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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053942/do-elite-breath-hold-divers-suffer-from-mild-short-term-memory-impairments
#1
François Billaut, Patrice Gueit, Sylvane Faure, Guillaume Costalat, Frédéric Lemaitre
Repeated apneas are associated with severe hypoxemia that may ultimately lead to loss of consciousness in some breath-hold divers. Despite increasing number of practitioners, the relationship between apnea-induced hypoxia and neurocognitive functions is still poorly understood in the sport of free diving. To shed light onto this phenomenon, we examined the impact of long-term breath-hold diving training on attentional processing, short-term memory, and long-term mnesic and executive functions. Thirty-six men matched for age, height and weight were separated into three groups [12 elite breath-hold divers (EBHD, mean static apnea best time 371 sec, 105 months mean apnea experience); 12 novice breath-hold divers (NBHD, mean best time 243 sec, 8...
October 20, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052458/the-vogt-family-creators-of-diverse-paths-for-women-in-biological-research
#2
Ronald P Rubin
The life and careers of Cecile, Marthe and Marguerite Vogt are chronicled in this article during an era where women were not readily accepted in the upper echelons of academia. By exploring important questions, these women made major contributions to the broad base of scientific knowledge which impacted the fields of neurobiology in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, infectious disease, and oncogenesis. As a result, each was considered the elite of her respective field and achieved an enduring legacy...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051338/the-occurrence-of-cardiac-output-decrease-via-stroke-volume-is-more-pronounced-in-women-than-in-men-during-prolonged-dry-static-apnoea
#3
Sara Magnani, Gabriele Mulliri, Gianmarco Sainas, Giovanna Ghiani, Virginia Pinna, Irene Sanna, Antonio Crisafulli, Filippo Tocco
Little is known on gender differences in autonomic cardiovascular regulation of diving response (DR) and the few available studies into these differences were conducted on subjects with limited or no diving experience. We examined gender influence on hemodynamics during dry-static apnoea (SA) in 8 male and 8 female elite divers matched for their breath-hold (BH) ability. Hemodynamics was assessed by means of simultaneous echocardiography and impedance cardiography measurements and arterial pressure and oxygen saturation (SaO2) were also collected...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051334/case-studies-in-physiology-the-biomechanics-of-the-fastest-sprinter-with-a-unilateral-transtibial-amputation
#4
Owen N Beck, Alena Marie Grabowski
People have debated whether athletes with transtibial amputations should compete with non-amputees in track events despite insufficient information regarding how the use of running-specific prostheses affects athletic performance. Thus, we sought to quantify the spatio-temporal variables, ground reaction forces, and spring-mass mechanics of the fastest athlete with a unilateral transtibial amputation using an RSP to reveal how he adapts his biomechanics to achieve elite running speeds. Accordingly, we measured ground reaction forces during treadmill running trials spanning 2...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051169/epidemiology-of-injuries-in-juniors-participating-in-top-level-karate-competition-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Dušana Čierna, Merce Barrientos, Carlos Agrasar, Rafael Arriaza
BACKGROUND: Karate is a popular combat semi-contact sport among juniors, but there are only few studies available on the epidemiology of injuries in karate junior athletes. AIM: The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and pattern of injuries in top-level karate competition for athletes aged 16 to 20 years, and to compare injury rates between age groups (ie, under 18-year-old [U18] and under 21-year-old [U21]) and genders, following the introduction of new weight categories...
October 19, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051167/hamstring-muscle-injuries-in-elite-football-translating-research-into-practice
#6
EDITORIAL
Matthew Buckthorpe, Mo Gimpel, Steve Wright, Thomas Sturdy, Matthew Stride
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051166/epidemiology-of-imaging-detected-tendon-abnormalities-in-athletes-participating-in-the-rio-de-janeiro-2016-summer-olympics
#7
Mohamed Jarraya, Michel D Crema, Lars Engebretsen, Oleg M Teytelboym, Daichi Hayashi, Frank W Roemer, Abdalla Y Skaf, Ali Guermazi
BACKGROUND: Tendon abnormalities are prevalent among both elite and non-elite athletes. Cross-sectional imaging modalities are used to confirm and evaluate the severity of such lesions. AIM: To describe the demographics, prevalence, anatomical location and characteristics of tendon abnormalities in athletes who participated in the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Summer Olympic Games. METHODS: We recorded all sports injuries reported by the National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and the Organizing Committee medical staff during the Rio 2016 Summer Olympics...
