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Luca Laurenti, Attila Csikasz-Nagy, Marta Kwiatkowska, Luca Cardelli
Living systems are inherently stochastic and operate in a noisy environment, yet despite all these uncertainties, they perform their functions in a surprisingly reliable way. The biochemical mechanisms used by natural systems to tolerate and control noise are still not fully understood, and this issue also limits our capacity to engineer reliable, quantitative synthetic biological circuits. We study how representative models of biochemical systems propagate and attenuate noise, accounting for intrinsic as well as extrinsic noise...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Chi-Jui Feng, Balamurugan Dhayalan, Andrei Tokmakoff
Characterizing ensembles of intrinsically disordered proteins is experimentally challenging because of the ill-conditioned nature of ensemble determination with limited data and the intrinsic fast dynamics of the conformational ensemble. Amide I two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy has picosecond time resolution to freeze structural ensembles as needed for probing disordered-protein ensembles and conformational dynamics. Also, developments in amide I computational spectroscopy now allow a quantitative and direct prediction of amide I spectra based on conformational distributions drawn from molecular dynamics simulations, providing a route to ensemble refinement against experimental spectra...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Isadora Antoniano-Villalobos, Emanuele Borgonovo, Sumeda Siriwardena
In probabilistic risk assessment, attention is often focused on the expected value of a risk metric. The sensitivity of this expectation to changes in the parameters of the distribution characterizing uncertainty in the inputs becomes of interest. Approaches based on differentiation encounter limitations when (i) distributional parameters are expressed in different units or (ii) the analyst wishes to transfer sensitivity insights from individual parameters to parameter groups, when alternating between different levels of a probabilistic safety assessment model...
June 20, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Bram Tilburgs, Myrra Vernooij-Dassen, Raymond Koopmans, Hans van Gennip, Yvonne Engels, Marieke Perry
BACKGROUND: Due to the disease's progressive nature, advance care planning (ACP) is recommended for people with early stage dementia. General practitioners (GPs) should initiate ACP because of their longstanding relationships with their patients and their early involvement with the disease, however ACP is seldom applied. AIM: To determine the barriers and facilitators faced by GPs related to ACP with people with dementia. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched the relevant databases for papers published between January 1995 and December 2016, using the terms: primary healthcare, GP, dementia, and ACP...
2018: PloS One
Ryan A McManamay, Matthew J Troia, Christopher R DeRolph, Arlene Olivero Sheldon, Analie R Barnett, Shih-Chieh Kao, Mark G Anderson
Describing the physical habitat diversity of stream types is important for understanding stream ecosystem complexity, but also prioritizing management of stream ecosystems, especially those that are rare. We developed a stream classification system of six physical habitat layers (size, gradient, hydrology, temperature, valley confinement, and substrate) for approximately 1 million stream reaches within the Eastern United States in order to conduct an inventory of different types of streams and examine stream diversity...
2018: PloS One
Alaina R Miller, Kimberly Fenstermacher, Barbara L Buchko
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Donor human milk (DHM) is used when a mother's own milk is not available. Donor human milk is available as a frozen pasteurized or commercially sterilized product. An abrupt change in practice in use of donor milk products raised concerns among nurses caring for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The change in practice occurred without the input of nurses and without the sharing of supportive evidence with them. The purpose of this study was to explore NICU nurses' perceptions of the practice change from using frozen pasteurized DHM to using sterilized DHM in this context...
June 19, 2018: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Simon Croft, Mike Brown, Selwyn Wilkins, Andy Hart, Graham C Smith
In recent years there has been growing concern regarding the sudden and unexplained failure of honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies. Several factors have been suggested including pesticides. In an effort to regulate their impact guidance has been published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommending that the magnitude of effects on exposed colonies should not exceed 7% reduction in colony size after 2 brood cycles. However, fears have been raised regarding the practicality of measuring such a loss in the field...
June 20, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Filippo Lechthaler, Mahamat Fayiz Abakar, Esther Schelling, Jan Hattendorf, Boukari Ouedrago, Daugla Doumagoum Moto, Jakob Zinsstag
OBJECTIVE: To assess antenatal care (ANC) coverage and analyse constraining factors for service delivery to rural settled and mobile populations in two districts in Chad. METHOD: Data from cross-sectional household and health facility surveys in the two Chadian rural health districts were analysed. First, contact coverage of ANC services in the study area was estimated from household data as the proportion of women who visited health facilities to obtain ANC during their last pregnancy...
June 20, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
A Townsend Peterson, Marlon E Cobos, Daniel Jiménez-García
Species-level forecasts of distributional potential and likely distributional shifts, in the face of changing climates, have become popular in the literature in the past 20 years. Many refinements have been made to the methodology over the years, and the result has been an approach that considers multiple sources of variation in geographic predictions, and how that variation translates into both specific predictions and uncertainty in those predictions. Although numerous previous reviews and overviews of this field have pointed out a series of assumptions and caveats associated with the methodology, three aspects of the methodology have important impacts but have not been treated previously in detail...
June 20, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Yusuke Matsuura, Naoko Ouchi, Ayako Nakamura, Haruhisa Kato
The particle tracking analysis (PTA) method has been widely used to determine the size of nanoparticles from their Brownian motion, using the Stokes-Einstein assumption. However, the size distribution obtained by PTA is broader than the true distribution because of the uncertainties in determining the diffusion coefficients, and a correction of such a broadening effect is essential to obtain reliable results. In order to transform the apparent broadened size distribution from the PTA method to the true size distribution, we begin by approximating the true size distribution as a gamma distribution determined by a shape parameter and a scale parameter, and then we perform a hybrid analysis based on the maximum likelihood estimation and Bayesian parameter inference that accounts for the uncertainties in determining the diffusion coefficients...
