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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738078/tick-borne-disease-risk-in-a-forest-food-web
#1
Richard S Ostfeld, Taal Levi, Felicia Keesing, Kelly Oggenfuss, Charles D Canham
Changes to the community ecology of hosts for zoonotic pathogens, particularly rodents, are likely to influence the emergence and prevalence of zoonotic diseases worldwide. However, the complex interactions between abiotic factors, pathogens, vectors, hosts, and both food resources and predators of hosts are difficult to disentangle. Here we (1) use 19 years of data from six large field plots in southeastern New York to compare the effects of hypothesized drivers of interannual variation in Lyme disease risk, including the abundance of acorns, rodents, and deer, as well as a series of climate variables; and (2) employ landscape epidemiology to explore how variation in predator community structure and forest cover influences spatial variation in the infection prevalence of ticks for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, and two other important tick-borne pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti...
May 8, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721269/size-assortative-choice-and-mate-availability-influences-hybridization-between-red-wolves-canis-rufus-and-coyotes-canis-latrans
#2
Joseph W Hinton, John L Gittleman, Frank T van Manen, Michael J Chamberlain
Anthropogenic hybridization of historically isolated taxa has become a primary conservation challenge for many imperiled species. Indeed, hybridization between red wolves ( Canis rufus ) and coyotes ( Canis latrans ) poses a significant challenge to red wolf recovery. We considered seven hypotheses to assess factors influencing hybridization between red wolves and coyotes via pair-bonding between the two species. Because long-term monogamy and defense of all-purpose territories are core characteristics of both species, mate choice has long-term consequences...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695520/a-bead-based-flow-cytometric-assay-for-monitoring-yersinia-pestis-exposure-in-wildlife
#3
Jeffrey C Chandler, Laurie A Baeten, Doreen L Griffin, Thomas Gidlewski, Thomas J DeLiberto, Jeannine M Petersen, Ryan Pappert, John W Young, Sarah N Bevins
Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague, and is considered a category A priority pathogen due to its potential for high transmissibility and the significant morbidity and mortality it causes in humans. Y. pestis is endemic to the Western United States and much of the world, necessitating programs to monitor for this pathogen on the landscape. Elevated human risk of plague infection has been spatially correlated with spikes in seropositive wildlife numbers, particularly rodent-eating carnivores which are frequently in contact with the enzootic hosts and the associated arthropod vectors of Y...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676861/spatial-processes-decouple-management-from-objectives-in-a-heterogeneous-landscape-predator-control-as-a-case-study
#4
Peter J Mahoney, Julie K Young, Kent R Hersey, Randy T Larsen, Brock R McMillan, David C Stoner
Predator control is often implemented with the intent of disrupting top-down regulation in sensitive prey populations. However, ambiguity surrounding the efficacy of predator management, as well as the strength of top-down effects of predators in general, is often exacerbated by the spatially implicit analytical approaches used in assessing data with explicit spatial structure. Here, we highlight the importance of considering spatial context in the case of a predator control study in south-central Utah. We assessed the spatial match between aerial removal risk in coyotes (Canis latrans) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) resource selection during parturition using a spatially explicit, multi-level Bayesian model...
April 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672162/coyot1-clinic-home-telemedicine-increases-young-adult-engagement-in-diabetes-care
#5
Mark W Reid, Subramanian Krishnan, Cari Berget, Cindy Cain, John Fred Thomas, Georgeanna J Klingensmith, Jennifer K Raymond
BACKGROUND: Young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) experience poor glycemic control, disengagement in care, and are often lost to the medical system well into their adult years. Diabetes providers need a new approach to working with the population. The goal of this study was to determine whether an innovative shared telemedicine appointment care model (CoYoT1 Clinic [pronounced as "coyote"; Colorado Young Adults with T1D]) for young adults with T1D improves care engagement, satisfaction, and adherence to American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines regarding appointment frequency...
