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Zi Hao Wu, Yan Fang Liu, Yi Yun Chen, Long Guo, Qing Hu Jiang, Shao Chen Wang
Soil organic carbon pool is an important component of terrestrial carbon pool. Soil organic carbon pool and its dynamic change have important influence on carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystem. Soil organic carbon density (SOCD) is an important parameter of soil carbon storage, and it is also an important index to evaluate farmland soil quality. Accurate prediction of regional organic carbon density spatial distribution is of great significance to the development of precision agriculture. A total of 242 farmland soil samples collected from the Jianghan Plain were used to explore the effects of land use types on the spatial distribution of SOCD in plain areas...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Alexandra C E Draper, Richard J Piercy
Recurrent Laryngeal Neuropathy (RLN) is a highly prevalent and predominantly left-sided, degenerative disorder of the recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLn) of tall horses, that causes inspiratory stridor at exercise because of intrinsic laryngeal muscle paresis. The associated laryngeal dysfunction and exercise intolerance in athletic horses commonly leads to surgical intervention, retirement or euthanasia with associated financial and welfare implications. Despite speculation, there is a lack of consensus and conflicting evidence supporting the primary classification of RLN, as either a distal ("dying back") axonopathy or as a primary myelinopathy and as either a (bilateral) mononeuropathy or a polyneuropathy; this uncertainty hinders etiological and pathophysiological research...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Christopher J Salice, Todd A Anderson, Richard H Anderson, Adric D Olson
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) continue to receive significant attention with particular concern for PFASs such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) which was a constituent of Aqueous Film-Forming Foam used widely as a fire suppressant for aircraft since the 1970 s. We were interested in the potential for risk to ecological receptors inhabiting Cooper Bayou which is adjacent to two former fire-training areas (FTAs) at Barksdale Air Force Base, LA. Previous research showed higher PFOS concentrations in surface water and biota from Cooper Bayou compared to reference sites...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Rui-Xuan Tang, Jing-Sen Cai, Tian-Chyi Jim Yeh
A first-order moment analysis method is introduced to evaluate the pore-water pressure variability within a hillslope due to spatial variability in saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks ) during rainfall. The influences of the variance of the natural logarithm of Ks(lnKs ), spatial structure anisotropy of lnKs , and normalized vertical infiltration flux (q) on the evaluations of the pore-water pressure uncertainty are investigated. Results indicate different responses of pressure head variability in the unsaturated region and the saturated region...
April 25, 2018: Ground Water
Laurence M Djatche, Stefan Varga, Robert D Lieberthal
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal adherence to aspirin therapy for secondary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) events is an important public health problem. Prior studies have demonstrated non-adherent patients are at higher risk of experiencing CV events. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to estimate the clinical and economic outcomes of aspirin non-adherence in patients with a prior primary CV event. METHODS: We developed a Markov model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of aspirin adherence from a generic US managed care payer perspective over a 5-year time horizon...
April 24, 2018: PharmacoEconomics Open
Micah Rose, Jonathan Shepherd, Petra Harris, Karen Pickett, Joanne Lord
The manufacturer of the calcimimetic drug etelcalcetide was invited to make an evidence submission as part of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Single Technology Appraisal (STA) programme. Within this submission, they reported evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of etelcalcetide for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on haemodialysis. The Southampton Health Technology Assessments Centre (SHTAC), part of the Wessex Institute at the University of Southampton, was the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG) commissioned to appraise the company's submission...
April 25, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
Steffen E Eikenberry, Abba B Gumel
Malaria, one of the greatest historical killers of mankind, continues to claim around half a million lives annually, with almost all deaths occurring in children under the age of five living in tropical Africa. The range of this disease is limited by climate to the warmer regions of the globe, and so anthropogenic global warming (and climate change more broadly) now threatens to alter the geographic area for potential malaria transmission, as both the Plasmodium malaria parasite and Anopheles mosquito vector have highly temperature-dependent lifecycles, while the aquatic immature Anopheles habitats are also strongly dependent upon rainfall and local hydrodynamics...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Ruud Andreas Fritz Verhees, Wybo Dondorp, Carel Thijs, Geert Jan Dinant, Johannes Andreas Knottnerus
The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the elderly has long been a topic of debate, fueled by the absence of direct evidence from randomized trials on its effect on mortality and the methodological limitations of observational studies pointing this direction. It is argued that new placebo-controlled trials should be undertaken to resolve this uncertainty. However, such trials may be ethically questionable. To bring this discussion forward, we provide a comprehensive overview of the ethical challenges of an influenza vaccine efficacy trial designed to evaluate mortality in the elderly...
