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Sport physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331594/effects-of-physical-activity-on-the-symptoms-of-tourette-syndrome-a-systematic-review
#1
David D Kim, Darren E R Warburton, Nana Wu, Alasdair M Barr, William G Honer, Ric M Procyshyn
There is irrefutable evidence that routine physical activity or exercise can offer considerable health benefits to individuals living with various mental disorders. However, it is not clear what effect physical activity has on the symptoms of Tourette syndrome. Despite a paucity of evidence, physical activity or exercise has already been recommended by various health organizations for the management of tics. We provide a systematic review of the effects of physical activity or exercise on tic symptomology in individuals with Tourette syndrome...
December 8, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317675/synchrony-and-physiological-arousal-increase-cohesion-and-cooperation-in-large-naturalistic-groups
#2
Joshua Conrad Jackson, Jonathan Jong, David Bilkey, Harvey Whitehouse, Stefanie Zollmann, Craig McNaughton, Jamin Halberstadt
Separate research streams have identified synchrony and arousal as two factors that might contribute to the effects of human rituals on social cohesion and cooperation. But no research has manipulated these variables in the field to investigate their causal - and potentially interactive - effects on prosocial behaviour. Across four experimental sessions involving large samples of strangers, we manipulated the synchronous and physiologically arousing affordances of a group marching task within a sports stadium...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315892/effects-of-fasted-vs-fed-state-exercise-on-performance-and-post-exercise-metabolism-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Tom P Aird, Robert W Davies, Brian P Carson
The effects of nutrition on exercise metabolism and performance remains an important topic among sports scientists, clinical, and athletic populations. Recently, fasted exercise has garnered interest as a beneficial stimulus which induces superior metabolic adaptations to fed exercise in key peripheral tissues. Conversely, pre-exercise feeding augments exercise performance compared with fasting conditions. Given these seemingly divergent effects on performance and metabolism, an appraisal of the literature is warranted...
January 6, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310699/planning-a-sports-training-program-using-adaptive-particle-swarm-optimization-with-emphasis-on-physiological-constraints
#4
Nattapon Kumyaito, Preecha Yupapin, Kreangsak Tamee
OBJECTIVE: An effective training plan is an important factor in sports training to enhance athletic performance. A poorly considered training plan may result in injury to the athlete, and overtraining. Good training plans normally require expert input, which may have a cost too great for many athletes, particularly amateur athletes. The objectives of this research were to create a practical cycling training plan that substantially improves athletic performance while satisfying essential physiological constraints...
January 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308842/effectiveness-evaluation-of-whole-body-electromyostimulation-as-a-post-exercise-recovery-method
#5
Miguel A DE LA Camara, Ana I Pardos, Óscar L Veiga
BACKGROUND: Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) devices are now being used in health and sports training, although there are few studies investigating their benefits. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of WB-EMS as a post-exercise recovery method, and compare it with other methods like active and passive recovery. METHODS: The study included nine trained men (age = 21 ± 1years, height = 1.77 ± 0.4 m, mass = 62 ± 7 kg). Three trials were performed in three different sessions, 1 week apart...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299878/talent-identification-and-development-in-male-football-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Hugo Sarmento, M Teresa Anguera, Antonino Pereira, Duarte Araújo
BACKGROUND: Expertise has been extensively studied in several sports over recent years. The specificities of how excellence is achieved in Association Football, a sport practiced worldwide, are being repeatedly investigated by many researchers through a variety of approaches and scientific disciplines. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise the most significant literature addressing talent identification and development in football. We identified the most frequently researched topics and characterised their methodologies...
January 3, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283421/automatic-classification-of-sub-techniques-in-classical-cross-country-skiing-using-a-machine-learning-algorithm-on-micro-sensor-data
#7
Ole Marius Hoel Rindal, Trine M Seeberg, Johannes Tjønnås, Pål Haugnes, Øyvind Sandbakk
The automatic classification of sub-techniques in classical cross-country skiing provides unique possibilities for analyzing the biomechanical aspects of outdoor skiing. This is currently possible due to the miniaturization and flexibility of wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) that allow researchers to bring the laboratory to the field. In this study, we aimed to optimize the accuracy of the automatic classification of classical cross-country skiing sub-techniques by using two IMUs attached to the skier's arm and chest together with a machine learning algorithm...
