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Maurice S Albin
Background The United States Civil War (1861-1865) pitted the more populous industrialized North (Union) against the mainly agricultural slaveholding South (Confederacy). This conflict cost an enormous number of lives, with recent estimates mentioning a total mortality greater than 700,000 combatants [1]. Although sulfuric ether (ETH) and chloroform (CHL) were available since Morton's use of the former in 1846 and the employment of the latter in 1847, and even though inhalational agents were used in Crimean war (1853-1856) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848), the United States Civil War gave military surgeons on both sides the opportunity to experience the use of these two agents because of the large number of casualties...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Nikki Rommers, Mireille Mostaert, Lennert Goossens, Roel Vaeyens, Erik Witvrouw, Matthieu Lenoir, Eva D'Hondt
This study investigated differences in generic and soccer specific motor coordination, as well as speed and agility depending on age and maturity in elite youth soccer players (U10-U15, N = 619). Measurements included body height, body weight and sitting height to estimate age at peak height velocity (APHV); three Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder subtests (i.e. jumping sideways (JS), moving sideways (MS), balancing backwards (BB)) to assess generic motor coordination; the UGent dribbling test for soccer specific motor coordination; a 5m/30m sprint and T-test for speed and agility, respectively...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Gareth Irwin, David G Kerwin, Genevieve Williams, Richard E A Van Emmerik, Karl M Newell, Joseph Hamill
A case study visualisation approach to examining the coordination and variability of multiple interacting segments is presented using a whole-body gymnastic skill as the task example. One elite male gymnast performed 10 trials of 10 longswings whilst three-dimensional locations of joint centres were tracked using a motion analysis system. Segment angles were used to define coupling between the arms and trunk, trunk and thighs and thighs and shanks. Rectified continuous relative phase profiles for each interacting couple for 80 longswings were produced...
June 18, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Jacobien H F Oosterhoff, Vincent Gouttebarge, Maarten Moen, J Bart Staal, Gino M M J Kerkhoffs, Johannes L Tol, Babette M Pluim
The objective was to systematically review the literature on risk factors and prevention programs for musculoskeletal injuries among tennis players. PubmedMedline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane, SportDiscus were searched up to February 2017. Experts in clinical and epidemiological medicine were contacted to obtain additional studies. For risk factors, prospective cohort studies (n > 20) with a statistical analysis for injured and non-injured players were included and studies with a RCT design for prevention programs...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Shane Malone, Marian Earls, Aidan Shovlin, Anthony Eddy, Nick Winkelman
Malone, S, Earls, M, Shovlin, A, Eddy, A, and Winkleman, N. Match-play running performance and exercise intensity in elite international women's rugby sevens. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aim of the current investigation was to describe the running and physiological performance demands of elite women's rugby sevens match-play. Twenty-seven (n = 27) rugby seven's players (24.4 ± 2.1 years; 168 ± 7.1 cm; 67.9 ± 4.3 kg) were recruited for the current investigation. Across the observational period, 36 games were analyzed; during these games, players wore global positioning system technology (10-Hz, Statsports Viper Pod; STATSports, Newry, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom) and heart rate monitors (Polar Team System, Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland)...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Janina Fett, Alexander Ulbricht, Alexander Ferrauti
Fett, J, Ulbricht, A, and Ferrauti, A. Impact of physical performance and anthropometric characteristics on serve velocity in elite junior tennis players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study aimed to investigate the impact of physical performance components and anthropometric characteristics on serve velocity (SV) in elite junior tennis players depending on the sex and age group. A sample of the best 1,019 (male = 625, female = 394) junior squad tennis players of the German Tennis Federation participated in the study involving complex anthropometric measurements (body height, body mass, sitting height, and arm span) and physical tests (e...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Alireza Rabbani, Mehdi Kargarfard, Craig Twist
Rabbani, A, Kargarfard, M, and Twist, C. Fitness monitoring in elite soccer players; group vs. individual analyses. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aims of this study were to (a) examine changes in group and individual HR measures during a submaximal warm-up test, and (b) investigate the relationship between accumulated internal training loads and HR changes during an in-season phase among elite soccer players (n = 14). Before and after an in-season phase (24 days), exercise HR (HRex) and HR recovery (HRR) expressed either as the number of beats recovered (HRR60s) or as the mean HR (HRpost1) during 1 minute of recovery were analyzed...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Rachel L Aubry, Geoff A Power, Jamie F Burr
