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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458180/feature-guided-attentional-capture-cannot-be-prevented-by-spatial-filtering
#1
Nick Berggren, Martin Eimer
Feature-based control processes guide attention towards objects with target features in visual search. While these processes are assumed to operate globally across the entire visual field, it remains controversial whether target-matching objects at task-irrelevant locations can be excluded from attentional selection, especially when spatial attention is already narrowly focused elsewhere. We investigated whether probe stimuli at irrelevant lateral locations capture attention when they precede search displays where targets are defined either by a specific feature (colour or orientation) or by a colour/orientation conjunction by measuring N2pc components (an electrophysiological marker of attentional target selection) to these probes...
February 16, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457866/epigenetic-effects-of-metformin-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-clinical-implications
#2
REVIEW
S C Bridgeman, G C Ellison, P E Melton, P Newsholme, Cds Mamotte
There is a growing body of evidence that links epigenetic modifications to type 2 diabetes. Researchers have more recently investigated effects of commonly used medications, including those prescribed for diabetes, on epigenetic processes. This work reviews the influence of the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin on epigenomics, microRNA levels and subsequent gene expression and potential clinical implications. Metformin may influence the activity of numerous epigenetic modifying enzymes, mostly via modulating the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
February 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457751/intra-and-inter-fraction-uncertainties-during-igrt-for-wilms-tumor
#3
Filipa Guerreiro, Enrica Seravalli, Geert O Janssens, Cees P van de Ven, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Bas W Raaymakers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess intra- and inter-fraction motion uncertainties, due to displacements of the tumor bed (TB) and organs at risk (OAR), as well as intra- and inter-fraction patient set-up uncertainties, due to positioning variations, during image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) in children with Wilms' tumor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) and daily pre- and post-treatment cone-beam CT (CBCT)-scans of 15 patients (average 4, range 1-8 years) undergoing flank irradiation after nephrectomy were analyzed...
February 19, 2018: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457738/reproducibility-and-feasibility-of-strategies-for-morphologic-assessment-of-renal-biopsies-using-the-nephrotic-syndrome-study-network-digital-pathology-scoring-system
#4
Jarcy Zee, Jeffrey B Hodgin, Laura H Mariani, Joseph P Gaut, Matthew B Palmer, Serena M Bagnasco, Avi Z Rosenberg, Stephen M Hewitt, Lawrence B Holzman, Brenda W Gillespie, Laura Barisoni
CONTEXT: - Testing reproducibility is critical for the development of methodologies for morphologic assessment. Our previous study using the descriptor-based Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network Digital Pathology Scoring System (NDPSS) on glomerular images revealed variable reproducibility. OBJECTIVE: - To test reproducibility and feasibility of alternative scoring strategies for digital morphologic assessment of glomeruli and explore use of alternative agreement statistics...
February 19, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457313/modeling-the-hematocrit-distribution-in-microcirculatory-networks-a-quantitative-evaluation-of-a-phase-separation-model
#5
Peter M Rasmussen, Timothy W Secomb, Axel R Pries
OBJECTIVE: Theoretical models are essential tools for studying microcirculatory function. Recently, the validity of a well-established phase separation model was questioned and it was claimed that it produces problematically low hematocrit predictions and lack of red cells in small diameter vessels. We conducted a quantitative evaluation of this phase separation model to establish common ground for future research. METHODS: Model predictions were validated against a comprehensive data base with measurements from four mesenteric networks...
February 19, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457304/-everyone-has-an-agenda-professionals-understanding-and-negotiation-of-risk-within-the-guardianship-system-of-victoria-australia
#6
Aaron Wyllie, Bernadette J Saunders
It is frequently asserted that pressures to assess and manage risk have eroded the therapeutic, rights-based foundation of the human services profession. Some argue that human service workers operate in a culture of fear in which self-protection and blame avoidance, rather than clients' needs, primarily drive decision-making. In the field of Adult Guardianship, it has been suggested that organisational risk avoidance may be motivating applications for substitute decision-makers, unnecessarily curtailing clients' rights and freedoms...
February 19, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457150/the-links-between-agriculture-anopheles-mosquitoes-and-malaria-risk-in-children-younger-than-5-years-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-a-population-based-cross-sectional-spatial-study
#7
Mark M Janko, Seth R Irish, Brian J Reich, Marc Peterson, Stephanie M Doctor, Melchior Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Joris L Likwela, Antoinette K Tshefu, Steven R Meshnick, Michael E Emch
Background: The relationship between agriculture, Anopheles mosquitoes, and malaria in Africa is not fully understood, but it is important for malaria control as countries consider expanding agricultural projects to address population growth and food demand. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of agriculture on Anopheles biting behaviour and malaria risk in children in rural areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo). Methods: We did a population-based, cross-sectional, spatial study of rural children (<5 years) in the DR Congo...
