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Per Martin Arvidsson, Johannes Töger, Marcus Carlsson, Katarina Steding-Ehrenborg, Gianni Pedrizzetti, Einar Heiberg, Hakan Arheden
Intracardiac blood flow is driven by hemodynamic forces that are exchanged between the blood and myocardium. Previous studies have been limited to 2D measurements or investigated only LV forces. Right ventricular forces and their mechanistic contribution to asymmetric redirection of flow in the RV have not been measured. We therefore aimed to quantify three-dimensional hemodynamic forces in both ventricles in a cohort of healthy subjects, using magnetic resonance imaging 4D flow measurements. 25 controls,14 elite endurance athletes, and two patients with left ventricular dyssynchrony were included...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Martyn J Matthews, Daniel Green, Helen Matthews, Emma Swanwick
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of training induced fatigue on shoulder strength, ROM, joint position sense, and stroke length in elite competitive swimmers. METHODS: Seventeen national level swimmers performed maximum isometric strength (internal and external rotation), ROM, and joint position sense tests before and after a fatiguing 8 × 100 m training set. Stroke length, heart rate, blood lactate and blood glucose levels were recorded throughout. RESULTS: Peak blood lactate, blood glucose levels, and heart rate increased significantly (P < 0...
August 30, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
Brun Jean-Frédéric, Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle, Fédou Christine, Raynaud de Mauverger Eric
We investigated to what extent a prediction of the 'ideal' hematocrit based on individual hemorheological profile with an equation of viscosity is relevant in trained athletes, and how the agreement between theoretical and actual values is modified by changes in training volume and performance. Elite soccer players (national level: 18-32 yr, weight 61-83 kg, body mass index 20.9-25.8 kg/m2) were seen twice at one year interval. Hemorheologic parameters were measured with the MT90 viscometer and the Myrenne aggregometer the theoretical bell-shaped curve of hematocrit/viscosity ratio as a function of hematocrit was reconstructed with Quemada's equation using actual plasma viscosity and red cell rigidity to predict hematocrit/viscosity at various hematocrit levels...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Delphine Mieulet, Sylvie Jolivet, Maud Rivard, Laurence Cromer, Aurore Vernet, Pauline Mayonove, Lucie Pereira, Gaëtan Droc, Brigitte Courtois, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Raphael Mercier
Introduction of clonal reproduction through seeds (apomixis) in crops has the potential to revolutionize agriculture by allowing self-propagation of any elite variety, in particular F1 hybrids. In the sexual model plant Arabidopsis thaliana synthetic clonal reproduction through seeds can be artificially implemented by (i) combining three mutations to turn meiosis into mitosis (MiMe) and (ii) crossing the obtained clonal gametes with a line expressing modified CENH3 and whose genome is eliminated in the zygote...
October 21, 2016: Cell Research
Juan L Reig-Valiente, Juan Viruel, Ester Sales, Luis Marqués, Javier Terol, Marta Gut, Sophia Derdak, Manuel Talón, Concha Domingo
BACKGROUND: After its domestication, rice cultivation expanded from tropical regions towards northern latitudes with temperate climate in a progressive process to overcome limiting photoperiod and temperature conditions. This process has originated a wide range of diversity that can be regarded as a valuable resource for crop improvement. In general, current rice breeding programs have to deal with a lack of both germplasm accessions specifically adapted to local agro-environmental conditions and adapted donors carrying desired agronomical traits...
December 2016: Rice
Szabolcs Makai, László Tamás, Angéla Juhász
Wheat has been cultivated for 10000 years and ever since the origin of hexaploid wheat it has been exempt from natural selection. Instead, it was under the constant selective pressure of human agriculture from harvest to sowing during every year, producing a vast array of varieties. Wheat has been adopted globally, accumulating variation for genes involved in yield traits, environmental adaptation and resistance. However, one small but important part of the wheat genome has hardly changed: the regulatory regions of both the x- and y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes, which are alone responsible for approximately 12% of the grain protein content...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Achraf Ammar, Mouna Turki, Hamdi Chtourou, Omar Hammouda, Khaled Trabelsi, Choumous Kallel, Osama Abdelkarim, Anita Hoekelmann, Mohamed Bouaziz, Fatma Ayadi, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural Pomegranate juice supplementation on performance and acute and delayed responses of muscle soreness and biomarkers of muscle damage after a weightlifting training session. METHODS: Nine elite weightlifters (21±0.5 years) performed two Olympic-Weightlifting-sessions after either placebo (PLA) or natural pomegranate juice (POMj) supplementations. Heart rate, blood pressure and blood samples (hematological parameters, muscle damage and C-reactive protein (CRP)) were collected at rest, 3min and 48h after each session...