Aubry, RL, Power, GA, and Burr, JF. An assessment of running power as a training metric for elite and recreational runners. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Power, as a testing and training metric to quantify effort, is well accepted in cycling, but is not commonly used in running to quantify effort or performance. This study sought to investigate a novel training tool, the Stryd Running Power Meter, and the applicability of running power (and its individually calculated run mechanics) to be a useful surrogate of metabolic demand (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), across different running surfaces, within different caliber runners...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Petros G Botonis, Argyris G Toubekis, Theodoros I Platanou
Botonis, PG, Toubekis, AG, and Platanou, TI. Physiological and tactical on-court demands of water polo. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of the present review is to provide a quantification of the specific game's activities performed by elite water polo players and a comprehensive overview of the physiological requirements reflecting physical and tactical on-court demands in water polo. Game analysis demonstrates that various swimming movements occur throughout a match play, although approximately 50% of these are recorded in horizontal body position...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Omar Tonsi Eldakar, J Oliver Kammeyer, Nikhil Nagabandi, Andrew C Gallup
Altruism presents an evolutionary paradox, as altruistic individuals are good for the group yet vulnerable to exploitation by selfish individuals. One mechanism that can effectively curtail selfishness within groups is punishment. Here, we show in an evolutionary game-theoretical model that punishment can effectively evolve and maintain high levels of altruism in the population, yet not all punishment strategies were equally virtuous. Unlike typical models of social evolution, we explicitly altered the extent to which individuals vary in their power over others, such that powerful individuals can more readily punish and escape the punishment of others...
April 2018: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
Anthony S Leicht, Miguel A Gomez, Carl T Woods
The Olympic Games is the pinnacle international sporting competition with team sport coaches interested in key performance indicators to assist the development of match strategies for success. This study examined the relationship between team performance indicators and match outcome during the women's basketball tournament at the Olympic Games. Team performance indicators were collated from all women's basketball matches during the 2004⁻2016 Olympic Games ( n = 156) and analyzed via linear (binary logistic regression) and non-linear (conditional interference (CI) classification tree) statistical techniques...
December 17, 2017: Sports
Stig Arve Sæther, Tomas Peterson, Vazjwar Matin
The relative age effect (RAE) has been found among youth elite athletes within a range of sports. However, the RAE has been studied to a lesser degree among youth non-elite athletes, and even less among school pupils attending sport specialisation programmes (SSPs). The aim of the present study was to investigate RAE, height, and weight, and compare Swedish lower secondary school and Norwegian upper secondary school pupils. Study 1 includes 156 lower secondary school athletes (95 boys and 61 girls) following an SSP in Sweden, while study 2 includes 111 upper secondary school athletes (81 boys and 30 girls) from two Norwegian schools...
December 8, 2017: Sports
Jan Legg, David B Pyne, Stuart Semple, Nick Ball
The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in jump performance and variability in elite female basketballers. Junior and senior female representative basketball players ( n = 10) aged 18 ± 2 years participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ) data was collected with a Gymaware™ optical encoder at pre-, mid-, and post-season time points across 10 weeks. Jump performance was maintained across the course of the full season (from pre to post). Concentric peak velocity, jump height, and dip showed the most stability from pre- to post-season, with the %CV ranging from 5...
November 4, 2017: Sports
Amy Tanner, Shannon Day
Given the limited research into the physiological and psychological demands of elite synchronised swimming, the aim of this study was to examine 10 elite female synchronised swimmers and analyse the relationship between training load, stress, illness episodes, and salivary biomarkers during a period of training and competition. Saliva samples were collected before (BASE), during an intensified training camp (CAMP), during an international competition period (COMP), and post competition recovery (REC) for analysis of cortisol, testosterone, and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA)...
