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Pit Bull

Karen M Vernau, Stanley L Marks, Maggie A Kuhn, William T N Culp, Tammy J Owens, G Diane Shelton, Tausif Siddiqui, Rachel Pollard, Peter C Belafsky
A 5-month-old female pit bull terrier dog evaluated for ataxia, progressive regurgitation, and recurrent aspiration pneumonia had markedly elevated creatine kinase activity, non-inflammatory generalized myopathy, and severe esophageal dysmotility. A narrow-field total laryngectomy was performed. The dog is doing well 30 months after surgery, and no longer has episodes of aspiration pneumonia, despite intermittent regurgitation. This case represents the first application of total laryngectomy for the prevention of chronic recurrent aspiration pneumonia in the dog...
July 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Michael S Golinko, Brian Arslanian, Joseph K Williams
Dog bite injuries remain a common form of pediatric trauma. This single-institution study of 1616 consecutive dog bite injuries over 4 years revealed a much higher prevalence of dog bites as compared with other similar centers. Though inpatient admission was rare (9.8%), 58% of all patients required laceration repair, primarily in the emergency department. Infants were more than 4 times as likely to be bitten by the family dog and more than 6 times as likely to be bitten in the head/neck region. Children ≤5 years old were 62% more likely to require repair; and 5...
July 10, 2016: Clinical Pediatrics
Brittany Heggem-Perry, Maureen McMichael, Mauria O'Brien, Clara Moran
Bromethalin is a central nervous system toxin currently incorporated into several different rodenticides. In 2008, the EPA requested that manufacturers phase out second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides. In response, manufacturers began to increase production of bromethalin-based rodenticides. It is likely that pet exposure to bromethalin will increase in the future. Bromethalin has no known antidote and tends to deposit in fat. Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILEs) are being used with increasing frequency in both human and veterinary medicine to treat numerous acute systemic toxicities...
July 2016: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Kimberly Bridges, Nicole Beckel, Claire Sharp, Laura Stern
A 5-month-old pit bull terrier was presented for evaluation of progressive lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia 45 hours after ingestion of 625 mg/kg body weight (BW) (9000 mg) of the antiviral medication, ribavirin. Abnormalities that were detected included dehydration, tachycardia, elevated liver enzymes, and prolonged prothrombin time. The dog was discharged after 5 days of aggressive supportive care consisting of intravenous fluids, antiemetics, gastroprotectants, hepatoprotectants, dextrose supplementation, and vitamin B/K1 supplementation...
May 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
J M Cook, A Edwards, M Bulling, L A J Mur, S Cook, J K Gokul, K A Cameron, M Sweet, T D L Irvine-Fynn
Microbial photoautotrophs on glaciers engineer the formation of granular microbial-mineral aggregates termed cryoconite which accelerate ice melt, creating quasi-cylindrical pits called 'cryoconite holes'. These act as biogeochemical reactors on the ice surface and provide habitats for remarkably active and diverse microbiota. Evolution of cryoconite holes towards an equilibrium depth is well known, yet interactions between microbial activity and hole morphology are currently weakly addressed. Here, we experimentally perturbed the depths and diameters of cryoconite holes on the Greenland Ice Sheet...
April 26, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
S H Cannon, J K Levy, S K Kirk, P C Crawford, C M Leutenegger, J J Shuster, J Liu, R Chandrashekar
Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis...
May 2016: Veterinary Journal
Lisa M Gunter, Rebecca T Barber, Clive D L Wynne
Previous research has indicated that certain breeds of dogs stay longer in shelters than others. However, exactly how breed perception and identification influences potential adopters' decisions remains unclear. Current dog breed identification practices in animal shelters are often based upon information supplied by the relinquishing owner, or staff determination based on the dog's phenotype. However, discrepancies have been found between breed identification as typically assessed by welfare agencies and the outcome of DNA analysis...
2016: PloS One
Nolan P Banish, Summer M Burdick, Katherine R Moyer
Portable antennas have become an increasingly common technique for tracking fish marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. We used logistic regression to evaluate how species, fish length, and physical habitat characteristics influence portable antenna detection efficiency in stream-dwelling brown trout (Salmo trutta), bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii) marked with 12-mm PIT tags. We redetected 56% (20/36) of brown trout, 34% (68/202) of bull trout, and 33% (20/61) of redband trout after a recovery period of 21 to 46 hours...
2016: PloS One
K R Olson, J K Levy, B Norby, M M Crandall, J E Broadhurst, S Jacks, R C Barton, M S Zimmerman
Shelter staff and veterinarians routinely make subjective dog breed identification based on appearance, but their accuracy regarding pit bull-type breeds is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure agreement among shelter staff in assigning pit bull-type breed designations to shelter dogs and to compare breed assignments with DNA breed signatures. In this prospective cross-sectional study, four staff members at each of four different shelters recorded their suspected breed(s) for 30 dogs; there was a total of 16 breed assessors and 120 dogs...
November 2015: Veterinary Journal
Mark A Prendes, Arash Jian-Amadi, Shu-Hong Chang, Solomon S Shaftel
PURPOSE: Canine bites frequently result in periocular injury. The authors aimed to further characterize the dog breeds, types of injuries inflicted, and treatment outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on all dog bites recorded in the University of Washington trauma registry from 2003 to 2013. Cases involving ocular injury were further investigated to identify ocular tissues affected, treatment patterns, and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 342 dog bite victims were identified, of whom 91 sustained ocular trauma (27%)...
