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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821188/panmixia-and-limited-interspecific-introgression-in-coyotes-canis-latrans-from-west-virginia-and-virginia-usa
#1
Justin H Bohling, Lauren L Mastro, Jennifer R Adams, Eric M Gese, Sheldon F Owen, Lisette P Waits
The expansion of coyotes (Canis latrans) into the eastern United States has had major consequences for ecological communities and wildlife managers. Despite this, there has been little investigation of the genetics of coyotes across much of this region, especially outside of the northeast. Understanding patterns of genetic structure and interspecific introgression would provide insights into the colonization history of the species, its response to the modern environment, and interactions with other canids. We examined the genetic characteristics of 121 coyotes from the mid-Atlantic states of West Virginia and Virginia by genotyping 17 polymorphic nuclear DNA microsatellite loci...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814297/genotyping-and-comparative-pathology-of-spirocerca-in-black-backed-jackals-canis-mesomelas-in-south-africa
#2
M M Bumby, M C Williams, J C A Steyl, R Harrison-White, H Lutermann, G T Fosgate, P J de Waal, J Mitha, S J Clift
BACKGROUND: The pathology of spirocercosis, a disease caused by the infestation of carnivores with the nematode Spirocerca lupi, has been extensively described in domestic dogs and coyotes. However, it has not been described in wild carnivores in South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether black-backed jackals are a host for Spirocerca species and to provide a detailed description of the associated pathology. Jackals were also stratified according to age and the Spirocerca species recovered were characterized using molecular techniques...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692394/using-an-emergency-department-syndromic-surveillance-system-to-evaluate-reporting-of-potential-rabies-exposures-illinois-2013-2015
#3
Kelley Bemis, Mabel Frias, Megan Toth Patel, Demian Christiansen
OBJECTIVES: Mandatory reporting of potential rabies exposures and initiation of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) allow local health authorities to monitor PEP administration for errors. Our objectives were to use an emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance system to (1) estimate reporting compliance for exposure to rabies in suburban Cook County, Illinois, and (2) initiate interventions to improve reporting and reassess compliance. METHODS: We queried ED records from 45 acute care hospitals in Cook County and surrounding areas from January 1, 2013, through June 30, 2015, for chief complaints or discharge diagnoses pertaining to rabies, PEP, or contact with a wild mammal (eg, bat, raccoon, skunk, fox, or coyote)...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639466/genetic-characterization-of-sarcoptes-scabiei-from-black-bears-ursus-americanus-and-other-hosts-in-eastern-united-states
#4
Sarah Peltier, Justin D Brown, Mark Ternent, Kevin D Niedringhaus, Krysten Schuler, Elizabeth Bunting, Megan Kirchgessner, Michael John Yabsley
Since the early 1990s there has been an increase in the number of cases and geographic expansion of severe mange in the black bear (Ursus americanus) population in Pennsylvania. Although there are 3 species of mites associated with mange in bears, Sarcoptes scabiei has been identified as the etiologic agent in these Pennsylvania cases. Historically S. scabiei-associated mange in bears has been uncommon and sporadic although it is widespread and relatively common in canid populations. To better understand this recent emergence of sarcoptic mange in bears in Pennsylvania and nearby states, we genetically characterized S...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630899/comment-on-whole-genome-sequence-analysis-shows-two-endemic-species-of-north-american-wolf-are-admixtures-of-the-coyote-and-gray-wolf
#5
Paul A Hohenlohe, Linda Y Rutledge, Lisette P Waits, Kimberly R Andrews, Jennifer R Adams, Joseph W Hinton, Ronald M Nowak, Brent R Patterson, Adrian P Wydeven, Paul A Wilson, Brad N White
Whole-genome data do not support a recent hybrid origin for red and eastern wolves.
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628436/contaminated-stream-water-as-source-for-escherichia-coli-o157-illness-in-children
#6
William S Probert, Glen M Miller, Katya E Ledin
In May 2016, an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infections occurred among children who had played in a stream flowing through a park. Analysis of E. coli isolates from the patients, stream water, and deer and coyote scat showed that feces from deer were the most likely source of contamination.