September 1, 2017: Sports
Anne Simpson, Luke Gemming, Dane Baker, Andrea Braakhuis
To date, there has been a paucity of research on optimal ways to educate and promote dietary behavioural change within athletes. Optimising athlete nutrition is fundamental to reaching peak performance and maintaining athlete wellbeing. MealLogger® is a smartphone application that incorporates the use of an image-based food record and social-media functionality to provide in-application personalised feedback to individuals or groups, peer-support, and a platform to deliver nutrition education material. This study measured the feasibility of MealLogger® within New Zealand elite male field hockey players (n = 17) aged 18⁻20 to increase athlete knowledge and nutrition promoting behaviours...
August 11, 2017: Sports
Bart van Trigt, Wouter Schallig, Erik van der Graaff, Marco J M Hoozemans, Dirkjan Veeger
The purpose of this study was to determine whether stride length and knee angle of the leading leg at foot contact, at the instant of maximal external rotation of the shoulder, and at ball release are associated with ball speed in elite youth baseball pitchers. In this study, fifty-two elite youth baseball pitchers (mean age 15.2 SD (standard deviation) 1.7 years) pitched ten fastballs. Data were collected with three high-speed video cameras at a frequency of 240 Hz. Stride length and knee angle of the leading leg were calculated at foot contact, maximal external rotation, and ball release...
May 29, 2018: Sports
Daniele Conte, Inga Lukonaitiene
This study aimed to examine the scoring strategies differentiating between winning and losing teams during FIBA EuroBasket Women 2017 in relation to different game scores. Data were gathered for all games of FIBA EuroBasket Women 2017 from the official website. The investigated scoring strategies were fast break points (FBP); points in the paint (PP); points from turnover (PT); second chance points (SCP); and points from the bench (PB). Games were classified with cluster analysis based on their score difference as close, balanced, and unbalanced and the differences in the scoring strategies between winning and losing teams were assessed using magnitude-based statistics...
May 29, 2018: Sports
Richard Swinbourne, Joanna Miller, Daniel Smart, Deborah K Dulson, Nicholas Gill
(1) Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of sleep extension in professional rugby players. The aims were to: (i) characterise sleep quantity in elite rugby players and determine changes in immune function and stress hormone secretion during a pre-season training programme; (ii) evaluate the efficacy of a sleep extension intervention in improving sleep, markers of physical stress, immune function and performance. (2) Methods: Twenty five highly trained athletes from a professional rugby team (age (mean ± SD) 25 ± 2...
May 10, 2018: Sports
Sezen Çimen Polat, Celal Bulgay, İmdat Yarım, Halil İbrahim Cicioğlu, Ebru Çetin
The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between leg power and balance performance in elite wrestlers and injury history. In the research group, there are 18 elite freestyle male wrestlers at the ages of 24.27 ± 3.18 years, with a height of 171.86 ± 5.44 cm and a body weight of 79.27 ± 11.16 kg. Information on the injury history of the athletes’ upper legs for the past year was collected via interviews with the club’s physiotherapist. Laboratory tests to measure performance assessed height, body weight, Y balance and isokinetic leg strength...
April 17, 2018: Sports
Petr Stastny, James J Tufano, Jan Kregl, Miroslav Petr, Dusan Blazek, Michal Steffl, Robert Roczniok, Milos Fiala, Artur Golas, Piotr Zmijewski
Background: Visual feedback may help elicit peak performance during different types of strength and power testing, but its effect during the anaerobic Wingate test is unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of visual feedback on power output during a hockey-specific intermittent Wingate test (AnWT6x6) consisting of 6 stages of 6 s intervals with a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio. Methods: Thirty elite college-aged hockey players performed the AnWT6x6 with either constant ( n = 15) visual feedback during all 6 stages (CVF) or restricted ( n = 15) visual feedback (RVF) where feedback was shown only during the 2nd through 5th stages...
April 9, 2018: Sports
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