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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345639/genomic-characterization-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#1
Tarcisio Fedrizzi, Conor J Meehan, Antonella Grottola, Elisabetta Giacobazzi, Giulia Fregni Serpini, Sara Tagliazucchi, Anna Fabio, Clotilde Bettua, Roberto Bertorelli, Veronica De Sanctis, Fabio Rumpianesi, Monica Pecorari, Olivier Jousson, Enrico Tortoli, Nicola Segata
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae have remained, for many years, the primary species of the genus Mycobacterium of clinical and microbiological interest. The other members of the genus, referred to as nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), have long been underinvestigated. In the last decades, however, the number of reports linking various NTM species with human diseases has steadily increased and treatment difficulties have emerged. Despite the availability of whole genome sequencing technologies, limited effort has been devoted to the genetic characterization of NTM species...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345587/derivation-of-functional-human-astrocytes-from-cerebral-organoids
#2
Rômulo Sperduto Dezonne, Rafaela Costa Sartore, Juliana Minardi Nascimento, Verônica M Saia-Cereda, Luciana Ferreira Romão, Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon, Jorge Marcondes de Souza, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Stevens Kastrup Rehen, Flávia Carvalho Alcantara Gomes
Astrocytes play a critical role in the development and homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocyte dysfunction results in several neurological and degenerative diseases. However, a major challenge to our understanding of astrocyte physiology and pathology is the restriction of studies to animal models, human post-mortem brain tissues, or samples obtained from invasive surgical procedures. Here, we report a protocol to generate human functional astrocytes from cerebral organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344526/delayed-repair-of-ulnar-artery-at-the-distal-forearm
#3
Jorge G Boretto, Ezequiel Zaidenberg, Gerardo L Gallucci, Verónica Alfie, Pablo De Carli
Background:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of patency after delayed repair of the ulnar artery following primary ligation. Methods: Adult patients with primary ligation of the injured ulnar artery at the forearm who had a delayed repair of the artery were included. Postoperative arterial patency was determined by either physical examination or color Doppler ultrasonographic imaging. Postoperative complications and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score were recorded. Results: Eight consecutive patients during a 3-year period were included...
March 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344504/stereoselective-synthesis-of-functionalized-bicyclic-scaffolds-by-passerini-3-center-2-component-reactions-of-cyclic-ketoacids
#4
Răzvan C Cioc, Verónica Estévez, Daan J van der Niet, Christophe M L Vande Velde, Nikolaus G Turrini, Mélanie Hall, Kurt Faber, Eelco Ruijter, Romano V A Orru
We report the use of bifunctional starting materials (ketoacids) in a diastereoselective Passerini three-center-two-component reaction. Study of the reaction scope revealed the required structural features for stereoselectivity in the isocyanide addition. In this system, an interesting isomerization of the primary Passerini product - the α-carboxamido lactone - into an atypical product, an α-hydroxy imide, was found to occur under acidic conditions. Furthermore, enantioenriched Passerini products can be generated from an enantioenriched ketoacid obtained by chemoenzymatic synthesis...
March 3, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343171/circulating-free-light-chain-measurement-in-the-diagnosis-prognostic-assessment-and-evaluation-of-response-of-al-amyloidosis-comparison-of-freelite-and-n-latex-flc-assays
#5
Giovanni Palladini, Arnaud Jaccard, Paolo Milani, David Lavergne, Andrea Foli, Sebastien Bender, Francesca Lavatelli, Tiziana Bosoni, Veronica Valentini, Laura Pirolini, Giovanni Ferraro, Marco Basset, Francesca Russo, Mario Nuvolone, Riccardo Albertini, Michel Cogne, Giampaolo Merlini
BACKGROUND: The measurement of circulating free light chain (FLC) is essential in the diagnosis, prognostic stratification and evaluation of response to therapy in light chain (AL) amyloidosis. For more than 10 years, this has been done with an immunonephelometric assay based on polyclonal antibodies (Freelite), and cutoffs for staging and response assessment have been validated with this method. Recently, a new assay based on monoclonal antibodies (N latex FLC) has been marketed in Europe...