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616198/seed-dispersal-of-diospyros-virginiana-in-the-past-and-the-present-evidence-for-a-generalist-evolutionary-strategy
#7
Mimi Rebein, Charli N Davis, Helena Abad, Taylor Stone, Jillian Del Sol, Natalie Skinner, Matthew D Moran
Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and coyote (Canis latrans), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420038/retrospective-evaluation-of-coyote-attacks-in-dogs-154-cases-1997-2012
#8
Virginia M Frauenthal, Philip Bergman, Robert J Murtaugh
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation and outcome of known attacks in client-owned dogs caused by the common coyote, Canis latrans. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Private referral hospital. ANIMALS: One hundred fifty-four client-owned dogs known to be attacked by coyotes. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Records from a private referral hospital from May 1997 through December 2012 were reviewed...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410591/eurasian-golden-jackal-as-host-of-canine-vector-borne-protists
#9
Barbora Mitková, Kristýna Hrazdilová, Gianluca D'Amico, Georg Gerhard Duscher, Franz Suchentrunk, Pavel Forejtek, Călin Mircea Gherman, Ioana Adriana Matei, Angela Monica Ionică, Aikaterini Alexandra Daskalaki, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Jan Votýpka, Pavel Hulva, David Modrý
BACKGROUND: Jackals are medium-sized canids from the wolf-like clade, exhibiting a unique combination of ancestral morphotypes, broad trophic niches, and close phylogenetic relationships with the wolf and dog. Thus, they represent a potential host of several pathogens with diverse transmission routes. Recently, populations of the Eurasian golden jackal Canis aureus have expanded into the Western Palaearctic, including most of Europe. The aim of our study was to examine Eurasian golden jackals from Romania, Czech Republic and Austria for a wide spectrum of vector-borne protists and to evaluate the role of this species as a reservoir of disease for domestic dogs and/or humans...
April 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369822/improving-the-assessment-of-predator-functional-responses-by-considering-alternate-prey-and-predator-interactions
#10
K Chan, S Boutin, T J Hossie, C J Krebs, M O'Donoghue, D L Murray
To improve understanding of the complex and variable patterns of predator foraging behavior in natural systems, it is critical to determine how density-dependent predation and predator hunting success are mediated by alternate prey or predator interference. Despite considerable theory and debate seeking to place predator-prey interactions in a more realistic context, few empirical studies have quantified the role of alternate prey or intraspecific interactions on predator-prey dynamics. We assessed functional responses of two similarly sized, sympatric carnivores, lynx (Lynx canadensis) and coyotes (Canis latrans), foraging on common primary (snowshoe hares; Lepus americanus) and alternate (red squirrels; Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) prey in a natural system...
March 29, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369133/isotopic-ecology-of-coyotes-from-scat-and-road-kill-carcasses-a-complementary-approach-to-feeding-experiments
#11
Rachel E B Reid, Paul L Koch
Scat is frequently used to study animal diets because it is easy to find and collect, but one concern is that gross fecal analysis (GFA) techniques exaggerate the importance of small-bodied prey to mammalian mesopredator diets. To capitalize on the benefits of scat, we suggest the analysis of scat carbon and nitrogen isotope values (δ13C and δ15N). This technique offers researchers a non-invasive method to gather short-term dietary information. We conducted three interrelated studies to validate the use of isotopic values from coyote scat: 1) we determined tissue-to-tissue apparent C and N isotope enrichment factors (ε13* and ε15*) for coyotes from road kill animals (n = 4); 2) we derived diet-to-scat isotope discrimination factors for coyotes; and 3) we used field collected coyote scats (n = 12) to compare estimates of coyote dietary proportions from stable isotope mixing models with estimates from two GFA techniques...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365457/the-history-of-rabies-in-the-western-hemisphere
#12
REVIEW
Andres Velasco-Villa, Matthew R Mauldin, Mang Shi, Luis E Escobar, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Inger Damon, Victoria A Olson, Daniel G Streicker, Ginny Emerson
Before the introduction of control programs in the 20th century, rabies in domestic dogs occurred throughout the Western Hemisphere. However, historical records and phylogenetic analysis of multiple virus isolates indicate that, before the arrival of the first European colonizers, rabies virus was likely present only in bats and skunks. Canine rabies was either rare or absent among domestic dogs of Native Americans, and first arrived when many new dog breeds were imported during the period of European colonization...
March 29, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358635/prevalence-of-alaria-infection-in-companion-animals-in-north-central-oklahoma-from-2006-through-2015-and-detection-in-wildlife
#13
Eileen M Johnson, Yoko Nagamori, Rebecca A Duncan-Decocq, Patrick N Whitley, Akhilesh Ramachandran, Mason V Reichard
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of Alaria infection in cats and dogs in north central Oklahoma over various periods and investigate whether wild animal species in this region were also infected. DESIGN Combined cross-sectional study and case series. SAMPLE Results of parasitological testing of fecal samples from 5,417 client-owned dogs and 1,246 client-owned cats (2006 through 2014); fecal samples from 837 shelter or rescue dogs and 331 shelter or rescue cats (2013 and 2014) and 268 feral cats (2015); tongue or jowl samples from cadavers of 43 wild pigs, 3 opossums, and 1 raccoon; and intestinal tract segments from cadavers of 48 cats and 5 coyotes...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301480/management-and-modeling-approaches-for-controlling-raccoon-rabies-the-road-to-elimination
#14
REVIEW
Stacey A Elmore, Richard B Chipman, Dennis Slate, Kathryn P Huyvaert, Kurt C VerCauteren, Amy T Gilbert
Rabies is an ancient viral disease that significantly impacts human and animal health throughout the world. In the developing parts of the world, dog bites represent the highest risk of rabies infection to people, livestock, and other animals. However, in North America, where several rabies virus variants currently circulate in wildlife, human contact with the raccoon rabies variant leads to the highest per capita population administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Previous rabies variant elimination in raccoons (Canada), foxes (Europe), and dogs and coyotes (United States) demonstrates that elimination of the raccoon variant from the eastern US is feasible, given an understanding of rabies control costs and benefits and the availability of proper tools...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295537/investigation-of-techniques-to-measure-cortisol-and-testosterone-concentrations-in-coyote-hair
#15
Christopher J Schell, Julie K Young, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Jill M Mateo, Rachel M Santymire
Long-term noninvasive sampling for endangered or elusive species is particularly difficult due to the challenge of collecting fecal samples before hormone metabolite desiccation, as well as the difficulty in collecting a large enough sample size from all individuals. Hair samples may provide an environmentally stable alternative that provides a long-term assessment of stress and reproductive hormone profiles for captive, zoo, and wild mammals. Here, we extracted and analyzed both cortisol and testosterone in coyote (Canis latrans) hair for the first time...