December 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280410/iron-balance-and-iron-supplementation-for-the-female-athlete-a-practical-approach
#8
Charles R Pedlar, Carlo Brugnara, Georgie Bruinvels, Richard Burden
Maintaining a positive iron balance is essential for female athletes to avoid the effects of iron deficiency and anaemia and to maintain or improve performance. A major function of iron is in the production of the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying molecule, haemoglobin, via erythropoiesis. Iron balance is under the control of a number of factors including the peptide hormone hepcidin, dietary iron intake and absorption, environmental stressors (e.g. altitude), exercise, menstrual blood loss and genetics. Menstruating females, particularly those with heavy menstrual bleeding are at an elevated risk of iron deficiency...
December 27, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275906/optimizing-performance-through-stress-training-an-educational-strategy-for-surgical-residents
#9
Michael B Goldberg, Michael Mazzei, Zoë Maher, Joel H Fish, Richard Milner, Daohai Yu, Amy J Goldberg
BACKGROUND: Stress management programs improve efficacy in aviation, military, and professional sports; however, similar educational strategies have not been adopted in surgical training. We have evaluated the effectiveness of a stress management program for surgical residents. METHODS: From 2011 to 2016, 137 surgical residents participated in a prospective, blinded study. The intervention group (n = 65) underwent training in self-awareness, focus, relaxation, positive self-talk, visualization, and team building...
December 8, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249084/return-to-sport-in-athletes-with-midportion-achilles-tendinopathy-a-qualitative-systematic-review-regarding-definitions-and-criteria
#10
REVIEW
Bas Habets, Anke G van den Broek, Bionka M A Huisstede, Frank J G Backx, Robert E H van Cingel
BACKGROUND: Midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT) can cause long-term absence from sports participation, and shows high recurrence rates. It is important that the decision to return to sport (RTS) is made carefully, based on sharply delimited criteria. Lack of a well-defined definition and criteria hampers the decision to RTS among athletes with AT, and impedes comparison of RTS rates between different studies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature for definitions of, and criteria for, RTS in AT research...
December 16, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239995/development-of-anaerobic-fitness-in-top-level-competitive-youth-ice-hockey-players
#11
Jeff R Leiter, Dean M Cordingley, Peter B MacDonald
Ice hockey is a physiologically complex sport involving both the anaerobic and aerobic energy systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic power output (PO) of top-level competitive youth hockey players. It was hypothesized that with each successive increase in age there would be an associated change in anaerobic PO. Two hundred and fifty-one male hockey players between the ages of 13-17 years of age participated in this study. All athletes completed a 30-second Wingate test as part of a pre-season physiological and fitness combine...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238243/analysis-of-time-motion-and-heart-rate-in-elite-male-and-female-beach-handball
#12
Basilio Pueo, Jose M Jimenez-Olmedo, Alfonso Penichet-Tomas, Manuel Ortega Becerra, Jose J Espina Agullo
Beach handball is a spectacular new team sport; however, scientific knowledge about the demands in beach handball is very low. Consequently, the aim of this study was to analyze the physical demands of elite beach handball players by means of time-motion analysis with GPS technology and physiological response with Heart Rate (HR). Both male (n = 12) and female (n = 12) players from the Spanish Beach Handball National Team were recruited for this study. The sample consisted in four matches of two 10-min periods each...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231753/rates-of-insufficiency-and-deficiency-of-vitamin-d-levels-in-elite-professional-male-and-female-skiers-a-chronobiologic-approach
#13
Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Giovanni Lombardi, Luca Cavaleri, Rosa Graziani, Herbert Schoenhuber, Antonio La Torre, Giuseppe Banfi
Vitamin D is essential for the maintenance and promotion of musculoskeletal health, for the functioning of the immune, cardiovascular and reproductive systems, and its main action is to keep calcium and phosphate plasmatic physiological concentrations at intestinal, renal and bony level. Vitamin D affects several parameters related to physical performance too and a particularly high percentage of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in professional athletes has been observed. Several variables are able to impair the synthesis of 25(OH)D in athletes, specifically both genetic and environmental factors, but the most probable explanation for the deficient/insufficient vitamin D levels is the insufficient ultraviolet B light (UVB) exposure during winter...
December 12, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214319/electrocardiographic-findings-in-national-basketball-association-athletes
#14
Marc P Waase, R Kannan Mutharasan, William Whang, Marco R DiTullio, John P DiFiori, Lisa Callahan, Jimmie Mancell, Dermot Phelan, Allan Schwartz, Shunichi Homma, David J Engel
Importance: While it is known that long-term intensive athletic training is associated with cardiac structural changes that can be reflected on surface electrocardiograms (ECGs), there is a paucity of sport-specific ECG data. This study seeks to clarify the applicability of existing athlete ECG interpretation criteria to elite basketball players, an athlete group shown to develop significant athletic cardiac remodeling. Objective: To generate normative ECG data for National Basketball Association (NBA) athletes and to assess the accuracy of athlete ECG interpretation criteria in this population...