July 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Shin Ae Park, Ken T Taylor, Allison L Zwingenberger, Christopher M Reilly, Chrisoula A Toupadakis, Carl F Marfurt, Kathryn L Good, Christopher J Murphy
OBJECTIVE: The lacrimal gland (LG) and the third eyelid gland (TELG) are two intraorbital glands that, in dogs, secrete the aqueous component of the tear film. Despite the central importance of these structures for maintaining ocular surface health, the gross anatomy of the glands remains understudied. We investigated the macroscopic morphometric characteristics of the LG and TELG in three different dog breeds. PROCEDURES: Twenty-six dog heads were dissected to expose the LG and TELG; the length, width, thickness, and weight of each were measured...
May 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Michael D Foster, John W Hudson
PURPOSE: The purpose of the present retrospective record review was to evaluate the patient demographics, treatment rendered, and long-term outcomes of patients injured in dog bite attacks to the oral and maxillofacial region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, a retrospective medical record review was conducted of patients treated by the oral and maxillofacial surgery department at the University of Tennessee Medical Center who had presented with injuries to the head, neck, and face region from dog bite attacks from February 1, 2006 to October 31, 2013...
May 2015: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
J A Gerdin, S P McDonough, R Reisman, J Scarlett
The authors reviewed the case circumstances, population characteristics, gross, and histopathologic findings in 40 cases of emaciated dogs with a suspected diagnosis of starvation. The dogs' estimated age ranged from 3 months to geriatric. Nineteen breeds were represented, including small-breed (n = 11), large-breed (n = 13), and pit bull-type (n = 16) dogs. The median body condition score was 1 out of 9 (Purina scale). Various diseases were identified as the cause of death in 7 dogs, while the cause of death in the other 33 dogs was starvation due to exogenous causes (SEC)...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Erin M Garvey, Denice K Twitchell, Rebecca Ragar, John C Egan, Ramin Jamshidi
BACKGROUND: Pediatric dog bite injuries are common and vary in severity. We sought to characterize predisposing factors, required interventions, and morbidity. METHODS: A prospective clinical database at a level one pediatric trauma center was reviewed for dog bite injuries over 74 consecutive months ending December 2013. This included all patients brought in by ambulance and/or seen by the trauma team. RESULTS: Of 650 dog bite incidents, 282 met the criteria for inclusion in the trauma database...
February 2015: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Ana Carolina Veiga Rodarte-Almeida, Simon Petersen-Jones, Ingeborg M Langohr, Laurence Occelli, Peterson T Dornbusch, Naoye Shiokawa, Fabiano Montiani-Ferreira
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the inheritance and phenotype of retinal dysplasia (RD) in the American pit bull terrier. ANIMALS STUDIED: A breeding colony established from a single female pure-bred American pit bull terrier dog with RD. PROCEDURES: A female pure-bred American pit bull terrier with RD was donated to the Veterinary Hospital of Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil. A breeding colony was established and the phenotype and inheritance of the condition investigated...
January 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Gerard P Clancy
Market- and legislation-driven health reforms are being implemented across the United States. Within this time of great change for health care delivery systems and medical schools lie opportunities to address the country's long-standing health inequities by using community needs assessments, health information technologies, and new models for care and payment. In this Commentary, the author, a university regional campus leader, shares several difficult personal experiences to demonstrate that health equity work undertaken by academic institutions also requires institutional leaders to pay attention to and gain an understanding of issues that go beyond public health data...
April 2015: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Daniel C O'Brien, Tyler B Andre, Aaron D Robinson, Lane D Squires, Travis T Tollefson
PURPOSE: To identify which patients and canines are involved in dog bites of the head and neck, and how they impact health systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single center, retrospective cohort study conducted from January 2012 to June 2013 in an academic, tertiary care center situated between multiple suburban and urban communities. Patients were identified by queried search for all bite-related diagnoses codes. RESULTS: 334 unique dog bites were identified, of which 101 involved the head and neck...
January 2015: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Jim A Taylor, Maris S Lee, Matthew E Nicholson, Robert B Justin
An 11-year-old spayed female pit bull terrier was presented with a 2-month history of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and panting. Serum chemistry, blood and urine analysis, and tests for hyperadrenocorticism suggested an adrenal tumor. Abdominal ultrasound identified a mass caudal to the right kidney. The mass was completely excised and histopathology was consistent with endocrine carcinoma. Three years later there was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis.
September 2014: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Stephen R Sullivan, Helena O Taylor
A 19-year-old woman presented with amputation of her left ear by a pit bull (Panels A and B). The patient's tetanus vaccination and the dog's rabies vaccination were up to date. The ear was débrided and replanted by microvascular anastomosis of a 0.3-mm branch of the posterior auricular artery...
April 17, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Christy L Hoffman, Natalie Harrison, London Wolff, Carri Westgarth
Bull breeds are commonly kept as companion animals, but the pit bull terrier is restricted by breed-specific legislation (BSL) in parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom. Shelter workers must decide which breed(s) a dog is. This decision may influence the dog's fate, particularly in places with BSL. In this study, shelter workers in the United States and United Kingdom were shown pictures of 20 dogs and were asked what breed each dog was, how they determined each dog's breed, whether each dog was a pit bull, and what they expected the fate of each dog to be...
2014: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
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