April 19, 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621335/impacts-of-human-recreation-on-carnivores-in-protected-areas
#6
Angela Darnell Baker, Paul L Leberg
Mammalian carnivores can be particularly sensitive to human disturbance, even within protected areas (PAs). Our objective was to understand how human disturbance affects carnivore communities in southern Arizona, USA by studying habitat occupancy based on data collected using non-invasive methods in three PAs with different levels of human disturbance. Carnivore occupancy varied based on human disturbance variables (i.e., roads, trails, etc.). Common carnivore species (coyotes, gray foxes, and bobcats) had high occupancy probability in highly disturbed sites, while all other carnivore species had a higher probability of occupancy in low disturbance protected areas...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498900/evidence-of-two-cocirculating-canine-distemper-virus-strains-in-mesocarnivores-from-northern-colorado
#7
Darren J Wostenberg, Nikki Walker, Karen A Fox, Terry R Spraker, Antoinette J Piaggio, Amy Gilbert
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious pathogen that principally infects wildlife and domestic carnivores. Peridomestic species such as raccoons ( Procyon lotor) experience outbreaks with high mortality. Clinical signs of infection include anorexia, fever, respiratory infection, and neurologic complications. Although not zoonotic, CDV poses a high risk to unvaccinated domestic animals and the conservation of endangered species. During 2013-2016, we opportunistically collected wild and domestic carnivore specimens through a rabies surveillance program in northern Colorado...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491969/influence-of-free-water-availability-on-a-desert-carnivore-and-herbivore
#8
Bryan M Kluever, Eric M Gese, Steven J Dempsey
Anthropogenic manipulation of finite resources on the landscape to benefit individual species or communities is commonly employed by conservation and management agencies. One such action in arid regions is the construction and maintenance of water developments (i.e., wildlife guzzlers) adding free water on the landscape to buttress local populations, influence animal movements, or affect distributions of certain species of interest. Despite their prevalence, the utility of wildlife guzzlers remains largely untested...
April 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471052/revisiting-rabies-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-through-infecting-balb-c-mice-with-live-rabies-virus
#9
Yunlong Qin, Todd G Smith, Felix Jackson, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Clint N Morgan, Victoria Olson, Christina L Hutson, Xianfu Wu
This study investigates the production of rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody after virus infection through a mouse model. The BALB/c mice from different age groups (three, five, seven week old) were intramuscularly inoculated with live rabies virus (TX coyote 323R). Without pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), we found there is a decreased fatality with increased age of animals, the mortalities are 60%, 50%, and 30%, respectively. Interestingly, through assay of rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), the results showed that all the animals that succumbed to rabies challenge, except one, developed circulating neutralizing antibodies, and all the healthy animals, except two, did not generate virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA)...
March 15, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436500/seed-ingestion-and-germination-in-rattlesnakes-overlooked-agents-of-rescue-and-secondary-dispersal
#10
Randall S Reiserer, Gordon W Schuett, Harry W Greene
Seed dispersal is a key evolutionary process and a central theme in the population ecology of terrestrial plants. The primary producers of most land-based ecosystems are propagated by and maintained through various mechanisms of seed dispersal that involve both abiotic and biotic modes of transportation. By far the most common biotic seed transport mechanism is zoochory, whereby seeds, or fruits containing them, are dispersed through the activities of animals. Rodents are one group of mammals that commonly prey on seeds (granivores) and play a critical, often destructive, role in primary dispersal and the dynamics of plant communities...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379688/are-pumas-subordinate-carnivores-and-does-it-matter
#11
L Mark Elbroch, Anna Kusler
Background: Interspecific competition affects species fitness, community assemblages and structure, and the geographic distributions of species. Established dominance hierarchies among species mitigate the need for fighting and contribute to the realized niche for subordinate species. This is especially important for apex predators, many of which simultaneous contend with the costs of competition with more dominant species and the costs associated with human hunting and lethal management...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364916/coexistence-of-coyotes-canis-latrans-and-red-foxes-vulpes-vulpes-in-an-urban-landscape
#12
Marcus A Mueller, David Drake, Maximilian L Allen