March 27, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341999/immunological-memory-to-hyperphosphorylated-tau-in-asymptomatic-individuals
#6
Gabriel Pascual, Jehangir S Wadia, Xueyong Zhu, Elissa Keogh, Başak Kükrer, Jeroen van Ameijde, Hanna Inganäs, Berdien Siregar, Gerrard Perdok, Otto Diefenbach, Tariq Nahar, Imke Sprengers, Martin H Koldijk, Els C Brinkman-van der Linden, Laura A Peferoen, Heng Zhang, Wenli Yu, Xinyi Li, Michelle Wagner, Veronica Moreno, Julie Kim, Martha Costa, Kiana West, Zara Fulton, Lucy Chammas, Nancy Luckashenak, Lauren Fletcher, Trevin Holland, Carrie Arnold, R Anthony Williamson, Jeroen J Hoozemans, Adrian Apetri, Frederique Bard, Ian A Wilson, Wouter Koudstaal, Jaap Goudsmit
Several reports have described the presence of antibodies against Alzheimer's disease-associated hyperphosphorylated forms of tau in serum of healthy individuals. To characterize the specificities that can be found, we interrogated peripheral IgG(+) memory B cells from asymptomatic blood donors for reactivity to a panel of phosphorylated tau peptides using a single-cell screening assay. Antibody sequences were recovered, cloned, and expressed as full-length IgGs. In total, 52 somatically mutated tau-binding antibodies were identified, corresponding to 35 unique clonal families...
March 24, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341325/relevance-of-grasp-types-to-assess-functionality-for-personal-autonomy
#7
Verónica Gracia-Ibáñez, Joaquin L Sancho-Bru, Margarita Vergara
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional research design. INTRODUCTION: Current assessment of hand function is not focused on evaluating the real abilities required for autonomy. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To quantify the relevance of grasp types for autonomy to guide hand recovery and its assessment. METHODS: Representative tasks of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health activities in which the hands are directly involved were recorded...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341206/alcohol-and-basal-ganglia-circuitry-animal-models
#8
REVIEW
David M Lovinger, Veronica A Alvarez
Brain circuits that include the cortex and basal ganglia make up the bulk of the forebrain, and influence behaviors related to almost all aspects of affective, cognitive and sensorimotor functions. The learning of new actions as well as association of existing action repertoires with environmental events are key functions of this circuitry. Unfortunately, the cortico-basal ganglia circuitry is also the target for all drugs of abuse, including alcohol. This makes the circuitry susceptible to the actions of chronic alcohol exposure that impairs circuit function in ways that contribute to cognitive dysfunction and drug use disorders...
March 21, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341138/depression-is-associated-with-increased-risk-for-metabolic-syndrome-in-latinos-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Veronica Cardenas, Brent T Mausbach, David Sommerfeld, Daniel Jimenez, Roland von Känel, Jennifer S Ho, Piedad Garcia, Gregory A Aarons
OBJECTIVE: Latino adults are 66% more likely to have diabetes relative to non-Latino white adults. Prior research identifies depression as a significant risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS), but research examining this among Latinos is lacking. This study sought to examine the links between depression and MetS and clinically significant elevations in cardiovascular disease risk markers of MetS in a sample of community-dwelling older Latinos with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Participants were 332 community-dwelling older (≥60 years) Latinos with type 2 diabetes who completed the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire and received a health checkup assessing body mass index (BMI), triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, and blood pressure...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340079/measured-glomerular-filtration-rate-does-not-improve-prediction-of-mortality-by-cystatin-c-and-creatinine
#10
Per-Ola Sundin, Per Sjöström, Ian Jones, Lovisa A Olsson, Ruzan Udumyan, Anders Grubb, Veronica Lindström, Scott Montgomery
Background: Cystatin C may add explanatory power for associations with mortality in combination with other filtration markers, possibly indicating pathways other than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, this has not been firmly established since interpretation of associations independent of measured GFR (mGFR) is limited by potential multicollinearity between markers of GFR. The primary aim of this study was to assess associations between cystatin C and mortality, independent of mGFR...
March 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338766/a-multi-proxy-assessment-of-dieback-causes-in-a-mediterranean-oak-species
#11
Michele Colangelo, J Julio Camarero, Giovanna Battipaglia, Marco Borghetti, Veronica De Micco, Tiziana Gentilesca, Francesco Ripullone
Drought stress causes forest dieback that is often explained by two interrelated mechanisms, namely hydraulic failure and carbon starvation. However, it is still unclear which functional and structural alterations, related to these mechanisms, predispose to dieback. Here we apply a multi-proxy approach for the characterization of tree structure (radial growth, wood anatomy) and functioning (δ13C, δ18O and non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs)) in tree rings before and after drought-induced dieback. We aim to discriminate which is the main mechanism and to assess which variables can act as early-warning proxies of drought-triggered damage...