April 21, 2018: Vaccine
Martin A Dangelmayr, Paul W Reimus, Raymond H Johnson, James T Clay, James J Stone
This research assesses the ability of a GC SCM to simulate uranium transport under variable geochemical conditions typically encountered at uranium in-situ recovery (ISR) sites. Sediment was taken from a monitoring well at the SRH site at depths 192 and 193 m below ground and characterized by XRD, XRF, TOC, and BET. Duplicate column studies on the different sediment depths, were flushed with synthesized restoration waters at two different alkalinities (160 mg/l CaCO3 and 360 mg/l CaCO3 ) to study the effect of alkalinity on uranium mobility...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Deepika, Sandeep Kaur, Shiv Narayan
This paper proposes a novel fractional order sliding mode control approach to address the issues of stabilization as well as tracking of an N-dimensional extended chained form of fractional order non-holonomic system. Firstly, the hierarchical fractional order terminal sliding manifolds are selected to procure the desired objectives in finite time. Then, a sliding mode control law is formulated which provides robustness against various system uncertainties or external disturbances. In addition, a novel fractional order uncertainty estimator is deduced mathematically to estimate and mitigate the effects of uncertainties, which also excludes the requirement of their upper bounds...
April 21, 2018: ISA Transactions
Jin Zhang, Yiling Yang, Junqiang Lou, Yanding Wei, Lei Fu
This paper reports on the development, implementation and hybrid control of a new micro-fiber-composite microgripper with synchronous position and force control capabilities. In particular, the micro-fiber-composite actuator was composed of rectangular piezoelectric fibers covered by interdigitated electrodes and embedded in structural epoxy. Thus, the micro-fiber-composite microgripper had a larger displacement-volume ratio (i.e., the ratio of the output displacement to the volume of the microgripper) than that of a traditional piezoelectric one...
April 23, 2018: Sensors
Yun-Ting Wang, Chao-Chung Peng, Ankit A Ravankar, Abhijeet Ravankar
In past years, there has been significant progress in the field of indoor robot localization. To precisely recover the position, the robots usually relies on multiple on-board sensors. Nevertheless, this affects the overall system cost and increases computation. In this research work, we considered a light detection and ranging (LiDAR) device as the only sensor for detecting surroundings and propose an efficient indoor localization algorithm. To attenuate the computation effort and preserve localization robustness, a weighted parallel iterative closed point (WP-ICP) with interpolation is presented...
April 23, 2018: Sensors
Thomas Schneider, Dietmar Ikemeyer, Ole MÜller, Henri J Dumont
Iran has a complex dragonfly fauna influenced by contacts and overlaps of different geographical zones. Its fauna is dominated by Eurosiberian taxa. However, the SE Province Sistãn-va-Baluchestãn is rich in oriental species, many of which having their western distribution limit in Iran. In NE-Iran, Irano-Turanian elements live and in the S- and SW-Iran African species are found. The Iranian Odonata fauna seems well studied, however, a closer look reveals many uncertainties and confusion, some records coming clearly from misidentification whereas other, which were missing proofs of correct identification remains to be confirmed...
March 12, 2018: Zootaxa
A StĘpieŃ, K BŁachowiak-samoŁyk, M Krawczuk, M V Angel
The halocyprid ostracod genus Boroecia Poulsen, 1973 is described in detail and Boroecia borealis (Sars, 1866) is nominated as type species. We unravel several taxonomic confusions and uncertainties in the earlier literature that had their origins in the classification of Boroecia maxima and Boroecia antipoda (Müller, 1906) as subspecies of Boroecia borealis. Three new species are described, B. alaska n. sp., and B. danae n. sp. from the Pacific and B. hopcrofti n. sp. from the high Arctic, bringing the total number of species in the genus to six...
