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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245185/contribution-of-crop-model-structure-parameters-and-climate-projections-to-uncertainty-in-climate-change-impact-assessments
#1
Fulu Tao, Reimund P Rötter, Taru Palosuo, C G H Díaz-Ambrona, M Inés Mínguez, Mikhail A Semenov, Kurt Christian Kersebaum, Claas Nendel, Xenia Specka, Holger Hoffmann, Frank Ewert, Anaelle Dambreville, Pierre Martre, Lucía Rodríguez, Margarita Ruiz-Ramos, Thomas Gaiser, Jukka G Höhn, Tapio Salo, Roberto Ferrise, Marco Bindi, Davide Cammarano, Alan H Schulman
Climate change impact assessments are plagued with uncertainties from many sources, such as climate projections or the inadequacies in structure and parameters of the impact model. Previous studies tried to account for the uncertainty from one or two of these. Here, we developed a triple-ensemble probabilistic assessment using seven crop models, multiple sets of model parameters, and eight contrasting climate projections together to comprehensively account for uncertainties from these three important sources...
December 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244117/quality-of-life-self-esteem-and-future-expectations-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-cancer-survivors
#2
Kareen N Tonsing, Rosaleen Ow
Significant advancements in treatment modalities over the past few decades have significantly improved the survival rates of many types of childhood cancer, directing attention to the psychosocial consequences of successful treatment and subsequent survival. This study assesses quality of life (QoL) among survivors of childhood cancer. Data were collected by means of a survey questionnaire. Participants were assured of confidentiality and of the voluntary nature of participation. Participants ranged in age from 12 to 24 years (mean age = 17...
December 13, 2017: Health & Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244075/the-athlete-s-heart-is-a-proarrhythmic-heart-and-what-that-means-for-clinical-decision-making
#3
Hein Heidbuchel
Recurring questions when dealing with arrhythmias in athletes are about the cause of the arrhythmia and, more importantly, about the eligibility of the athlete to continue sports activities. In essence, the relation between sports and arrhythmias can be understood along three lines: sports as arrhythmia trigger on top of an underlying problem, sports as arrhythmic substrate promotor, or sports as substrate inducer. Often, there is no sharp divider line between these entities. The athlete's heart, a heart that adapts so magically to cope with the demands of exercise, harbours many structural and functional changes that by themselves predispose to arrhythmia development, at the atrial, nodal and ventricular levels...
December 13, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243574/stock-outs-improvisations-and-processes-of-infrastructuring-in-uganda-s-hiv-aids-and-malaria-programmes
#4
René Umlauf, Sung-Joon Park
This paper examines the stock-outs of medicines and diagnostic devices in Uganda. Our aim is to trace and compare interruptions in the supply of antiretrovirals and Rapid Diagnostic Tests in order to provide an ethnographic account of the complex role that improvisations play within global health infrastructures. We will argue that the fragmented and mobile infrastructures of these key global health technologies require and necessitate improvisations by the different actors involved as well as on almost all levels of the Ugandan health-care system...
December 15, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243523/causes-and-consequences-of-uncertainty-about-illness-risk-perceptions
#5
Heather Orom, Caitlin Biddle, Erika A Waters, Marc T Kiviniemi, Amanda N Sosnowski, Jennifer L Hay
We identified determinants of uncertainty about perceived risk judgments and demonstrated that uncertainty is associated with lower engagement in risk-reducing behavior. We found that people likely have metacognitive awareness of when their judgments are overly pessimistic, resulting in uncertainty and that question context (more constraints) and people's time orientation (future orientation) are associated with lower uncertainty. Uncertainty about conditioned risk judgments was associated with lower engagement in exercising and eating a healthy diet in order to reduce risk for heart disease...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243351/is-it-cost-effective-to-provide-internet-based-interventions-to-complement-the-current-provision-of-smoking-cessation-services-in-the-netherlands-an-analysis-based-on-the-equiptmod
#6
Kei-Long Cheung, Ben F M Wijnen, Mickaël Hiligsmann, Kathryn Coyle, Doug Coyle, Subhash Pokhrel, Hein de Vries, Maximilian Präger, Silvia M A A Evers
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The cost-effectiveness of internet-based smoking cessation interventions is difficult to determine when they are provided as a complement to current smoking cessation services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of such an alternate package compared with existing smoking cessation services alone (current package). METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify internet-based smoking cessation interventions in the Netherlands...