February 9, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337643/recombinant-heat-shock-protein-27-hsp27-hspb1-protects-against-cadmium-induced-oxidative-stress-and-toxicity-in-human-cervical-cancer-cells
#12
Daiana G Alvarez-Olmedo, Veronica S Biaggio, Geremy A Koumbadinga, Nidia N Gómez, Chunhua Shi, Daniel R Ciocca, Zarah Batulan, Mariel A Fanelli, Edward R O'Brien
Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogen with several well-described toxicological effects in humans, but its molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Overexpression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27/HSPB1)-a multifunctional protein chaperone-has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage and apoptosis triggered by Cd exposure. The aims of this work were to investigate the potential use of extracellular recombinant HSP27 to prevent/counteract Cd-induced cellular toxicity and to evaluate if peroxynitrite was involved in the development of Cd-induced toxicity...
March 24, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336358/assessing-hemispheric-specialization-for-processing-arithmetic-skills-in-adults-a-functional-transcranial-doppler-ultrasonography-ftcd-study
#13
Veronica M Connaughton, Azhani Amiruddin, Karen L Clunies-Ross, Noel French, Allison M Fox
BACKGROUND: A major model of the cerebral circuits that underpin arithmetic calculation is the triple-code model of numerical processing. This model proposes that the lateralization of mathematical operations is organized across three circuits: a left-hemispheric dominant verbal code; a bilateral magnitude representation of numbers and a bilateral Arabic number code. NEW METHOD: This study simultaneously measured the blood flow of both middle cerebral arteries using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography to assess hemispheric specialization during the performance of both language and arithmetic tasks...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335531/associations-among-substance-use-mental-health-disorders-and-self-harm-in-a-prison-population-examining-group-risk-for-suicide-attempt
#14
Madison L Gates, Asher Turney, Elizabeth Ferguson, Veronica Walker, Michelle Staples-Horne
Substance use disorders (SUD) and mental health disorders are significant public health issues that co-occur and are associated with high risk for suicide attempts. SUD and mental health disorders are more prevalent among offenders (i.e., prisoners or inmates) than the non-imprisoned population, raising concerns about the risk of self-harm. This cross-sectional study examined the population of a state prison system (10,988 out of 13,079) to identify associations among SUD (alcohol, cannabis, intravenous drugs, narcotics, and tobacco smoking), mental health disorders (anxiety, bipolar, depression, and psychotic disorders), and suicide attempts...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335342/innovative-self-cleaning-and-biocompatible-polyester-textiles-nano-decorated-with-fe-n-doped-titanium-dioxide
#15
Ionela Cristina Nica, Miruna Silvia Stan, Anca Dinischiotu, Marcela Popa, Mariana Carmen Chifiriuc, Veronica Lazar, Gratiela G Pircalabioru, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou, Ovidiu G Iordache, Elena Varzaru, Iuliana Dumitrescu, Marcel Feder, Florin Vasiliu, Ionel Mercioniu, Lucian Diamandescu
The development of innovative technologies to modify natural textiles holds an important impact for medical applications, including the prevention of contamination with microorganisms, particularly in the hospital environment. In our study, Fe and N co-doped TiO₂ nanoparticles have been obtained via the hydrothermal route, at moderate temperature, followed by short thermal annealing at 400 °C. These particles were used to impregnate polyester (PES) materials which have been evaluated for their morphology, photocatalytic performance, antimicrobial activity against bacterial reference strains, and in vitro biocompatibility on human skin fibroblasts...
November 15, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335264/antimicrobial-properties-of-biofunctionalized-silver-nanoparticles-on-clinical-isolates-of-streptococcus-mutans-and-its-serotypes
#16
Ángel Manuel Martínez-Robles, Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodríguez, Norma Verónica Zavala-Alonso, Rita Elizabeth Martinez-Martinez, Facundo Ruiz, René Homero Lara-Castro, Alejandro Donohué-Cornejo, Simón Yobanny Reyes-López, León Francisco Espinosa-Cristóbal
(1) Background: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the principal pathogen involved in the formation of dental caries. Other systemic diseases have also been associated with specific S. mutans serotypes (c, e, f, and k). Silver nanoparticles (SNP) have been demonstrated to have good antibacterial effects against S. mutans; therefore, limited studies have evaluated the antimicrobial activity of biofunctionalized SNP on S. mutans serotypes. The purpose of this work was to prepare and characterize coated SNP using two different organic components and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of SNP in clinical isolates of S...
