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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933569/decision-making-in-clinical-practice-oral-anticoagulant-therapy-in-patients-with-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-and-a-single-additional-stroke-risk-factor
#1
REVIEW
Tatjana S Potpara, Nikolaos Dagres, Nebojša Mujović, Dragan Vasić, Milika Ašanin, Milan Nedeljkovic, Francisco Marin, Laurent Fauchier, Carina Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Gregory Y H Lip
Approximately 1 in 3-4 patients presenting with an ischemic stroke will also have atrial fibrillation (AF), and AF-related strokes can be effectively prevented using oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC), either with well-controlled vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). In addition, OAC use (both VKAs and NOACs) is associated with a 26% reduction in all-cause mortality (VKAs) or an additional 10% mortality reduction with NOACs relative to VKAs. The decision to use OAC in individual AF patient is based on the estimated balance of the benefit from ischemic stroke reduction against the risk of major OAC-related bleeding [essentially intracranial hemorrhage (ICH)]...
December 8, 2016: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933391/-tapering-and-termination-of-immunosuppressive-treatment-in-spondyloarthritides-including-psoriatic-arthritis
#2
REVIEW
G Scholz, B Möller
BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory long-term treatment has also become the standard treatment for spondyloarthritides (SpA), including psoriatic arthritis (PsA); however, uncertainty exists about dose reduction or termination of treatment after remission or low disease activity. OBJECTIVE: When is it possible to reduce medication or terminate treatment for SpA? MATERIAL AND METHODS: An extensive non-systematic literature search was performed focusing on practice guidelines, systematic meta-analyses and clinical trials on medicinal long-term treatment and voluntary medication reduction in axial and peripheral SpA, including PsA...
December 8, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932630/hospital-doctors-understanding-of-use-and-withdrawal-of-the-liverpool-care-pathway-a-qualitative-study-of-practice-based-experiences-during-times-of-change
#3
Sharon Twigger, Sarah J Yardley
BACKGROUND: The Liverpool Care Pathway was used in UK hospitals (late 1990s to July 2014) in an attempt to generate hospice-style high-quality end-of-life care in acute settings. Despite being widely established, there was limited research or contextual evidence regarding this approach or its impact. Growing criticism from the public, media, politicians and healthcare professionals culminated with a critical independent review (July 2013) and subsequent withdrawal of the Liverpool Care Pathway...
December 8, 2016: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932603/poststroke-depression-a-scientific-statement-for-healthcare-professionals-from-the-american-heart-association-american-stroke-association
#4
Amytis Towfighi, Bruce Ovbiagele, Nada El Husseini, Maree L Hackett, Ricardo E Jorge, Brett M Kissela, Pamela H Mitchell, Lesli E Skolarus, Mary A Whooley, Linda S Williams
Poststroke depression (PSD) is common, affecting approximately one third of stroke survivors at any one time after stroke. Individuals with PSD are at a higher risk for suboptimal recovery, recurrent vascular events, poor quality of life, and mortality. Although PSD is prevalent, uncertainty remains regarding predisposing risk factors and optimal strategies for prevention and treatment. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on the topic of PSD. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association's Manuscript Oversight Committee...
December 8, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932487/mortality-risk-among-workers-with-exposure-to-dioxins
#5
J J Collins, K M Bodner, L L Aylward, T J Bender, S Anteau, M Wilken, C M Bodnar
BACKGROUND: In several studies, dioxin exposure has been associated with increased risk from several causes of death. AIMS: To compare the mortality experience of workers exposed to dioxins during trichlorophenol (TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) production to that of the general population and to examine mortality risk by estimated exposure levels. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study which followed up workers' vital status from 1940 to 2011, with serum surveys to support estimation of historical dioxin exposure levels...
December 7, 2016: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932283/development-and-validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-assay-for-the-measurement-of-faecal-metronidazole
#6
Jinny Jeffery, Zoe J Vincent, Ruth M Ayling, Stephen J Lewis
BACKGROUND: Metronidazole is an oral antibiotic which is widely used in the treatment of patients with Clostridium difficile associated disease. METHODS: This article describes the validation of a LC-MS/MS assay for the measurement of metronidazole in human faecal samples. RESULTS: Matrix matched and aqueous standards showed no significant difference in performance for the routine calibration of the assay. D(4) deuterated metronidazole internal standard eluted with a different retention time to the undeuterated metronidazole on chromatography, hence zidovudine was used as an internal standard...