February 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456991/estimation-and-projection-of-prevalence-of-colorectal-cancer-in-iran-2015-2020
#8
Hossein Molavi Vardanjani, AliAkbar Haghdoost, Kamran Bagheri-Lankarani, Maryam Hadipour
Background: Population aging and more prevalent westernized lifestyle would be expected to result in a markedly rising burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the future years. The aim of this study is to estimate the limited-time prevalence of CRC in Iran between 2015 and 2020. Materials and Methods: Aggregated CRC incidence data were extracted from the Iranian national cancer registry (IR.NCR) reports for 2003-2009 and from GLOBOCAN-2012 database for 2012. Incidence trends were analyzed by age groups, genders, histopathologic, and topographic subtypes to estimate annual percentage changes...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456880/cost-effectiveness-of-nivolumab-in-patients-with-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma-treated-in-the-united-states
#9
Charles McCrea, Sukhvinder Johal, Shuo Yang, Justin Doan
Background: We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of nivolumab versus everolimus in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from a US payer perspective. Methods: A partitioned survival model consisting of three health states, progression-free survival (PFS), progressive disease, and death, was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of intravenous nivolumab versus oral everolimus over a lifetime. The proportion of patients in each state was calculated based on parametric distributions fitted to PFS and overall survival (OS) data from CheckMate 025 (N = 821), a large randomized phase 3 trial of nivolumab versus everolimus for advanced RCC...
2018: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456782/other-people-s-money-the-role-of-reciprocity-and-social-uncertainty-in-decisions-for-others
#10
Ivo Vlaev, Brian Wallace, Nicholas Wright, Antoinette Nicolle, Paul Dolan, Raymond Dolan
Many important decisions are taken not by the person who will ultimately gain or lose from the outcome, but on their behalf, by somebody else. We examined economic decision-making about risk and time in situations in which deciders chose for others who also chose for them. We propose that this unique setting, which has not been studied before, elicits perception of reciprocity that prompts a unique bias in preferences. We found that decision-makers are less patient (more discounting), and more risk averse for losses than gains, with other peoples' money, especially when their choices for others are more uncertain...
June 2017: Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456279/uncertainty-footprint-visualization-of-nonuniform-behavior-of-iterative-algorithms-applied-to-4d-cell-tracking
#11
Y Wan, C Hansen
Research on microscopy data from developing biological samples usually requires tracking individual cells over time. When cells are three-dimensionally and densely packed in a time-dependent scan of volumes, tracking results can become unreliable and uncertain. Not only are cell segmentation results often inaccurate to start with, but it also lacks a simple method to evaluate the tracking outcome. Previous cell tracking methods have been validated against benchmark data from real scans or artificial data, whose ground truth results are established by manual work or simulation...
June 2017: Computer Graphics Forum: Journal of the European Association for Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456267/inorganic-carbon-and-oxygen-dynamics-in-a-marsh-dominated-estuary
#12
Shiyu Rachel Wang, Daniela Di Iorio, Wei-Jun Cai, Charles S Hopkinson
We conducted a free-water mass balance-based study to address the rate of metabolism and net carbon exchange for the tidal wetland and estuarine portion of the coastal ocean and the uncertainties associated with this approach were assessed. We measured open water diurnal O2 and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) dynamics seasonally in a salt marsh-estuary in Georgia, U.S.A. with a focus on the marsh-estuary linkage associated with tidal flooding. We observed that the overall estuarine system was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere and coastal ocean and a net sink for oceanic and atmospheric O2 ...
January 2018: Limnology and Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456145/the-interrelationships-of-land-plants-and-the-nature-of-the-ancestral-embryophyte
#13
Mark N Puttick, Jennifer L Morris, Tom A Williams, Cymon J Cox, Dianne Edwards, Paul Kenrick, Silvia Pressel, Charles H Wellman, Harald Schneider, Davide Pisani, Philip C J Donoghue
The evolutionary emergence of land plant body plans transformed the planet. However, our understanding of this formative episode is mired in the uncertainty associated with the phylogenetic relationships among bryophytes (hornworts, liverworts, and mosses) and tracheophytes (vascular plants). Here we attempt to clarify this problem by analyzing a large transcriptomic dataset with models that allow for compositional heterogeneity between sites. Zygnematophyceae is resolved as sister to land plants, but we obtain several distinct relationships between bryophytes and tracheophytes...
February 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455564/measurement-uncertainty-of-platelet-concentration-using-the-sysmex-xn-automated-hematology-analyzer
#14
Yong Kwan Lim, Oh Joo Kweon, Jee-Hye Choi, Woonhyoung Lee, Ae Ja Park
We estimated the measurement uncertainty (MU) of platelet concentration measured using the Sysmex XN system with two reference platelet counting methods described by DIN 58932-5 (PTB method) and the International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH method). Ten blood samples were used to estimate and compare the MU of the XN system, and 30 samples were used to compare the methods. The standard uncertainty of the reference method was significantly higher for the ICSH method; the PTB method showed higher platelet concentrations than the ICSH method...
