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Strength and conditioning

Harmen B Gudde, Debra Griffiths, Kenny R Coventry
The memory game paradigm is a behavioral procedure to explore the relationship between language, spatial memory, and object knowledge. Using two different versions of the paradigm, spatial language use and memory for object location are tested under different, experimentally manipulated conditions. This allows us to tease apart proposed models explaining the influence of object knowledge on spatial language (e.g., spatial demonstratives), and spatial memory, as well as understanding the parameters that affect demonstrative choice and spatial memory more broadly...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xuguang Li, Tong Li, Tong Zhang, Cheng Gu, Shourong Zheng, Haijun Zhang, Wei Chen
Nano-scale titanium dioxide (nTiO2) is one of the most widely used metal oxide nanomaterials. Once released into the environment, nTiO2 may catalyze abiotic transformation of contaminants, and consequently affect their fate and effects. Here, we show that the overall catalytic efficiency of nTiO2 for the dehydrochlorination reaction of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, a commonly used solvent, depends on the crystalline phase and exposed facets of nTiO2, which significantly affect the adsorption capacity and surface catalytic activity of nTiO2...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Rodrigo F O Pena, Sebastian Vellmer, Davide Bernardi, Antonio C Roque, Benjamin Lindner
Recurrent networks of spiking neurons can be in an asynchronous state characterized by low or absent cross-correlations and spike statistics which resemble those of cortical neurons. Although spatial correlations are negligible in this state, neurons can show pronounced temporal correlations in their spike trains that can be quantified by the autocorrelation function or the spike-train power spectrum. Depending on cellular and network parameters, correlations display diverse patterns (ranging from simple refractory-period effects and stochastic oscillations to slow fluctuations) and it is generally not well-understood how these dependencies come about...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Lisa Wagels, Mikhail Votinov, Thilo Kellermann, Albrecht Eisert, Cordian Beyer, Ute Habel
Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status-seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL)-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Wei Chen, Suhong Pan, Hao Cheng, Andrew J Sweetman, Hao Zhang, Kevin C Jones
A passive water sampler based on the diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) technique was developed and tested for 3 groups of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs, including oestrogens, alkyl-phenols and bisphenols). Three different resins (hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced (HLB), XAD18 and Strata-XL-A (SXLA)) were investigated for their suitability as the binding phase for DGT devices. Laboratory tests across a range of pH (3.5-9.5), ionic strength (0.001-0.5 M) and dissolved organic matter concentration (0-20 mg L-1 ) showed HLB and XAD18-DGT devices were more stable compared to SXLA-DGT...
March 12, 2018: Water Research
Luiz Filipe Barbosa-Martins, Jossaria Pereira de Sousa, Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho, Julia Puppin-Rontani, Robert P W Davies, Regina Maria Puppin-Rontani
Bonding to demineralized dentin of a diseased tooth has shown to be a significant clinical issue. This study evaluated the effect of 0.2% NaF-(NaF), MI Paste™-(CPP-ACP) and the self-assembling peptide 'P11 - 4 ' (Ace-QQRFEWEFEQQ-NH2 ) contained in Curodont™ Repair, have on microtensile bond strength-(µTBS) of two different adhesive systems (Adper™ Single Bond-(SB) or Clearfil™ SE Bond (CSE)) and wettability of demineralized dentin slices after remineralising agents were applied. The highest µTBS were found for the demineralized dentin-(DD) treated with CPP-ACP; both adhesives systems (p < 0...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Michael R Deschenes, Shuhan Li, Matthew A Adan, Jane J Oh, Hailey C Ramsey
BACKGROUND: This project aimed to determine the adaptability of the neuromuscular system to the stimuli of exercise training, and aging. METHODS: Young adult, and aged male rats were randomly assigned to either exercise training, or sedentary control groups. Exercise training featured an 8 week program of treadmill running. At the end of the intervention period, neuromuscular function was quantified with ex vivo stimulation procedures on isolated soleus muscles...
March 14, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Freek V W Appels, Jan Dijksterhuis, Catherine E Lukasiewicz, Kaspar M B Jansen, Han A B Wösten, Pauline Krijgsheld
Filamentous fungi colonize substrates by forming a mycelium. This network of hyphae can be used as a bio-based material. Here, we assessed the impact of environmental growth conditions and deletion of the hydrophobin gene sc3 on material properties of the mycelium of the mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that Δsc3 mycelium retained more water with increasing temperature when compared to the wild type. The Young's modulus (E) of the mycelium ranged between 438 and 913 MPa when the wild type strain was grown in the dark or in the light at low or high CO2 levels...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
A R Niemeijer
Phyllosilicate-bearing faults are characterized by an anastomosing foliation with intervening hard clasts and are believed to be long-term weak structures. Here, I present results of sliding experiments on gouges of 80 wt% quartz and 20 wt% muscovite, sheared under hydrothermal conditions at constant velocity. The results show that significant strengthening occurs over a narrow range of sliding velocities (0.03-1 μm/s). At the lowest velocity investigated, weakness is achieved after a considerable sliding distance of over 20 mm with friction reaching a value of 0...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joel T Fuller, Michael C Hartland, Luke T Maloney, Kade Davison
OBJECTIVE: To systematically appraise and summarise meta-analyses investigating the effect of exercise compared with a control condition on health outcomes in cancer survivors. DESIGN: Umbrella review of intervention systematic reviews. DATA SOURCES: Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and MEDLINE databases were searched using a predefined search strategy. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Eligible meta-analyses compared health outcomes between cancer survivors participating in an exercise intervention and a control condition...