December 5, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932220/risk-management-for-optimal-land-use-planning-integrating-ecosystem-services-values-a-case-study-in-changsha-middle-china
#7
Jie Liang, Minzhou Zhong, Guangming Zeng, Gaojie Chen, Shanshan Hua, Xiaodong Li, Yujie Yuan, Haipeng Wu, Xiang Gao
Land-use change has direct impact on ecosystem services and alters ecosystem services values (ESVs). Ecosystem services analysis is beneficial for land management and decisions. However, the application of ESVs for decision-making in land use decisions is scarce. In this paper, a method, integrating ESVs to balance future ecosystem-service benefit and risk, is developed to optimize investment in land for ecological conservation in land use planning. Using ecological conservation in land use planning in Changsha as an example, ESVs is regarded as the expected ecosystem-service benefit...
December 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932219/the-effects-of-long-term-management-on-patterns-of-carbon-storage-in-a-northern-highbush-blueberry-production-system
#8
Denise Nemeth, John G Lambrinos, Bernadine C Strik
Perennial crops potentially provide a sink for atmospheric carbon. However, there is a poor understanding of how perennial crops differ in their carbon allocation patterns, and few studies have tested how agronomic practices such as fertilization influence long-term patterns of carbon allocation in actual production systems. In this study, we report results of a long-term field experiment that tested the individual and combined effects of organic matter incorporation and nitrogen fertilization on carbon allocation...
December 5, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932184/intrapancreatic-splenule-in-a-pancreas-allograft-case-report
#9
K Yadav, O K Serrano, R Kandaswamy
A 16-year-old white man was involved in a motor vehicle collision and suffered head, chest, and abdominal trauma. Despite initial resuscitative efforts, he progressed to brain death and was designated to be an organ donor by his family. He had no earlier medical or surgical history and no high-risk behaviors. Blood work revealed normal creatinine, liver function tests, lipase, and amylase. Viral serologies were negative except for cytomegalovirus IgG and Epstein-Barr virus nucleic acid. Imaging revealed a right kidney contusion, a manubrial fracture, and fractures of right first rib and bilateral scapulae...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932052/factors-associated-with-parents-attitudes-to-the-hpv-vaccination-of-their-adolescent-sons
#10
REVIEW
Gorjana Radisic, Janine Chapman, Ingrid Flight, Carlene Wilson
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in parents of adolescent boys. This information is critical to the development of approaches to optimise HPV vaccine uptake among this population group. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the literature in addressing factors influencing parental attitudes to and beliefs about HPV vaccine and its acceptability for use. The findings were organised within the framework of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and summarised using a semi quantitative method...
December 5, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932017/the-german-and-japanese-health-care-systems-an-international-comparison-using-an-input-output-model
#11
A Rump, O Schöffski
OBJECTIVES: The German and Japanese health care systems have common roots, but have evolved differently. Whereas the German system is often considered as expensive and poorly efficient, people in Japan are viewed as healthy and health care as comparatively cheap. In this study, we compared the quality, the effectiveness and efficiency of the German and Japanese health care systems. STUDY DESIGN: This study includes comparative health care data analysis. METHOD: The quality and effectiveness of the German and Japanese health care systems were analyzed using an input-output model including 12 countries based on health indicators published by the OECD...
December 2016: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931929/a-tool-to-support-the-identification-of-suspect-cases-of-exotic-diseases-in-cattle
#12
Mathilde Ginhoux, Eric Morignat, Anne Bronner, Didier Calavas
Maintaining vigilance with regard to the introduction of exotic diseases is a challenge, particularly because these diseases are numerous, some are not well known, and they are not immediately suspected by people in day-to-day practice, specifically veterinary practitioners. The objective of this article is to present a tool to support the identification of suspect cases of exotic diseases in cattle, based on a Bayesian approach. A list of 22 exotic diseases in mainland France was selected mainly on the basis of their potential consequences if introduced, and the ability to detect them on a clinical basis...
December 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931680/reactivation-or-reinfection-in-adult-tuberculosis-is-that-the-question
#13
Pere-Joan Cardona
Looking at the chapter on "natural history" in any tuberculosis (TB) reference book, there is a kind of certainty regarding TB in adults. That is the concept of "post-primary" TB described as the reactivation of dormant bacilli hidden in an old lesion developed during infancy due to a type of local immunosuppression. Intriguingly, this concept involves at least two major uncertainties: how can dormant bacilli remain for such a long period, almost a lifetime, in an old lesion, taking into account granuloma dynamism; and what sort of local immunosuppression is the one that facilitates reactivation? The controversy between reactivation and exogenous reinfection as the cause of active TB started very soon in TB research...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931201/probable-clozapine-induced-parenchymal-lung-disease-and-perimyocarditis-a-case-report
#14
Erlend Bugge, Trygve Nissen, Rolf Wynn
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is the archetypical atypical antipsychotic, its primary indication being treatment resistant schizophrenia. Severe side effects caused by clozapine, including leukopenia, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis, are well known. A rarely described side effect is concurrent perimyocarditis and parenchymal lung disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously physically healthy 23-year-old male Caucasian that suffered from schizophrenia presented with flu-like symptoms 1 week after starting clozapine treatment...