July 22, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334956/prune-is-crucial-for-normal-brain-development-and-mutated-in-microcephaly-with-neurodevelopmental-impairment
#17
Massimo Zollo, Mustafa Ahmed, Veronica Ferrucci, Vincenzo Salpietro, Fatemeh Asadzadeh, Marianeve Carotenuto, Reza Maroofian, Ahmed Al-Amri, Royana Singh, Iolanda Scognamiglio, Majid Mojarrad, Luca Musella, Angela Duilio, Angela Di Somma, Ender Karaca, Anna Rajab, Aisha Al-Khayat, Tribhuvan Mohan Mohapatra, Atieh Eslahi, Farah Ashrafzadeh, Lettie E Rawlins, Rajniti Prasad, Rashmi Gupta, Preeti Kumari, Mona Srivastava, Flora Cozzolino, Sunil Kumar Rai, Maria Monti, Gaurav V Harlalka, Michael A Simpson, Philip Rich, Fatema Al-Salmi, Michael A Patton, Barry A Chioza, Stephanie Efthymiou, Francesca Granata, Gabriella Di Rosa, Sarah Wiethoff, Eugenia Borgione, Carmela Scuderi, Kshitij Mankad, Michael G Hanna, Piero Pucci, Henry Houlden, James R Lupski, Andrew H Crosby, Emma L Baple
PRUNE is a member of the DHH (Asp-His-His) phosphoesterase protein superfamily of molecules important for cell motility, and implicated in cancer progression. Here we investigated multiple families from Oman, India, Iran and Italy with individuals affected by a new autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and degenerative disorder in which the cardinal features include primary microcephaly and profound global developmental delay. Our genetic studies identified biallelic mutations of PRUNE1 as responsible. Our functional assays of disease-associated variant alleles revealed impaired microtubule polymerization, as well as cell migration and proliferation properties, of mutant PRUNE...
February 28, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334952/dnmt1-mutations-found-in-hsanie-patients-affect-interaction-with-uhrf1-and-neuronal-differentiation
#18
Martha Smets, Stephanie Link, Patricia Wolf, Katrin Schneider, Veronica Solis, Joel Ryan, Daniela Meilinger, Weihua Qin, Heinrich Leonhardt
DNMT1 is recruited to substrate sites by PCNA and UHRF1 to maintain DNA methylation after replication. The cell cycle dependent recruitment of DNMT1 is mediated by the PCNA-binding domain (PBD) and the targeting sequence (TS) within the N-terminal regulatory domain. The TS domain was found to be mutated in patients suffering from hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies with dementia and hearing loss (HSANIE) and autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia deafness and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN) and is associated with global hypomethylation and site specific hypermethylation...
March 3, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334725/predominance-of-g9p-4-rotavirus-from-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-northwestern-mexico
#19
Leticia Felix-Valenzuela, Dora Patricia Cooley-García, Manuel Alberto Cano-Rangel, Maria de Los Angeles Durazo-Arvizu, Veronica Mata-Haro
In Mexico, group A rotavirus (RVA) infections remain the most common cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in children. This study was conducted to examine the circulating RVA strains in the northwest region of Mexico. RVA strains collected from stool samples of children were genotyped, and their partial sequences were analyzed. RT-PCR of the VP4 and VP7 genes showed the partial G9P[4] genotype in all the samples. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP7 gene amplicons of 10 strains showed that they clustered in the RVA G9 lineage III, and 7 of them showed 100% identity with the reference strain LB1562, which was collected in the USA 2 years earlier...
March 23, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334600/undercover-power-of-endocannabinoids-postsynaptic-ion-channel-modulator
#20
Aya Matsui, Veronica A Alvarez
In this issue of Neuron, Gantz and Bean (2017) show that the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) can directly alter the properties of native ion-channel Kv4.3 and accelerate the pacemaker activity of rodent dopamine neurons. These findings are one of the first demonstrations of postsynaptic, cell-autonomous actions of endocannabinoids in the mammalian brain.
March 22, 2017: Neuron
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