December 6, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212413/a-lower-extremity-strength-based-profile-of-ncaa-division-i-women-s-basketball-and-gymnastics-athletes-implications-for-knee-joint-injury-risk-assessment
#15
Brennan J Thompson, Curtis S Cazier, Eadric Bressel, Dennis G Dolny
This study aimed to provide a comprehensive strength-based physiological profile of women's NCAA Division I basketball and gymnastic athletes; and to make sport-specific comparisons for various strength characteristics of the knee flexor and extensor muscles. A focus on antagonist muscle balance (hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratios, H:Q) was used to elucidate vulnerabilities in these at-risk female athletes. Fourteen NCAA Division I women's basketball and 13 gymnastics athletes performed strength testing of the knee extensors and flexors...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210957/the-physiological-and-performance-effects-of-caffeine-gum-consumed-during-a-simulated-half-time-by-professional-academy-rugby-union-players
#16
Russell M, Reynolds N A, Crewther B T, Cook C J, Kilduff L
Despite the prevalence of caffeine as an ergogenic aid, few studies have examined the use of caffeinated gums, especially during half-time in team sports. The physiological (blood lactate, salivary hormone concentrations) and performance (repeated sprints, cognitive function) effects of consuming caffeine gum during a simulated half-time were examined. Professional academy rugby union players (n=14) completed this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced study. Following pre-exercise measurements , players chewed a placebo (PL) gum for five min before a standardized warm-up and completing repeated sprint testing (RSSA1)...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202226/stretchable-ti3c2tx-mxene-carbon-nanotubes-composite-based-strain-sensor-with-ultrahigh-sensitivity-and-tunable-sensing-range
#17
Yichen Cai, Jie Shen, Gang Ge, Yizhou Zhang, Wanqin Jin, Wei Huang, Jinjun Shao, Jian Yang, Xiaochen Dong
It remains challenging to fabricate strain-sensing materials and exquisite geometric constructions for integrating extraordinary sensitivity, low strain detectability, high stretchability, tunable sensing range, thin device dimensions into a single type of strain sensor. A percolation network based on Ti3C2Tx MXene/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composites was rationally designed and fabricated into versatile strain sensors. This weaving architecture with excellent electric properties combined the sensitive two-dimensional (2D) Ti3C2Tx MXene nanostacks with conductive and stretchable one-dimensional (1D) CNTs crossing...
December 4, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200094/characteristics-of-a-national-level-female-weightlifter-peaking-for-competition-a-case-study
#18
Caleb D Bazyler, Satoshi Mizuguchi, Michael C Zourdos, Kimitake Sato, Ashley A Kavanaugh, Brad H DeWeese, Kevin F Breuel, Michael H Stone
This study investigated physiological and performance changes of a national level 69kg female weightlifter following three competition phases over a 28-week training period. The athlete first trained for a regional championship (weeks 1-12), followed by a local competition (weeks 13-23) and the national championship (weeks 24-28). Body mass, vastus lateralis cross-sectional area, and unloaded and loaded squat jump performance were assessed weekly during each 4-week competition phase. Serum biomarkers, and dynamic mid-thigh pulls were assessed prior to and after each competition phase...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197614/an-anatomical-and-physiological-basis-for-the-cardiovascular-autonomic-nervous-system-consequences-of-sport-related-brain-injury
#19
Michael F La Fountaine
Concussion is defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain that is induced by the application or transmission of traumatic biomechanical forces to the head. The result of the impact is the onset of transient symptoms that may be experienced for approximately 2weeks in most individuals. However, in some individuals, symptoms may not resolve and persist for a protracted period and a chronic injury ensues. Concussion symptoms are generally characterized by their emergence through changes in affect, cognition, or multi-sensory processes including the visual and vestibular systems...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193793/nanomaterial-enabled-wearable-sensors-for-healthcare
#20
REVIEW
Shanshan Yao, Puchakayala Swetha, Yong Zhu
Highly sensitive wearable sensors that can be conformably attached to human skin or integrated with textiles to monitor the physiological parameters of human body or the surrounding environment have garnered tremendous interest. Owing to the large surface area and outstanding material properties, nanomaterials are promising building blocks for wearable sensors. Recent advances in the nanomaterial-enabled wearable sensors including temperature, electrophysiological, strain, tactile, electrochemical, and environmental sensors are presented in this review...
November 30, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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