March 10, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182234/ancestry-specific-methylation-patterns-in-admixed-offspring-from-an-experimental-coyote-and-gray-wolf-cross
#16
Bridgett vonHoldt, Elizabeth Heppenheimer, Vladimir Petrenko, Paula Croonquist, Linda Y Rutledge
Reduced fitness of admixed individuals is typically attributed to genetic incompatibilities. Although mismatched genomes can lead to fitness changes, in some cases the reduction in hybrid fitness is subtle. The potential role of transcriptional regulation in admixed genomes could provide a mechanistic explanation for these discrepancies, but evidence is lacking for nonmodel organisms. Here, we explored the intersection of genetics and gene regulation in admixed genomes derived from an experimental cross between a western gray wolf and western coyote...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135133/use-of-remote-cameras-to-monitor-the-potential-prevalence-of-sarcoptic-mange-in-southern-texas-usa
#17
Kyle Brewster, Scott E Henke, Clay Hilton, Alfonso Ortega-S
Sarcoptic mange, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei , is a common, highly contagious skin disease that has been reported from more than 100 species of mammals, including humans. Our objectives were to 1) determine the prevalence of sarcoptic mange within mammals from southern Texas, and 2) determine the efficacy of using remote cameras to estimate mange prevalence. We collected remote camera photographs from a 64-km(2) area and blood and skin scrapings from 166 mammals representing 12 species in southern Texas, US during 2012-13...
April 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090753/inferring-infection-hazard-in-wildlife-populations-by-linking-data-across-individual-and-population-scales
#18
Kim M Pepin, Shannon L Kay, Ben D Golas, Susan S Shriner, Amy T Gilbert, Ryan S Miller, Andrea L Graham, Steven Riley, Paul C Cross, Michael D Samuel, Mevin B Hooten, Jennifer A Hoeting, James O Lloyd-Smith, Colleen T Webb, Michael G Buhnerkempe
Our ability to infer unobservable disease-dynamic processes such as force of infection (infection hazard for susceptible hosts) has transformed our understanding of disease transmission mechanisms and capacity to predict disease dynamics. Conventional methods for inferring FOI estimate a time-averaged value and are based on population-level processes. Because many pathogens exhibit epidemic cycling and FOI is the result of processes acting across the scales of individuals and populations, a flexible framework that extends to epidemic dynamics and links within-host processes to FOI is needed...
March 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086860/nicotiana-attenuata-data-hub-nadh-an-integrative-platform-for-exploring-genomic-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-data-in-wild-tobacco
#19
Thomas Brockmöller, Zhihao Ling, Dapeng Li, Emmanuel Gaquerel, Ian T Baldwin, Shuqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Nicotiana attenuata (coyote tobacco) is an ecological model for studying plant-environment interactions and plant gene function under real-world conditions. During the last decade, large amounts of genomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic data have been generated with this plant which has provided new insights into how native plants interact with herbivores, pollinators and microbes. However, an integrative and open access platform that allows for the efficient mining of these -omics data remained unavailable until now...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064464/ungulate-predation-and-ecological-roles-of-wolves-and-coyotes-in-eastern-north-america
#20
John F Benson, Karen M Loveless, Linda Y Rutledge, Brent R Patterson
Understanding the ecological roles of species that influence ecosystem processes is a central goal of ecology and conservation biology. Eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) have ascended to the role of apex predator across much of eastern North America since the extirpation of wolves (Canis spp.) and there has been considerable confusion regarding their ability to prey on ungulates and their ecological niche relative to wolves. Eastern wolves (C. lycaon) are thought to have been the historical top predator in eastern deciduous forests and have previously been characterized as deer specialists that are inefficient predators of moose because of their smaller size relative to gray wolves (C...
April 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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