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Spinal manipulation

Samantha Rothberg, Benjamin W Friedman
BACKGROUND: A total of 2.7 million patients present to US emergency departments annually for management of low back pain (LBP). Despite optimal medical therapy, more than 50% remain functionally impaired 3 months later. We performed a systematic review to address the following question: Among patients with nonchronic LBP, does spinal manipulation, massage, exercise, or yoga, when combined with standard medical therapy, improve pain and functional outcomes more than standard medical therapy alone? METHODS: We used published searches to identify relevant studies, supplemented with our own updated search...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mohammad T Abu-Rub, Ben Newland, Michelle Naughton, Wenxin Wang, Siobhan McMahon, Abhay Pandit
Reactive astrocytosis and the subsequent glial scar is ubiquitous to injuries of the central nervous system, especially spinal cord injury (SCI) and primarily serves to protect against further damage, but is also a prominent inhibitor of regeneration. Manipulating the glial scar by targeting chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) has been the focus of much study as a means to improve axon regeneration and subsequently functional recovery. In this study we investigate the ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivered by a non-viral polymer vector to silence the rate-limiting enzyme involved in CSPG synthesis...
October 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Jane Halliday, Ian Kamaly
BACKGROUND: Neuronavigation, the ability to perform real-time intra-operative guidance during cranial and/or spinal surgery, has increased both accuracy and safety in neurosurgery [2]. Cranial navigation of existing surgical instruments using Brainlab requires the use of an instrument adapter and clamp, which in our experience renders an endoscope 'top-heavy', difficult to manipulate, and the process of registration of the adapter quite time-consuming. METHODS: A Brainlab Disposable Stylet was used to navigate fenestration of an entrapped temporal horn in a pediatric case...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Jeff Walker, Jason MacLean, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos
The common marmoset has recently gained interest as an animal model for systems and behavioral neuroscience. This is due in part to the advent of transgenic marmosets, which affords the possibility of combining genetic manipulations with physiological recording and behavioral monitoring to study neural systems. In this review, we will argue that the marmoset provides a unique opportunity to study the neural basis of voluntary motor control from an integrative perspective. First, as an intermediate animal model, the marmoset represents an important bridge in motor system function between other primates, including humans, and rodents...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Sharlene N Flesher, Jennifer L Collinger, Stephen T Foldes, Jeffrey M Weiss, John E Downey, Elizabeth C Tyler-Kabara, Sliman J Bensmaia, Andrew B Schwartz, Michael L Boninger, Robert A Gaunt
Intracortical microstimulation of the somatosensory cortex offers the potential for creating a sensory neuroprosthesis to restore tactile sensation. Whereas animal studies have suggested that both cutaneous and proprioceptive percepts can be evoked using this approach, the perceptual quality of the stimuli cannot be measured in these experiments. We show that microstimulation within the hand area of the somatosensory cortex of a person with long-term spinal cord injury evokes tactile sensations perceived as originating from locations on the hand and that cortical stimulation sites are organized according to expected somatotopic principles...
October 13, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Jacob Kjell, Lars Olson
A long-standing goal of spinal cord injury research is to develop effective spinal cord repair strategies for the clinic. Rat models of spinal cord injury provide an important mammalian model in which to evaluate treatment strategies and to understand the pathological basis of spinal cord injuries. These models have facilitated the development of robust tests for assessing the recovery of locomotor and sensory functions. Rat models have also allowed us to understand how neuronal circuitry changes following spinal cord injury and how recovery could be promoted by enhancing spontaneous regenerative mechanisms and by counteracting intrinsic inhibitory factors...
October 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Lei-Lei Wang, Zhida Su, Wenjiao Tai, Yuhua Zou, Xiao-Ming Xu, Chun-Li Zhang
Although the adult mammalian spinal cord lacks intrinsic neurogenic capacity, glial cells can be reprogrammed in vivo to generate neurons after spinal cord injury (SCI). How this reprogramming process is molecularly regulated, however, is not clear. Through a series of in vivo screens, we show here that the p53-dependent pathway constitutes a critical checkpoint for SOX2-mediated reprogramming of resident glial cells in the adult mouse spinal cord. While it has no effect on the reprogramming efficiency, the p53 pathway promotes cell-cycle exit of SOX2-induced adult neuroblasts (iANBs)...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Rafael Almeida, David Lyons
Oligodendrocytes form myelin around axons of the central nervous system, enabling saltatory conduction. Recent work has established that axons can regulate certain aspects of oligodendrocyte development and myelination, yet remarkably oligodendrocytes in culture retain the ability to differentiate in the absence of axons and elaborate myelin sheaths around synthetic axon-like substrates. It remains unclear the extent to which the life-course of oligodendrocytes requires the presence of, or signals derived from axons in vivo...
2016: PloS One
Emmanuel Lilitsis, Alexia Papaioannou, Aikaterini Hatzimichali, Konstantinos Spyridakis, Sofia Xenaki, George Chalkiadakis, Emmanuel Chrysos
BACKGROUND: We present a case of a patient with multinodular goiter disease who suffered asystole during head hyperextension for surgical positioning on the operational table. CASE PRESENTATION: Manipulation of carotid sinus may trigger bradycardia or even asystole even in patients without prior history of carotid sinus hypersensitivity. The time proximity between patient positioning and asystole, the late responsiveness to atropine, the immediate increase of heart rate after head elevation and the lack of any other trigger factor or prior history support the hypothesis of carotid sinus syndrome...