December 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243347/cost-effectiveness-of-increasing-the-reach-of-smoking-cessation-interventions-in-germany-results-from-the-equiptmod
#7
Manuel B Huber, Maximilian Präger, Kathryn Coyle, Doug Coyle, Adam Lester-George, Marta Trapero-Bertran, Bertalan Nemeth, Kei Long Cheung, Renee Stark, Matthias Vogl, Subhash Pokhrel, Reiner Leidl
AIMS: To evaluate costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of increased reach of specific smoking cessation interventions in Germany. DESIGN: A Markov-based state transition return on investment model (EQUIPTMOD) was used to evaluate current smoking cessation interventions as well as two prospective investment scenarios. A health-care perspective (extended to include out-of-pocket payments) with life-time horizon was considered. A probabilistic analysis was used to assess uncertainty concerning predicted estimates...
December 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243289/examining-the-content-and-moderators-of-women-s-fears-for-giving-birth-a-meta-synthesis
#8
REVIEW
Kayleigh Sheen, Pauline Slade
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This meta-synthesis aimed to identify key elements contributing to FOC derived from women's own reports. BACKGROUND: Fear of childbirth (FOC) encompasses fear or anxiety about giving birth, which can resemble a phobic response. FOC holds implications for women's antenatal and postnatal wellbeing, and decisions made about the birth but a clear definition of the construct does not exist. METHOD: A meta-synthesis was conducted by searching databases (Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, EBSCO, Medline, PsychInfo, and PsychArticles) for qualitative studies describing women's perspectives with respect to fear, anxiety, concerns, phobia or stress about birth...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243239/evaluation-of-australian-surveillance-for-freedom-from-bovine-tuberculosis
#9
Esg Sergeant, J Happold, I Langstaff
BACKGROUND: Australia declared freedom from bovine tuberculosis (TB) in accordance with international guidelines in 1997 and has since maintained ongoing surveillance for this disease, primarily through abattoir surveillance of cattle carcases (meat inspection) for TB-like granulomas. The objectives of this study were to estimate the sensitivity of Australia's surveillance system and quantify the probability that Australia is free from bovine TB at the specified design prevalence. METHODS: The analysis included approximately 80 million records of individual cattle slaughtered and meat inspected at Australian abattoirs between 2005 and 2015 calendar years...
December 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243134/sensory-uncertainty-impacts-avoidance-during-spatial-decisions
#10
Kevin Jarbo, Rory Flemming, Timothy D Verstynen
When making risky spatial decisions, humans incorporate estimates of sensorimotor variability and costs on outcomes to bias their spatial selections away from regions that incur feedback penalties. Since selection variability depends on the reliability of sensory signals, increasing the spatial variance of targets during visually guided actions should increase the degree of this avoidance. Healthy adult participants (N = 20) used a computer mouse to indicate their selection of the mean of a target, represented as a 2D Gaussian distribution of dots presented on a computer display...
December 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243028/perspectives-from-the-patient-and-the-healthcare-professional-in-multiple-sclerosis-social-media-and-patient-education
#11
Daniel Kantor, Jeremy R Bright, Jeri Burtchell
A diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is life-altering. Because the course of MS is heterogeneous, patients may face uncertainty in terms of long-term physical and cognitive challenges, potential loss of employment, and the risk of social isolation. Patients often turn to the Internet and social media for information about MS and its management, and to seek out fellow patients and support groups. Here, we examine the use of social media and the Internet among patients with MS, considering its impact on patient education...
December 14, 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243008/examining-the-psychosocial-impact-of-genetic-testing-for-cardiomyopathies
#12
Julia Wynn, David T Holland, Jimmy Duong, Priyanka Ahimaz, Wendy K Chung
Inherited cardiomyopathies, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), are the most common monogenic cause of cardiac disease and can rarely lead to sudden cardiac death (SCD). They are characterized by incomplete and age-dependent penetrance and are usually initially symptomatic in adulthood yet can present in childhood as well. Over 20 genes have been identified to cause HCM, and more than 40 genes are known to cause DCM. Genetic testing for these genes has been integrated into medical care; however, the psychological impact of genetic testing and the impact of the uncertainty that comes with receiving these results have not been well studied...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242988/anabolic-androgenic-steroids-aas-increase-sensitivity-to-uncertainty-by-inhibition-of-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptors
#13
Kathryn G Wallin-Miller, Frida Kreutz, Grace Li, Ruth I Wood
BACKGROUND: Anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse is implicated in maladaptive behaviors such as impaired cognition in humans. In a rat model, our lab has shown that testosterone decreases preference for a large/uncertain reward in probability discounting. Other studies have shown that androgens decrease dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell, a region important for decision-making behavior in probability discounting. Thus, we attempted to restore selection of the large/uncertain reward in testosterone-treated rats by administering the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole or the D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 and testing probability discounting...