March 16, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Angie Homez Jara, Luis Daniel Daza, Diana Marcela Aguirre, José Aldemar Muñoz, José Fernando Solanilla, Henry Alexander Váquiro
Chitosan is a promising material that could be used for the development of edible coatings and films on an industrial level because of its film-forming, biodegradable, non-toxic, and antimicrobial characteristics. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the polymer concentration (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) and drying temperature (2 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C) on the physicochemical, mechanical, and thermal properties of chitosan edible films. Chitosan edible films were successfully produced using various processing conditions...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Liang Shi, Jiangzhou Sun, Zhiting Ren, Qunlin Chen, Dongtao Wei, Wenjing Yang, Jiang Qiu
Creativity is imperative to social development and the promotion of well-being. Here, independent component analysis and functional network connectivity analysis methods were applied to both resting-state and divergent thinking task fMRI data from the same sample to investigate large-scale brain network connectivity underlying creativity. The results showed that the strength of the connectivity between the posterior default mode network (DMN) and right frontal-parietal network (FPN) was significantly greater whereas the right FPN and left FPN connectivity strength was weaker in the creative condition than in the control condition...
March 13, 2018: Biological Psychology
Mohamed Bayati, Jingjing Dai, Austin Zambrana, Chloe Rees, Maria Fidalgo de Cortalezzi
Carbon dots are rapidly emerging carbon-based nanomaterials that, due to their growing applications, will inevitable find their way to natural waters; however, their environmental fate is mostly unknown. Carbon dots with different surface functionality were fabricated and characterized by TEM and FT-IR. Their surface charge, given by the zeta potential, and their hydrodynamic diameter in suspension were investigated under a variety of environmentally relevant conditions. The effect of ionic strength was studied in the presence of monovalent (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl2 ) cations, for pH levels from 3 to 11; humic acid was used as a model for dissolved natural organic matter...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Andrea B Mosler, Rintje Agricola, Kristian Thorborg, Adam Weir, Rod J Whiteley, Kay M Crossley, Per Hӧlmich
Study Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Background Athletes with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome have cam and/or pincer morphology, pain on orthopaedic testing, and often have reduced hip range of motion (ROM) and strength. However, cam and pincer morphology are also common in asymptomatic hips. Therefore, it is currently unknown whether the ROM and strength deficits observed in athletes with FAI syndrome result from the variance in their bony hip morphology or hip condition. Objectives To investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal screening findings and bony hip morphology in asymptomatic male soccer players...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Tamás Haidekker Galambos, Csaba Tőke
We elaborate on the methodology to simulate bulk systems in the absence of time-reversal symmetry by the phase-fixed path-integral Monte Carlo method under (possibly twisted) periodic boundary conditions. Such systems include two-dimensional electrons in the quantum Hall regime and rotating ultracold Bose and Fermi gases; time-reversal symmetry is broken by an external magnetic field and the Coriolis force, respectively. We provide closed-form expressions in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions for the thermal density matrix (or the Euclidean propagator) of a single particle on a flat torus under very general conditions...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Robert West, Mauro Mobilia, Alastair M Rucklidge
We study the influence of a randomly switching reproduction-predation rate on the survival behavior of the nonspatial cyclic Lotka-Volterra model, also known as the zero-sum rock-paper-scissors game, used to metaphorically describe the cyclic competition between three species. In large and finite populations, demographic fluctuations (internal noise) drive two species to extinction in a finite time, while the species with the smallest reproduction-predation rate is the most likely to be the surviving one (law of the weakest)...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Yi Yan, Vitor Sencadas, Tiantian Jin, Xufeng Huang, Wilford Lie, Dongbin Wei, Zhengyi Jiang
Processing conditions deeply affect the mechanical, chemical and biological properties of elastomeric based nanocomposites. In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were dispersed in poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) prepolymer, followed by curing under vacuum at 120 °C. It was observed an increase of the water contact angle with the amount of MWCNTs added, as well as the tensile strength and Young modulus, without compromising the elastomeric behaviour of the pristine PGS matrix. The cross-linking degree was determined by the Flory-Rehner swelling method and through the mechanical rubber elasticity model, and an increase of more than six-fold was observed, which demonstrates the chemical conjugation between the MWCNTs and the PGS polymer chains, resulting in stiff and elastomeric nanocomposites...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ashley Gionfriddo, Mika L Nonoyama, Peter C Laussen, Peter N Cox, Megan Clarke, Alejandro A Floh
OBJECTIVES: To promote standardization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention introduced a new ventilator-associated pneumonia classification, which was modified for pediatrics (pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia according to proposed criteria [PVAP]). We evaluated the frequency of PVAP in a cohort of children diagnosed with ventilator-associated pneumonia according to traditional criteria and compared their strength of association with clinically relevant outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Pinar Cevik, Oguz Eraslan, Kursat Eser, Suleyman Tekeli
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of six different surface conditioning methods on the shear bond strength of ceramic brackets bonded to feldspathic porcelain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 feldspathic porcelain disks were fabricated and divided into six subgroups including 10 specimens in each. Specimens were first treated one of the following surface conditioning methods, namely, 37% phosphoric acid (G-H3PO4), 9.4% hydrofluoric acid (G-HF), grinding with diamond burs (G-Grinding), Nd:YAG laser (G-Nd:YAG), Airborne-particle abrasion (G-Abrasion)...
March 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Deed E Harrison, Paul A Oakley, Joseph W Betz
[Purpose] To present the case of the dramatic reduction in pain, disability, and neurologic symptoms following the reduction of forward head translation and increased cervical curvature in a patient suffering from post-surgical radiculopathy. [Subject and Methods] A 52-year-old male mechanic presented with chronic neck pain, unilateral paresthesia along the C5 and C6 dermatome distributions and diminished unilateral grip strength for 12 years following a C5-C6 cervical discectomy and fusion. Outcome measures included the neck disability index, the numerical pain rating scale, and the Zebris cervical range of motion system...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
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