December 8, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931090/prenatal-diagnosis-of-susceptibility-loci-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders-genetic-counseling-and-pregnancy-outcome-in-57-cases
#15
Lutgarde Govaerts, Malgorzata Srebniak, Karin Diderich, Marieke Joosten, Sam Riedijk, Maarten Knapen, Attie Go, Dimitri Papatsonis, Katja de Graaf, Toon Toolenaar, Sanne van der Steen, Gido Huijbregts, Jeroen Knijnenburg, Femke de Vries, Diane Van Opstal, Robert-Jan Galjaard
BACKGROUND: Whole genome array testing not only provides an increased diagnostic yield of pathogenic causative findings, but it may also reveal so called susceptibility loci (SL) for neurodevelopmental disorders. The goal of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes in SL cases and to establish a protocol for pregnancy management, follow-up and additional investigations. METHODS: 57 cases were evaluated: 34 with and 23 without ultrasound anomalies at referral...
December 8, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930717/a-patient-specific-polylactic-acid-bolus-made-by-a-3d-printer-for-breast-cancer-radiation-therapy
#16
So-Yeon Park, Chang Heon Choi, Jong Min Park, MinSoo Chun, Ji Hye Han, Jung-In Kim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and advantages of a patient-specific breast bolus made using a 3D printer technique. METHODS: We used the anthropomorphic female phantom with breast attachments, which volumes are 200, 300, 400, 500 and 650 cc. We simulated the treatment for a right breast patient using parallel opposed tangential fields. Treatment plans were used to investigate the effect of unwanted air gaps under bolus on the dose distribution of the whole breast...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930328/estimating-uncertainty-in-respondent-driven-sampling-using-a-tree-bootstrap-method
#17
Aaron J Baraff, Tyler H McCormick, Adrian E Raftery
Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a network-based form of chain-referral sampling used to estimate attributes of populations that are difficult to access using standard survey tools. Although it has grown quickly in popularity since its introduction, the statistical properties of RDS estimates remain elusive. In particular, the sampling variability of these estimates has been shown to be much higher than previously acknowledged, and even methods designed to account for RDS result in misleadingly narrow confidence intervals...
December 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930312/metal-dependence-and-branched-rna-cocrystal-structures-of-the-rna-lariat-debranching-enzyme-dbr1
#18
Nathaniel E Clark, Adam Katolik, Kenneth M Roberts, Alexander B Taylor, Stephen P Holloway, Jonathan P Schuermann, Eric J Montemayor, Scott W Stevens, Paul F Fitzpatrick, Masad J Damha, P John Hart
Intron lariats are circular, branched RNAs (bRNAs) produced during pre-mRNA splicing. Their unusual chemical and topological properties arise from branch-point nucleotides harboring vicinal 2',5'- and 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages. The 2',5'-bonds must be hydrolyzed by the RNA debranching enzyme Dbr1 before spliced introns can be degraded or processed into small nucleolar RNA and microRNA derived from intronic RNA. Here, we measure the activity of Dbr1 from Entamoeba histolytica by using a synthetic, dark-quenched bRNA substrate that fluoresces upon hydrolysis...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929515/an-innovative-method-to-acquire-the-location-of-point-a-for-cervical-cancer-treatment-by-hdr-brachytherapy
#19
Liyun Chang, Sheng-Yow Ho, Shyh-An Yeh, Tsair-Fwu Lee, Pang-Yu Chen
Brachytherapy of local cervical cancer is generally accomplished through film-based treatment planning with the prescription directed to point A, which is invisible on images and is located at a high-dose gradient area. Through a standard reconstruction method by digitizing film points, the location error for point A would be 3mm with a condition of 30° curvature tandem, which is 10° away from the gantry rotation axis of a simulator, and has an 8.7 cm interval between the flange and the isocenter. To reduce the location error of the reconstructed point A, this paper proposes a method and demonstrates its accuracy...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929509/comparison-of-the-low-contrast-detectability-of-two-ultrasound-systems-using-a-greyscale-phantom
#20
Robert Lorentsson, Nasser Hosseini, Jan-Olof Johansson, Wiebke Rosenberg, Benny Stenborg, Lars Gunnar Månsson, Magnus Båth
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relevance of using a phantom to simulate a clinical situation where small low contrast objects are embedded in relatively homogeneous organs in order to discriminate between different ultrasound machines, taking into account human observer variability. One high-end and one general ultrasound machine using the same probe were included. Images containing 4 and 6.4-mm objects of four different contrasts were collected from a greyscale phantom at different depths...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
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