October 19, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049096/the-effect-of-tackler-technique-on-head-injury-assessment-risk-in-elite-rugby-union
#8
Gregory J Tierney, Karl Denvir, Garreth Farrell, Ciaran K Simms
PURPOSE: To use match video evidence of tackles in elite level rugby union in order to identify tackler proficiency characteristics, for both Lower Body and Upper Body Tackles, that result in Head Injury Assessments (HIA) for the tackler. METHODS: A review of international rugby union matches (2013-2016) and Pro 12/ERC Champions Cup matches (2014-2016) from a professional rugby union club was conducted. HIA (n=53) and non-HIA tackles (n=233) were categorised as either front-on or side-on Upper Body or Lower Body Tackles and scored for tackling proficiency characteristics...
October 18, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047507/amendment-performance-of-an-apodized-tilted-fiber-bragg-grating-for-a-quasi-distributed-based-sensor
#9
Eman A Elzahaby, Ishac Kandas, Moustafa H Aly
In this work, the characteristics of reflectivity spectra produced inside a reflective-tilted fiber Bragg grating (R-TFBG) are investigated, seeking a remarkable performance that could be able to upgrade the sensitivity range for temperature-strain sensors of quasi-distribution type. We introduce an optimized performance through a comparative investigation among different evaluation parameters, such as core radius, tilt angle, and the elite selection of apodization profiles, in addition to the traditional parameters, such as grating length, L, and index modulation amplitude, Δn...
July 1, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047258/identification-and-expression-analyses-of-equine-endogenous-retroviruses-in-horses
#10
Jeong-An Gim, Heui-Soo Kim
Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have been integrated into vertebrate genomes and have momentously affected host organisms. Horses (Equus caballus) have been domesticated and selected for elite racing ability over centuries. ERVs played an important role in the evolutionary diversification of the horse genome. In the present study, we identified six equine ERV families (EqERVs-E1, I1, M2, P1, S1, and Y4), their fulllength viral open reading frames (ORFs), and elucidated their phylogenetic relationships. The divergence time of EqERV families assuming an evolutionary rate of 0...
October 17, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047173/motivational-orientations-and-performance-in-penalty-throws-during-elite-male-team-handball-games
#11
Thierry Debanne, Guillaume Laffaye, David Trouilloud
The present study is based on Regulatory Focus Theory and investigates the links between the subjects' motivational orientations for promotion or prevention and their performance in handball penalty throws. In a real-world setting with high stakes, we analysed 327 penalties taken from 68 closed games. The results of the 7-metre throws constitute the dependent variable (Goal vs. Miss). The independent variables are the situational focus ([critical moment (i.e., final minute) = pressure] vs. [non-critical moment = no pressure]), the reward structure (i...
October 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045058/loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-as-an-alternative-to-pcr-a-rapid-on-site-detection-of-gene-doping
#12
Olivier Salamin, Tiia Kuuranne, Martial Saugy, Nicolas Leuenberger
Innovation in medical research has been diverted at multiple occasions to enhance human performance. The predicted great progress in gene therapy has raised some concerns regarding its misuse in the world of sports (gene doping) for several years now. Even though there is no evidence that gene doping has ever been used in sports, the continuous improvement of gene therapy techniques increases the likelihood of abuse. Therefore, since 2004, efforts have been invested by the anti-doping community and WADA for the development of detection methods...
October 17, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044890/overexpression-of-serine-acetyltransferase-in-maize-leaves-increases-seed-specific-methionine-rich-zeins
#13
Xiaoli Xiang, Yongrui Wu, José Planta, Joachim Messing, Thomas Leustek
Maize kernels do not contain enough of the essential sulfur-amino acid methionine (Met) to serve as a complete diet for animals, even though maize has the genetic capacity to store Met in kernels. Prior studies indicated that the availability of the sulfur (S)-amino acids may limit their incorporation into seed storage proteins. Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) is a key control point for S-assimilation leading to Cys and Met biosynthesis and SAT overexpression is known to enhance S-assimilation without negative impact on plant growth...
October 16, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042799/asthma-symptoms-mannitol-reactivity-and-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction-in-adolescent-swimmers-versus-tennis-players
#14
Kerstin Romberg, Ellen Tufvesson, Leif Bjermer
BACKGROUND: Strenuous physical activity at an elite level is associated with an increased risk for asthma and, in some sports, also prevalence of allergies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of asthma and allergy among elite swimmers and tennis players and compare airway hyperreactivity to mannitol and exercise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and one adolescent swimmers and 86 tennis players answered a questionnaire about respiratory symptoms and allergy and performed mannitol challenge and sport-specific exercise challenge...