March 14, 2018: Zootaxa
Paulo Vilela Cruz, Frederico falcÃo Salles, Neusa Hamada
In recent decades, major advances in the systematics of the Western Hemisphere genus Paracloeodes Day have been made in South America. Despite the taxonomic progress, uncertainties in identification remain due to the morphological similarities among some nymphs and due to the general lack of knowledge of the imago stages (only 4 of 20 are described from throughout the range of the genus). This study addresses these impediments in part through description of the male imagoes of six species (P. atroari Nieto Salles, P...
April 3, 2018: Zootaxa
Unmesh Katwate, Pradeep Kumkar, Ralf Britz, Rajeev Raghavan, Neelesh Dahanukar
In his work on the fishes of the Andaman Islands, Francis Day (1870) collected large-sized specimens of Aplocheilus from the south Andamans. Despite differences in the size and dorsal-fin ray counts, Day refrained from recognising the Andaman Aplocheilus as a distinct species and considered it as Aplocheilus panchax, a species distributed in the Ganges delta and across the eastern coast of mainland India. However, Day mentioned the differences in fin-ray counts between these two populations. Subsequently Köhler (1906) described the Andaman population as Haplochilus andamanicus (now in Aplocheilus), referring to the diagnostic characters initially discovered by Day...
February 20, 2018: Zootaxa
Jesse Hornstein, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, Robert M Cerrato, Kamazima M M Lwiza, Bassem Allam
Atlantic surfclam populations have significantly declined in state and federal waters from the south shore of Long Island, New York to the Delmarva Peninsula since the early 2000s. Previous studies have demonstrated that surfclams in this geographic range show signs of physiological stress, suggested to be a result of increasing ocean temperatures. In this study, we examined the effect of 2 temperature regimes (19 °C and 23 °C) on surfclam physiology. These temperatures were chosen because they represent maximal (23 °C) and minimal (19 °C) temperatures prevailing in New York clamming areas during summer...
April 21, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Trevor A Davis, Stephen C Yang
BACKGROUND: With the recent introduction of Integrated Cardiothoracic Surgery Residency Programs (IPs), limited data exists on unmatched applicants. We aimed to determine the dropout rate in individuals who applied IP but did not match. METHODS: An online IRB-approved survey was sent to current residents (n=409), provided by the Thoracic Surgery Directors Association, to evaluate preferences and pathway to Cardiothoracic Surgery (CTS). Descriptive analysis was performed on quantitative data...
April 21, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Raül Rigo-Bonnin, Pedro Alía, Francesca Canalias
BACKGROUND: Traceable and accurate results of cyclosporine A (CsA) mass concentrations in whole blood are required to ensure the monitoring of immunosuppressive therapy in transplant recipients. Metrological traceability and measurement uncertainty can allow ensuring reliability and comparability of these results over time and space. In this study, we provide a practical and detailed example of how the traceability and uncertainty of mass concentration of CsA results, obtained using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) procedure, can be described and estimated...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Irene Teo, Ratna Singh, Chetna Malhotra, Semra Ozdemir, Rebecca A Dent, Nesaretnam Barr Kumarakulasinghe, Wee Lee Yeo, Yin Bun Cheung, Rahul Malhotra, Ravindran Kanesvaran, Alethea Chung Pheng Yee, Noreen Chan, Huei Yaw Wu, Soh Mun Chin, Hum Yin Mei Allyn, Grace Meijuan Yang, Patricia Soek Hui Neo, Nivedita V Nadkarni, Richard Harding, Eric A Finkelstein
BACKGROUND: Advanced cancer significantly impacts quality of life of patients and families as they cope with symptom burden, treatment decision-making, uncertainty and costs of treatment. In Singapore, information about the experiences of advanced cancer patients and families and the financial cost they incur for end-of-life care is lacking. Understanding of this information is needed to inform practice and policy to ensure continuity and affordability of care at the end of life. The primary objectives of the Cost of Medical Care of Patients with Advanced Serious Illness in Singapore (COMPASS) cohort study are to describe changes in quality of life and to quantify healthcare utilization and costs of patients with advanced cancer at the end of life...
April 23, 2018: BMC Cancer
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