June 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Justin J Elhoff, Kimberly E McHugh, Jason R Buckley, Shaine A Morris, Kit N Simpson, Mark A Scheurer
IntroductionFamilies of children born with CHD face added stress owing to uncertainty about the magnitude of the financial burden for medical costs they will face. This study seeks to assess the family responsibility for healthcare bills during the first 12 months of life for commercially insured children undergoing surgery for severe CHD. METHODS: The MarketScan ® database from Truven was used to identify commercially insured infants in 39 states from 2010 to 2012 with an ICD-9 diagnosis code for transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, or truncus arteriosus, as well as the corresponding procedure code for complete repair...
June 20, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
A Macerollo, C Palmer, T Foltynie, P Korlipara, P Limousin, M Edwards, J M Kilner
A recent theoretical account of motor control proposes that modulation of afferent information plays a role in affecting how readily we can move. Increasing the estimate of uncertainty surrounding the afferent input is a necessary step in being able to move. It has been proposed that an inability to modulate the gain of this sensory information underlies the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to test this theory by modulating the uncertainty of the proprioceptive signal using high frequency peripheral vibration, to determine the subsequent effect on motor performance...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Thomas L Powell, Charles D Koven, Daniel J Johnson, Boris Faybishenko, Rosie A Fisher, Ryan G Knox, Nate G McDowell, Richard Condit, Stephen P Hubbell, S Joseph Wright, Jeffrey Q Chambers, Lara M Kueppers
The fate of tropical forests under climate change is unclear as a result, in part, of the uncertainty in projected changes in precipitation and in the ability of vegetation models to capture the effects of drought-induced mortality on aboveground biomass (AGB). We evaluated the ability of a terrestrial biosphere model with demography and hydrodynamics (Ecosystem Demography, ED2-hydro) to simulate AGB and mortality of four tropical tree plant functional types (PFTs) that operate along light- and water-use axes...
June 20, 2018: New Phytologist
Jeffrey G Snodgrass, H J François Dengah Ii, Michael G Lacy, Robert J Else, Evan R Polzer, Jesusa M G Arevalo, Steven W Cole
OBJECTIVES: To combine social genomics with cultural approaches to expand understandings of the somatic health dynamics of online gaming, including in the controversial nosological construct of internet gaming disorder (IGD). METHODS: In blood samples from 56 U.S. gamers, we examined expression of the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA), a leukocyte gene expression profile activated by chronic stress. We compared positively engaged and problem gamers, as identified by an ethnographically developed measure, the Positive and Negative Gaming Experiences Scale (PNGE-42), and also by a clinically derived IGD scale (IGDS-SF9)...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
José L Areta, Will G Hopkins
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle glycogen is an important energy source for muscle contraction and a key regulator of metabolic responses to exercise. Manipulation of muscle glycogen is therefore a strategy to improve performance in competitions and potentially adaptation to training. However, assessing muscle glycogen in the field is impractical, and there are no normative values for glycogen concentration at rest and during exercise. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to meta-analyse the effects of fitness, acute dietary carbohydrate (CHO) availability and other factors on muscle glycogen concentration at rest and during exercise of different durations and intensities...
June 19, 2018: Sports Medicine
Roberto Antonucci, Luca Antonucci, Cristian Locci, Annalisa Porcella, Laura Cuzzolin
Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication. It is the best established drug in neonatal resuscitation, but only weak evidence supports current recommendations for its use. Furthermore, the available evidence is partly based on extrapolations from adult studies, and this introduces further uncertainty, especially when considering the unique physiological characteristics of newly born infants. The timing, dose, and route of administration of adrenaline are still debated, even though this medication has been used in neonatal resuscitation for a long time...
June 19, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Neha Goyal, Kanhaiya Shah, Gyan Prakash Sharma
Ricinus communis L. colonizes heterogeneous urban landscapes as monospecific thickets. The ecological understanding on colonization success of R. communis population due to variable light availability is lacking. Therefore, to understand the effect of intrinsic light heterogeneity on species' population dynamics, R. communis populations exposed to variable light availability (low, intermediate, and high) were examined for performance strategies through estimation of key vegetative, eco-physiological, biochemical, and reproductive traits...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ling-Xiang Wang, Yan Lu, Chao Zhang, Lan-Hai Wei, Shi Yan, Yun-Zhi Huang, Chuan-Chao Wang, Swapan Mallick, Shao-Qing Wen, Li Jin, Shu-Hua Xu, Hui Li
Diffusion of Tibeto-Burman populations across the Tibetan Plateau led to the largest human community in a high-altitude environment and has long been a focus of research on high-altitude adaptation, archeology, genetics, and linguistics. However, much uncertainty remains regarding the origin, diversification, and expansion of Tibeto-Burman populations. In this study, we analyzed a 7.0M bp region of 285 Y-chromosome sequences, including 81 newly reported ones, from male samples from Tibeto-Burman populations and other related Eastern Asian populations...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Olfa Chakroun-Walha, Amal Samet, Mouna Jerbi, Abdennour Nasri, Aziza Talbi, Hassen Kanoun, Basma Souissi, Kamilia Chtara, Mounir Bouaziz, Hichem Ksibi, Noureddine Rekik
INTRODUCTION: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is one of the debated therapies in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We conducted this study to evaluate the benefits of TXA in TBI on the mortality and its safety in these patients. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized open-label trial including all patients, aged at 18 years or older, hospitalized in the emergency room during a 13-month period, for TBI. After the realization of the body CT scan, the patients were included if they had intracranial bleeding, and were then randomized according to their medical file number to receive or not the TXA...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
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