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Pit Bull

K A Grint, H B Kellihan
A 3-month-old, 9.9 kg, male pit bull cross was referred for evaluation of collapse. A left basilar systolic heart murmur graded V/VI and a grade IV/VI right basilar systolic heart murmur were ausculted. Echocardiography showed severe pulmonic stenosis characterized by annular hypoplasia, leaflet thickening, and leaflet fusion. After 1 month of atenolol therapy, a pulmonic valve balloon valvuloplasty procedure was performed, and the intra-operative right ventricular pressure was reduced by 43%. Echocardiography, performed the following day, showed apparent rupture of a pulmonary valve leaflet and a membranous structure within the pulmonary artery consistent with a dissecting membrane...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Yolandi Rautenbach, Amelia Goddard, Sarah J Clift
A 2.5-year-old spayed female American Pit Bull Terrier dog presented with a primary complaint of chronic refractory ascites. The dog's CBC displayed a moderate to severe macrocytic, hypochromic, nonregenerative anemia, and a moderate leukopenia as result of a moderate neutropenia and monocytopenia. Microscopic examination of the blood smear showed marked anisocytosis, mild polychromasia, mild acanthocytosis and ovalocytosis, moderate schistocytosis and poikilocytosis, and 4 metarubricytes/100 WBC. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a homogenous, mild to moderately hyperechoic appearing liver as well as marked amounts of speckled anechoic to slightly hypoechoic peritoneal fluid...
November 22, 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Katherine A Miller, Rachel Touroo, C Victor Spain, Kelly Jones, Pamela Reid, Randall Lockwood
When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs' scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated...
November 15, 2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Terri M Bright, Louise Hadden
Shelter dogs are typically cared for by staff and volunteers. At the Boston location of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, prior to 2009, any member of the public who was older than 16 years of age and attended 1 orientation could walk dogs available for adoption. There was no systematic method of training volunteers or staff to walk unruly, strong, or fearful dogs, nor was there any organized system of enrichment in the form of in-kennel or out-of-kennel training for the population of 20 to 40 dogs in the shelter...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Ramesh Kumar, Frederic W B Deleyiannis, Corbett Wilkinson, Brent R O'Neill
OBJECTIVE The authors' goals in this study were to describe a series of dog attacks on children that required neurosurgical consultation and to better understand the pattern of injuries inflicted, the circumstances that place children at risk for attack, and the dog breeds involved. In addition, the authors review the surgical and medical management of these patients. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all children requiring neurosurgical consultation for dog bite at a regional Level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 15-year period...
January 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Karen M Vernau, Stanley L Marks, Maggie A Kuhn, William T N Culp, Tammy J Owens, G Diane Shelton, Tausif Siddiqui, Rachel Pollard, Peter C Belafsky
A 5-month-old female pit bull terrier dog evaluated for ataxia, progressive regurgitation, and recurrent aspiration pneumonia had markedly elevated creatine kinase activity, non-inflammatory generalized myopathy, and severe esophageal dysmotility. A narrow-field total laryngectomy was performed. The dog is doing well 30 months after surgery, and no longer has episodes of aspiration pneumonia, despite intermittent regurgitation. This case represents the first application of total laryngectomy for the prevention of chronic recurrent aspiration pneumonia in the dog...
July 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Michael S Golinko, Brian Arslanian, Joseph K Williams
Dog bite injuries remain a common form of pediatric trauma. This single-institution study of 1616 consecutive dog bite injuries over 4 years revealed a much higher prevalence of dog bites as compared with other similar centers. Though inpatient admission was rare (9.8%), 58% of all patients required laceration repair, primarily in the emergency department. Infants were more than 4 times as likely to be bitten by the family dog and more than 6 times as likely to be bitten in the head/neck region. Children ≤5 years old were 62% more likely to require repair; and 5...
July 10, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
Brittany Heggem-Perry, Maureen McMichael, Mauria O'Brien, Clara Moran
Bromethalin is a central nervous system toxin currently incorporated into several different rodenticides. In 2008, the EPA requested that manufacturers phase out second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. In response, manufacturers began to increase production of bromethalin-based rodenticides. It is likely that pet exposure to bromethalin will increase in the future. Bromethalin has no known antidote and tends to deposit in fat. Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) are being used with increasing frequency in both human and veterinary medicine to treat numerous acute systemic toxicities...
July 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Kimberly Bridges, Nicole Beckel, Claire Sharp, Laura Stern
A 5-month-old pit bull terrier was presented for evaluation of progressive lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia 45 hours after ingestion of 625 mg/kg body weight (BW) (9000 mg) of the antiviral medication, ribavirin. Abnormalities that were detected included dehydration, tachycardia, elevated liver enzymes, and prolonged prothrombin time. The dog was discharged after 5 days of aggressive supportive care consisting of intravenous fluids, antiemetics, gastroprotectants, hepatoprotectants, dextrose supplementation, and vitamin B/K1 supplementation...