2016: PloS One
Rosario Scarfone, Antonio Ammendolia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological demands and technical-tactical performances of field players in Italian elite beach soccer team. METHODS: Three official matches of the Italian First Division beach soccer tournament were analyzed to evaluate the heart rate (HR) and time-motion analysis considering: standing, walking, jogging, running and sprinting, and technical-tactical aspects. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of time on the physiological measures and time motion analysis...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
José L Chamorro, Miquel Torregrosa, David Sánchez Oliva, Tomás García Calvo, Benito León
Within the context of the transition from junior-to-senior sport, this study aims in first place to explore differences in young Spanish elite soccer players based on the importance given to getting different achievements in their future (including sport, studies and private life) and, in second place, to explore differences among those players in levels of passion, motivation and basic psychological need. 478 elite youth soccer filled out a questionnaire based on the presented theoretical models. A cluster analysis shows a sport oriented group (N = 98) only interested in becoming a professional, a life spheres balance group (N = 288) characterized by balancing the importance of achievements in the sport sphere, as well as in education and a private life and a group (N = 91) only interested in private life achievements...
October 20, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Noortje H Rijken, Remko Soer, Ewold de Maar, Hilco Prins, Wouter B Teeuw, Jan Peuscher, Frits G J Oosterveld
The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of an intervention consisting of mental coaching combined with either electro encephalogram (EEG) alpha power feedback or heart rate variability (HRV) feedback on HRV, EEG outcomes and self-reported factors related to stress, performance, recovery and sleep quality in elite athletes. A prospective pilot study was performed with two distinct cohorts. Soccer players were provided with four sessions of mental coaching combined with daily HRV biofeedback (Group A); track and field athletes were provided with four sessions of mental coaching in combination with daily neurofeedback (Group B)...
October 19, 2016: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback
Kristin L Garlanger, Elena J Jelsing, Jonathan T Finnoff
A 33-year-old elite female runner presented to a tertiary care sports medicine clinic with a 2-year history of progressive anterior thigh and circumferential leg pain with associated foot paresthesias brought on by high-intensity running. She had both external iliac artery vasospasm and chronic exertional compartment syndrome. External iliac artery vasospasm is a rare cause of exertional leg pain, particularly in the running population. This case highlights the unique features of this condition, addresses the multidisciplinary approach that led to the accurate diagnoses, and demonstrates that more than 1 etiology for exertional leg pain can coexist in an athlete...
October 19, 2016: Sports Health
Ju Yeon Lee, Hyun Kyoung Lee, Gun Wook Park, Heeyoun Hwang, Hoi Keun Jeong, Ki Na Yun, Eun Sun Ji, Kwang Hoe Kim, Jun Seok Kim, Jong Won Kim, Sung Ho Yun, Chi-Won Choi, Seung Il Kim, Jong-Sun Lim, Seul-Ki Jeong, Young-Ki Paik, Soo-Youn Lee, Jisook Park, Su Yeon Kim, Young-Jin Choi, Yong-In Kim, Jawon Seo, Je-Yoel Cho, Myoung Jin Oh, Nari Seo, Hyun Joo An, Jin Young Kim, Jong Shin Yoo
Glycoprotein conformations are complex and heterogeneous. Currently, site-specific characterization of glycopeptides is a challenge. Herein, we sought to establish an efficient method of N-glycoprotein characterization using mass spectrometry. Using alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) as a model N-glycoprotein, its tryptic N-glycopeptides were identified, and the reproducibility of the data was examined in seven laboratories running different liquid chromatography-mass tandem spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) platforms. We used three test samples and one blind sample to evaluate instrument performance with entire sample preparation workflow...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Nicolas Leuenberger, Emanuele Bulla, Olivier Salamin, Raul Nicoli, Neil Robinson, Norbert Baume, Martial Saugy
The concentration of hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, is suppressed during periods of increased erythropoietic activity. The present study obtained blood samples from 109 elite athletes and examined the correlations between hepcidin and markers of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism (i.e., hemoglobin, erythropoietin (EPO), ferritin, erythroferrone (ERFE), and iron concentration). Furthermore, an administration study was undertaken to examine the effect of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) delta (Dynepo™) on hepcidin concentrations in healthy male volunteers...