2017: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042538/volcanic-suppression-of-nile-summer-flooding-triggers-revolt-and-constrains-interstate-conflict-in-ancient-egypt
#15
Joseph G Manning, Francis Ludlow, Alexander R Stine, William R Boos, Michael Sigl, Jennifer R Marlon
Volcanic eruptions provide tests of human and natural system sensitivity to abrupt shocks because their repeated occurrence allows the identification of systematic relationships in the presence of random variability. Here we show a suppression of Nile summer flooding via the radiative and dynamical impacts of explosive volcanism on the African monsoon, using climate model output, ice-core-based volcanic forcing data, Nilometer measurements, and ancient Egyptian writings. We then examine the response of Ptolemaic Egypt (305-30 BCE), one of the best-documented ancient superpowers, to volcanically induced Nile suppression...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042007/direct-comparison-of-the-edwards-intuity-elite-and-sorin-perceval-s-rapid-deployment-aortic-valves
#16
Oliver J Liakopoulos, Stephen Gerfer, Simone Weider, Parwis Rahmanian, Mohamed Zeriouh, Kaveh Eghbalzadeh, Anton Sabashnikov, Yeong-Hoon Choi, Jens Wippermann, Thorsten Wahlers
BACKGROUND: Rapid deployment aortic valve replacement (RDAVR) has emerged as an attractive alternative to conventional aortic valve replacement. This single-center study directly compared two commercially available rapid deployment valves with regard to clinical outcomes, valve-related complications, and hemodynamic performance. METHODS: A total of consecutive 156 patients underwent RDAVR with the Intuity Elite (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA [Intuity group, n = 117] or the Perceval S (Sorin Group Italia Srl, Saluggia, Italy [Perceval group, n = 39]) between September 2012 and March 2016 at our institution...
October 14, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038596/a-quantitative-genetic-framework-highlights-the-role-of-epistatic-effects-for-grain-yield-heterosis-in-bread-wheat
#17
Yong Jiang, Renate H Schmidt, Yusheng Zhao, Jochen C Reif
Increasing wheat yield is a key global challenge to producing sufficient food for a growing human population. Wheat grain yield can be boosted by exploiting heterosis, the superior performance of hybrids compared with midparents. Here we present a tailored quantitative genetic framework to study the genetic basis of midparent heterosis in hybrid populations derived from crosses among diverse parents. We applied this framework to an extensive data set assembled for winter wheat. Grain yield was assessed for 1,604 hybrids and their 135 parental elite breeding lines in 11 environments...
October 16, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037348/retrieval-characteristics-of-the-bard-denali-and-argon-option-inferior-vena-cava-filters
#18
Joshua D Dowell, Dominic Semaan, Mina S Makary, John Ryu, Mamdouh Khayat, Xueliang Pan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the retrieval characteristics of the Option Elite (Argon Medical, Plano, Tex) and Denali (Bard, Tempe, Ariz) retrievable inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs), two filters that share a similar conical design. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective study reviewed all Option and Denali IVCF removals during a 36-month period. Attempted retrievals were classified as advanced if the routine "snare and sheath" technique was initially unsuccessful despite multiple attempts or an alternative endovascular maneuver or access site was used...
November 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035983/injury-pattern-in-icelandic-elite-male-handball-players
#19
Elis Thor Rafnsson, Örnólfur Valdimarsson, Thorarinn Sveinsson, Árni Árnason
OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence, type, location, and severity of injuries in Icelandic elite male handball players and compare across factors like physical characteristics and playing position. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The latter part of the preseason and the competitive season of Icelandic male handball. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven handball teams (185 players) from the 2 highest divisions in Iceland participated in the study...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035635/effects-of-varying-the-step-duration-on-the-determination-of-lactate-thresholds-in-elite-rowers
#20
Pitre C Bourdon, Sarah M Woolford, Jonathan D Buckley
This study aimed to identify the minimum increment duration required to accurately assess two distinct lactate thresholds. Twenty-one elite rowers (12 female, 9 males) each performed 8-9 rowing tests comprising: 1) five progressive incremental tests (3, 4, 5, 7 or 10 min steps); and 2) at least three 30-min constant-intensity maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) assessments. Power output (PO) at lactate threshold 1 (LT1) was higher in the 3- and 4-min incremental tests. No other measures were different for LT1...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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