May 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Joseph M Cook, Arwyn Edwards, Mark Bulling, Luis A J Mur, Sophie Cook, Jarishma K Gokul, Karen A Cameron, Michael Sweet, Tristram D L Irvine-Fynn
Microbial photoautotrophs on glaciers engineer the formation of granular microbial-mineral aggregates termed cryoconite which accelerate ice melt, creating quasi-cylindrical pits called 'cryoconite holes'. These act as biogeochemical reactors on the ice surface and provide habitats for remarkably active and diverse microbiota. Evolution of cryoconite holes towards an equilibrium depth is well known, yet interactions between microbial activity and hole morphology are currently weakly addressed. Here, we experimentally perturbed the depths and diameters of cryoconite holes on the Greenland Ice Sheet...
December 2016: Environmental Microbiology
S H Cannon, J K Levy, S K Kirk, P C Crawford, C M Leutenegger, J J Shuster, J Liu, R Chandrashekar
Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis...
May 2016: Veterinary Journal
Lisa M Gunter, Rebecca T Barber, Clive D L Wynne
Previous research has indicated that certain breeds of dogs stay longer in shelters than others. However, exactly how breed perception and identification influences potential adopters' decisions remains unclear. Current dog breed identification practices in animal shelters are often based upon information supplied by the relinquishing owner, or staff determination based on the dog's phenotype. However, discrepancies have been found between breed identification as typically assessed by welfare agencies and the outcome of DNA analysis...
2016: PloS One
Nolan P Banish, Summer M Burdick, Katherine R Moyer
Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours...
2016: PloS One
K R Olson, J K Levy, B Norby, M M Crandall, J E Broadhurst, S Jacks, R C Barton, M S Zimmerman
Shelter staff and veterinarians routinely make subjective dog breed identification based on appearance, but their accuracy regarding pit bull-type breeds is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure agreement among shelter staff in assigning pit bull-type breed designations to shelter dogs and to compare breed assignments with DNA breed signatures. In this prospective cross-sectional study, four staff members at each of four different shelters recorded their suspected breed(s) for 30 dogs; there was a total of 16 breed assessors and 120 dogs...
November 2015: Veterinary Journal
Mark A Prendes, Arash Jian-Amadi, Shu-Hong Chang, Solomon S Shaftel
PURPOSE: Canine bites frequently result in periocular injury. The authors aimed to further characterize the dog breeds, types of injuries inflicted, and treatment outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on all dog bites recorded in the University of Washington trauma registry from 2003 to 2013. Cases involving ocular injury were further investigated to identify ocular tissues affected, treatment patterns, and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 342 dog bite victims were identified, of whom 91 sustained ocular trauma (27%)...
July 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Shin Ae Park, Ken T Taylor, Allison L Zwingenberger, Christopher M Reilly, Chrisoula A Toupadakis, Carl F Marfurt, Kathryn L Good, Christopher J Murphy
OBJECTIVE: The lacrimal gland (LG) and the third eyelid gland (TELG) are two intraorbital glands that, in dogs, secrete the aqueous component of the tear film. Despite the central importance of these structures for maintaining ocular surface health, the gross anatomy of the glands remains understudied. We investigated the macroscopic morphometric characteristics of the LG and TELG in three different dog breeds. PROCEDURES: Twenty-six dog heads were dissected to expose the LG and TELG; the length, width, thickness, and weight of each were measured...
May 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Michael D Foster, John W Hudson
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present retrospective record review was to evaluate the patient demographics, treatment rendered, and long-term outcomes of patients injured in dog bite attacks to the oral and maxillofacial region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, a retrospective medical record review was conducted of patients treated by the oral and maxillofacial surgery department at the University of Tennessee Medical Center who had presented with injuries to the head, neck, and face region from dog bite attacks from February 1, 2006 to October 31, 2013...
May 2015: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
J A Gerdin, S P McDonough, R Reisman, J Scarlett
The authors reviewed the case circumstances, population characteristics, gross, and histopathologic findings in 40 cases of emaciated dogs with a suspected diagnosis of starvation. The dogs' estimated age ranged from 3 months to geriatric. Nineteen breeds were represented, including small-breed (n = 11), large-breed (n = 13), and pit bull-type (n = 16) dogs. The median body condition score was 1 out of 9 (Purina scale). Various diseases were identified as the cause of death in 7 dogs, while the cause of death in the other 33 dogs was starvation due to exogenous causes (SEC)...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Erin M Garvey, Denice K Twitchell, Rebecca Ragar, John C Egan, Ramin Jamshidi
BACKGROUND: Pediatric dog bite injuries are common and vary in severity. We sought to characterize predisposing factors, required interventions, and morbidity. METHODS: A prospective clinical database at a level one pediatric trauma center was reviewed for dog bite injuries over 74 consecutive months ending December 2013. This included all patients brought in by ambulance and/or seen by the trauma team. RESULTS: Of 650 dog bite incidents, 282 met the criteria for inclusion in the trauma database...
February 2015: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Ana Carolina Veiga Rodarte-Almeida, Simon Petersen-Jones, Ingeborg M Langohr, Laurence Occelli, Peterson T Dornbusch, Naoye Shiokawa, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the inheritance and phenotype of retinal dysplasia (RD) in the American pit bull terrier. ANIMALS STUDIED: A breeding colony established from a single female pure-bred American pit bull terrier dog with RD. PROCEDURES: A female pure-bred American pit bull terrier with RD was donated to the Veterinary Hospital of Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil. A breeding colony was established and the phenotype and inheritance of the condition investigated...
January 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
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