October 18, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Aneela Yasmeen, Sarfraz Kiani, Afshan Butt, Abdul Qayyum Rao, Faheem Akram, Aftab Ahmad, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Tayyab Husnain, Shahid Mansoor, Imran Amin, Shaheen Aftab, Muhammad Zubair, Muhammad Nouman Tahir, Sohail Akhtar, Jodi Scheffler, Brian Scheffler
The conserved coat or V2 gene of begomoviruses is responsible for viral movement in the plant cells. RNAi technology was used to silence V2 gene for resistance against these viruses in transgenic plants. The transformation of the RNAi-based gene construct targeting V2 gene of CLCuKoV-Bur, cloned under 35S promoter, was done in two elite cotton varieties MNH-786 and VH-289 using shoot apex cut method of gene transformation. The transformation efficiency was found to be 3.75 and 2.88 % in MNH-786 and VH-289, respectively...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
Peng Zhang, Kaizhen Zhong, Hanhua Tong, Muhammad Qasim Shahid, Jinquan Li
Trivalent aluminum (Al(3+)) has drastic effect on the rice production in acidic soils. Elite genes for aluminum (Al) tolerance might exist in rice landraces. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to mine the elite genes within rice landraces. Association mapping for Al tolerance traits [i.e., relative root elongation (RRE)] was performed by using a core collection of 150 accessions of rice landraces (i.e., Ting's rice core collection). Our results showed that the Ting's rice core collection possessed a wide-range of phenotypic variation for Al tolerance, and the index of Al tolerance (RRE) was ranged from 0...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alan J Pearce, Janet A Young, Lucy Parrington, Nicole Aimers
The objective of this study was to explore beliefs and attitudes of students studying exercise science in Australia towards sports concussion. A secondary objective explored differences between gender and previous experience of concussion. A total of 312 participants (m = 217; f = 95) responded to a series of statements ranging across a number of areas including personal attitudes and beliefs towards concussion: if they would risk playing with a concussion; their views on elite/professional athletes who continue to play after a concussion; and attitudes towards rehabilitation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Sarah J Burkhart, Fiona E Pelly
International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete's competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk...
October 14, 2016: Nutrients
Viola Grabs, Anna Kersten, Bernhard Haller, Siegmund Braun, David C Nieman, Martin Halle, Johannes Scherr
INTRODUCTION: Vigorous and prolonged exercise such as marathon running increases inflammatory markers and the risk of upper respiratory illness (URI) in athletes. Nutritional supplements are being tested as countermeasures of exercise-induced inflammation and immune dysfunction. METHODS: In this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase I trial, healthy male runners (N = 138, age 42 ± 11 y) were supplemented with rutoside (600-1200 mg/day) and hydrolytic enzymes (540-1,080 mg/day bromelain, 288-576 mg/day trypsin) (WOB) or placebo (PL) for one week before and two weeks after the Munich Marathon 2013...
October 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
David A Shearer, William Sparkes, Jonny Northeast, Daniel J Cunningham, Christian J Cook, Liam P Kilduff
OBJECTIVES: Biochemical (e.g. creatine kinase (CK)) and neuromuscular (e.g. peak power output (PPO)) markers of recovery are expensive and require specialist equipment. Perceptual measures are an effective alternative, yet most validated scales are too long for daily use. DESIGN: This study utilises a longitudinal multi-level design to test an adapted Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM+), with four extra items and a 100mm visual analogue scale to measure recovery. METHODS: Elite under-21 academy soccer players (N=11) were monitored across five games with data (BAM+, CK and PPO) collected for each game at 24h pre, 24h and 48h post-match...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Leo Djaoui, Karim Chamari, Adam Owen, Alexandre Dellal
The aim of the present study was to compare 1) the maximal sprinting speed (MSS) attained by soccer players during matches (MSSmatch) according to their level of play (professional 1st French division vs. elite amateur 4th French division) and the playing positions; and 2) the MSS attained by professional soccer players during 14 different types of small-sided games (SSG, MSSSSG) and match-play. All players monitored through the study performed a 40-m sprint test to assess individual MSS (MSStest) and compare it to the training and match activity, with the calculation of the percentage of MSStest (%MSStest) reached...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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