October 6, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Jocelyn Cox, Christine Davidian, Silvano Mior
INTRODUCTION: Spinal pain in the paediatric population is a significant health issue, with an increasing prevalence as they age. Paediatric patients attend for chiropractor care for spinal pain, yet, there is a paucity of quality evidence to guide the practitioner with respect to appropriate care planning. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was used to describe chiropractic management of paediatric neck pain. Two researchers abstracted data from 50 clinical files that met inclusion criteria from a general practice chiropractic office in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada...
September 2016: Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
J J Wong, P Côté, D A Sutton, K Randhawa, H Yu, S Varatharajan, R Goldgrub, M Nordin, D P Gross, H M Shearer, L J Carroll, P J Stern, A Ameis, D Southerst, S Mior, M Stupar, T Varatharajan, A Taylor-Vaisey
: We conducted a systematic review of guidelines on the management of low back pain (LBP) to assess their methodological quality and guide care. We synthesized guidelines on the management of LBP published from 2005 to 2014 following best evidence synthesis principles. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane, DARE, National Health Services Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database, Index to Chiropractic Literature and grey literature. Independent reviewers critically appraised eligible guidelines using AGREE II criteria...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Huizhen Huang, Marissa S Kuzirian, Xiaoyun Cai, Lindsey M Snyder, Jonathan Cohen, Daniel H Kaplan, Sarah E Ross
The Neurokinin 1 Receptor (NK1R), which binds Substance P, is expressed in discrete populations of neurons throughout the nervous system, where it has numerous roles including the modulation of pain and affective behaviors. Here, we report the generation of a NK1R-CreER knockin allele, in which CreER(T2) replaces the coding sequence of the TACR1 gene (encoding NK1R) in order to gain genetic access to these cells. We find that the NK1R-CreER allele mediates recombination in many regions of the nervous system that are important in pain and anxiety including the amygdala, hypothalamus, frontal cortex, raphe nucleus, and dorsal horn of the spinal cord...
October 6, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Erlick A C Pereira, Mohammad Farwana, Khai S Lam
Spinal stenosis and low-grade spondylolisthesis produce symptoms of neural compression that can be treated with extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion (XLIF) via indirect decompression. This study aimed to investigate whether the restoration of disc dimensions would relieve symptoms of radiculopathy, claudication and back pain. In this retrospective study, patients undergoing XLIF surgery for relief of radicular symptoms or degenerative disc disease were included. Radiologically proven changes were used to assess the modes of degeneration...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Michele Maiers, Maria A Hondras, Stacie A Salsbury, Gert Bronfort, Roni Evans
BACKGROUND: Patient perceptions may influence the effectiveness and utilization of healthcare interventions, particularly for complex health conditions such as sciatica or back-related leg pain (BRLP). OBJECTIVES: To explore BRLP patients' perceptions of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) and home exercise with advice (HEA). DESIGN: Qualitative study in a controlled clinical trial. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews conducted after 12 weeks of treatment asked participants about satisfaction with care and whether treatment was worthwhile...
September 23, 2016: Manual Therapy
A Chaibi, J Š Benth, P J Tuchin, M B Russell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy (CSMT) for migraineurs. METHODS: This was a prospective three-armed, single-blinded, placebo, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 17 months duration including 104 migraineurs with at least one migraine attack per month. The RCT was conducted at Akershus University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Active treatment consisted of CSMT, whereas placebo was a sham push manoeuvre of the lateral edge of the scapula and/or the gluteal region...
October 2, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Michel Kressig, Cynthia K Peterson, Kyle McChurch, Christof Schmid, Serafin Leemann, Bernard Anklin, B Kim Humphreys
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether cervical disk herniation (CDH) location, morphology, or Modic changes (MCs) are related to treatment outcomes. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and outcome data from 44 patients with CDH treated with spinal manipulative therapy were evaluated. MRI scans were assessed for CDH axial location, morphology, and MCs. Pain (0-10 for neck and arm) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) data were collected at baseline; 2 weeks; 1, 3, and 6 months; and 1 year...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
David B Salisbury, Thomas D Parsons, Kimberley R Monden, Zina Trost, Simon J Driver
Purpose/Objective: To investigate the feasibility of brain-computer interface (BCI) with patients on an inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) unit. Research Method/Design: This study included 25 participants aged 18-64 who sustained traumatic or nontraumatic SCI and did not have severe cognitive or psychiatric impairment. Participants completed a variety of screening measures related to cognition, psychological disposition, pain, and technology experience/interest. The Emotiv electroencephalography system was used in conjunction with a cube rotation and manipulation game presented on a laptop computer...
September 29, 2016: Rehabilitation Psychology
Liu-Xin Qu, Li-Yang Xing, Norman Wanda, Hong Chen, Ming-Ju Li, Song Gao, Ping Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical effect of traditional Chinese spinal orthopedic manipulation (TCSOM) in treating patients with functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) in comparison with Pinaverium Bromide (Dicetel, PBD), and to assess a possible cause for FAPS. METHODS: Eighty patients with FAPS were randomly and equally assigned to the TCSOM group and PBD group according to the random number table. All patients in the TCSOM group were treated with a maximum of 5 times of spinal manipulations...
September 26, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Michael A Seffinger, Melissa Yunting Tang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Helen Hall, Holger Cramer, Tobias Sundberg, Lesley Ward, Jon Adams, Craig Moore, David Sibbritt, Romy Lauche
BACKGROUND: Low back pain and pelvic girth pain are common in pregnancy and women commonly utilize complementary manual therapies such as massage, spinal manipulation, chiropractic, and osteopathy to manage their symptoms. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematically review was to critically appraise and synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of manual therapies for managing pregnancy-related low back and pelvic pain. METHODS: Seven databases were searched from their inception until April 2015 for randomized controlled trials...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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