February 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455482/-clinical-efficacy-of-unilateral-percutaneous-transfacet-screws-combined-with-contralateral-pedicle-screw-versus-bilateral-pedicle-screws-fixation-in-the-treatment-of-the-degenerative-lumbar-disease
#15
Rong-Xue Hao, Hui Zhou, Hao Pan, Jun Yue, Hui-Guo Chen, He-Jie Yang, Gao-Yong Jia, Dong Wang, Yan Lin, Hua-Zi Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the surgical outcome of unilateral pedicle screw(UPS) after TLIF technique combined with contralateral percutaneous transfacet screw(PTS) fixation vs bilateral pedicle screws(BPS) fixation in treatment of degenerative lumbar disease. METHODS: From January 2009 to June 2012, 46 patients with degenerative lumbar diseases, including 30 males and 16 females with an average age of 51.5 years old, who were divided into two groups according to different fixation methods...
September 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455467/predicting-reintroduction-outcomes-for-highly-vulnerable-species-that-do-not-currently-coexist-with-their-key-threats
#16
Elizabeth H Parlato, Doug P Armstrong
Predicting reintroduction outcomes before populations are released is inherently challenging. It becomes even more difficult when the species being considered for reintroduction no longer co-exists with the key threats limiting its distribution. However, data from other species facing the same threats can be used to make predictions under these circumstances. We present an integrated Bayesian modelling approach for predicting growth of a reintroduced population at a range of predator densities when no data are available for the species in the presence of that predator...
February 17, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455243/2018-international-olympic-committee-consensus-statement-on-prevention-diagnosis-and-management-of-paediatric-anterior-cruciate-ligament-acl-injuries
#17
REVIEW
Clare L Ardern, Guri Ekås, Hege Grindem, Håvard Moksnes, Allen Anderson, Franck Chotel, Moises Cohen, Magnus Forssblad, Theodore J Ganley, Julian A Feller, Jón Karlsson, Mininder S Kocher, Robert F LaPrade, Mike McNamee, Bert Mandelbaum, Lyle Micheli, Nicholas Mohtadi, Bruce Reider, Justin Roe, Romain Seil, Rainer Siebold, Holly J Silvers-Granelli, Torbjørn Soligard, Erik Witvrouw, Lars Engebretsen
In October 2017, the International Olympic Committee hosted an international expert group of physiotherapists and orthopaedic surgeons who specialise in treating and researching paediatric anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Representatives from the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, European Paediatric Orthopaedic Society, European Society for Sports Traumatology, Knee Surgery and Arthroscopy, International Society of Arthroscopy Knee Surgery and Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America, and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Artroscopia, Rodilla y Deporte attended...
February 17, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455168/experiences-of-australian-men-diagnosed-with-advanced-prostate-cancer-a-qualitative-study
#18
Suzanne K Chambers, Melissa K Hyde, Kirstyn Laurie, Melissa Legg, Mark Frydenberg, Ian D Davis, Anthony Lowe, Jeff Dunn
OBJECTIVE: To explore men's lived experience of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) and preferences for support. DESIGN: Cross-sectional qualitative study applying open-ended surveys and interviews conducted between June and November 2016. Interviews audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim and analysed from an interpretive phenomenological perspective. SETTING: Australia, nation-wide. PARTICIPANTS: 39 men diagnosed with advanced PCa (metastatic or castration-resistant biochemical regression) were surveyed with 28 men subsequently completing a semistructured in depth telephone interview...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455160/children-and-adolescents-experiences-of-primary-lymphoedema-semistructured-interview-study
#19
Camilla S Hanson, Johanna Newsom, Davinder Singh-Grewal, Nicholas Henschke, Margaret Patterson, Allison Tong
BACKGROUND: Congenital lymphoedema is a lifelong condition that has detrimental physical and psychosocial outcomes for young patients and burdensome treatment responsibilities that may hamper patients' motivation for self-management. There is limited research from the perspective of young people with primary lymphoedema. We aimed to describe the experiences and views of children and adolescents with lymphoedema to inform patient-centred practice. METHODS: Twenty patients (aged 8-21 years) with primary lymphoedema were purposively sampled from two paediatric clinics in Sydney, Australia, to participate in a semistructured interview...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455020/bayesian-networks-of-age-estimation-and-classification-based-on-dental-evidence-a-study-on-the-third-molar-mineralization
#20
Emanuele Sironi, Vilma Pinchi, Francesco Pradella, Martina Focardi, Silvia Bozza, Franco Taroni
Not only does the Bayesian approach offer a rational and logical environment for evidence evaluation in a forensic framework, but it also allows scientists to coherently deal with uncertainty related to a collection of multiple items of evidence, due to its flexible nature. Such flexibility might come at the expense of elevated computational complexity, which can be handled by using specific probabilistic graphical tools, namely Bayesian networks. In the current work, such probabilistic tools are used for evaluating dental evidence related to the development of third molars...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
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