, Marcus Vinícius Vieira, Rui Cerqueira, Christopher R Dickman
The conditions that a population experiences during one season can affect the strength of density dependence in the following season. In the tropics, many populations face their biggest challenges in the dry season due to limited food and cold-dry conditions. Seasonal environmental changes can be especially problematic for small, short-lived, seasonally breeding endotherms. To investigate the effects of seasonality on population dynamics, we studied five marsupial species in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, using a 16-year dataset...
December 2016: Oecologia
Eunyoung Lee, Hyoung-June Kim, Moonyoung Lee, Sun Hee Jin, Soo Hyun Hong, Seyeon Ahn, Sae On Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Seung-Taek Lee, Minsoo Noh
Low-level formaldehyde exposure is inevitable in industrialized countries. Although daily-life formaldehyde exposure level is practically impossible to induce cell death, most of mechanistic studies related to formaldehyde toxicity have been performed in cytotoxic concentrations enough to trigger cell death mechanism. Currently, toxicological mechanisms underlying the sub-cytotoxic exposure to formaldehyde are not clearly elucidated in skin cells. In this study, the genome-scale transcriptional analysis in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) was performed to investigate cutaneous biological pathways associated with daily life formaldehyde exposure...
November 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Lewis Forder, Benjamin James Dyson
Competitive environments in which individuals compete for mutually-exclusive outcomes require rational decision making in order to maximize gains but often result in poor quality heuristics. Reasons for the greater reliance on lose-shift relative to win-stay behaviour shown in previous studies were explored using the game of Rock, Paper, Scissors and by manipulating the value of winning and losing. Decision-making following a loss was characterized as relatively fast and relatively inflexible both in terms of the failure to modulate the magnitude of lose-shift strategy and the lack of significant neural modulation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Christian Bellebaum, Lars Kuchinke, Patrik Roser
Modafinil is becoming increasingly popular as a cognitive enhancer. Research on the effects of modafinil on cognitive function have yielded mixed results, with negative findings for simple memory and attention tasks and enhancing effects for more complex tasks. In the present study we examined whether modafinil, due to its known effect on the dopamine level in the striatum, alters feedback-related choice behaviour. We applied a task that separately tests the choice of previously rewarded behaviours (approach) and avoidance of previously punished behaviours...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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