December 14, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242798/anterior-elbow-pain-caused-by-compression-of-the-lateral-antebrachial-cutaneous-nerve
#14
Sean M Booth, Abdulbaset Abosala, Chris Peach
Introduction: The complex anatomy and biomechanics of the elbow joint can lead to diagnostic uncertainty when a clinician is determining the cause of a patient's anterior elbow pain. We present a case of anterior elbow pain with an uncommon and often overlooked etiology. Elbow pain due to compression of the lateral antebrachial nerve (LACN) has an unknown incidence or prevalence. Case Report: A 27-year-old left-hand dominant male presented to our orthopedic elbow clinic complaining of bilateral elbow clicking and discomfort which had been present for several years...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242750/global-investment-targets-for-malaria-control-and-elimination-between-2016-and-2030
#15
Edith Patouillard, Jamie Griffin, Samir Bhatt, Azra Ghani, Richard Cibulskis
Background: Access to malaria control interventions falls short of universal health coverage. The Global Technical Strategy for malaria targets at least 90% reduction in case incidence and mortality rates, and elimination in 35 countries by 2030. The potential to reach these targets will be determined in part by investments in malaria. This study estimates the financing required for malaria control and elimination over the 2016-2030 period. Methods: A mathematical transmission model was used to explore the impact of increasing intervention coverage on burden and costs...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242165/molecular-phylogeny-and-divergence-of-the-map-turtles-emydidae-graptemys
#16
Robert C Thomson, Phillip Q Spinks, H Bradley Shaffer
The map turtles (genus Graptemys) comprise a morphologically diverse clade that forms a major component of the southeastern US hotspot of chelonian diversity. Map turtles have experienced both recent and rapid diversification resulting in long-standing uncertainty regarding species boundaries and phylogenetic relationships within the genus as well as timing of their divergence. We present a phylogeny for the group that includes geographically representative sampling for all described species and subspecies...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242155/a-quantitative-comparison-of-points-of-departure-between-28-day-and-90-day-repeated-dose-studies-with-a-proposed-extrapolation-factor
#17
Bradley J Lampe, Emily Fuller, Senthilkumar P Kuppusamy
The influence of exposure duration on chemical toxicity has important implications for risk assessment. Although a default 10-fold extrapolation factor is commonly applied when the toxicological dataset includes a subchronic (90-day) study but lacks studies of chronic duration, little consensus has been reached on an appropriate extrapolation factor to apply when the dataset includes a 28-day study but lacks studies of longer durations. The goal of the present assessment was to identify a 28-day to 90-day extrapolation factor by analyzing distributions of ratios of No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Levels (NOAELs) and Benchmark Doses (BMDs) derived from 28-day and 90-day studies...
December 11, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241890/value-of-information-analysis-of-multiparameter-tests-for-chemotherapy-in-early-breast-cancer-the-optima-prelim-trial
#18
Peter S Hall, Alison Smith, Claire Hulme, Armando Vargas-Palacios, Andreas Makris, Luke Hughes-Davies, Janet A Dunn, John M S Bartlett, David A Cameron, Andrea Marshall, Amy Campbell, Iain R Macpherson, Dan Rea, Adele Francis, Helena Earl, Adrienne Morgan, Robert C Stein, Christopher McCabe
BACKGROUND: Precision medicine is heralded as offering more effective treatments to smaller targeted patient populations. In breast cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy is standard for patients considered as high-risk after surgery. Molecular tests may identify patients who can safely avoid chemotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To use economic analysis before a large-scale clinical trial of molecular testing to confirm the value of the trial and help prioritize between candidate tests as randomized comparators...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241888/incremental-costs-and-cost-effectiveness-of-intensive-treatment-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-detected-by-screening-in-the-addition-uk-trial-an-update-with-empirical-trial-based-cost-data
#19
Michael Laxy, Edward C F Wilson, Clare E Boothby, Simon J Griffin
BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the cost effectiveness of early intensive treatment versus routine care in individuals with type 2 diabetes detected by screening. OBJECTIVES: To derive a trial-informed estimate of the incremental costs of intensive treatment as delivered in the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care-Europe (ADDITION) trial and to revisit the long-term cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the UK National Health Service...
December 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241840/three-big-things-in-neuropalliative-care-communication-personhood-and-uncertainty
#20
EDITORIAL
Rachael E C Schutz, Claire J Creutzfeldt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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