Urban environments are increasing worldwide and are inherently different than their rural counterparts, with a variety of effects on wildlife due to human presence, increased habitat fragmentation, movement barriers, and access to anthropogenic food sources. Effective management of urban wildlife requires an understanding of how urbanization affects their behavior and ecology. The spatial activity and interactions of urban wildlife, however, have not been as rigorously researched as in rural areas. From January 2015 to December 2016, we captured, radio-collared, and tracked 11 coyotes and 12 red foxes in Madison, WI...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281673/taxonomic-differences-of-gut-microbiomes-drive-cellulolytic-enzymatic-potential-within-hind-gut-fermenting-mammals
#13
Emma C L Finlayson-Trick, Landon J Getz, Patrick D Slaine, Mackenzie Thornbury, Emily Lamoureux, Jamie Cook, Morgan G I Langille, Lois E Murray, Craig McCormick, John R Rohde, Zhenyu Cheng
Host diet influences the diversity and metabolic activities of the gut microbiome. Previous studies have shown that the gut microbiome provides a wide array of enzymes that enable processing of diverse dietary components. Because the primary diet of the porcupine, Erethizon dorsatum, is lignified plant material, we reasoned that the porcupine microbiome would be replete with enzymes required to degrade lignocellulose. Here, we report on the bacterial composition in the porcupine microbiome using 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259277/dental-caries-in-the-fossil-record-a-window-to-the-evolution-of-dietary-plasticity-in-an-extinct-bear
#14
Borja Figueirido, Alejandro Pérez-Ramos, Blaine W Schubert, Francisco Serrano, Aisling B Farrell, Francisco J Pastor, Aline A Neves, Alejandro Romero
During the late Pleistocene of North America (≈36,000 to 10,000 years ago), saber-toothed cats, American lions, dire wolves, and coyotes competed for prey resources at Rancho La Brea (RLB). Despite the fact that the giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus) was the largest land carnivoran present in the fauna, there is no evidence that it competed with these other carnivores for prey at the site. Here, for the first time, we report carious lesions preserved in specimens of A. simus, recovered from RLB. Our results suggest that the population of A...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225404/setting-an-evolutionary-trap-could-the-hider-strategy-be-maladaptive-for-white-tailed-deer
#15
M Colter Chitwood, Marcus A Lashley, Christopher E Moorman, Christopher S DePerno
An evolutionary trap occurs when an organism makes a formerly adaptive decision that now results in a maladaptive outcome. Such traps can be induced by anthropogenic environmental changes, with nonnative species introductions being a leading cause. The recent establishment of coyotes ( Canis latrans ) into the southeastern USA has the potential to change white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) population dynamics through direct predation and behavioral adaptation. We used movement rate and bedsite characteristics of radiocollared neonates to evaluate their antipredator strategies in the context of novel predation risk in a structurally homogeneous, fire-maintained ecosystem...
2017: Journal of Ethology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182674/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-diversity-and-ancestry-of-korean-dogs
#16
Bong Hwan Choi, Hasini I Wijayananda, Soo Hyun Lee, Doo Ho Lee, Jong Seok Kim, Seok Il Oh, Eung Woo Park, Cheul Koo Lee, Seung Hwan Lee
There are various hypotheses on dog domestication based on archeological and genetic studies. Although many studies have been conducted on the origin of dogs, the existing literature about the ancestry, diversity, and population structure of Korean dogs is sparse. Therefore, this study is focused on the origin, diversity and population structure of Korean dogs. The study sample comprised four major categories, including non-dogs (coyotes and wolves), ancient, modern and Korean dogs. Selected samples were genotyped using an Illumina CanineHD array containing 173,662 single nucleotide polymorphisms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167983/climate-change-can-alter-predator-prey-dynamics-and-population-viability-of-prey
#17
Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, James A Schaefer, Michael J L Peers, E Hance Ellington, Matthew A Mumma, Nathaniel D Rayl, Shane P Mahoney, Dennis L Murray
For many organisms, climate change can directly drive population declines, but it is less clear how such variation may influence populations indirectly through modified biotic interactions. For instance, how will climate change alter complex, multi-species relationships that are modulated by climatic variation and that underlie ecosystem-level processes? Caribou (Rangifer tarandus), a keystone species in Newfoundland, Canada, provides a useful model for unravelling potential and complex long-term implications of climate change on biotic interactions and population change...
January 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110170/distribution-and-host-associations-of-ixodid-ticks-collected-from-wildlife-in-florida-usa
#18
Jeffrey C Hertz, Bambi C Ferree Clemons, Cynthia C Lord, Sandra A Allan, Phillip E Kaufman
A tick survey was conducted to document tick-host associations with Florida (USA) wildlife, and to determine the relative abundance and distribution of ixodid ticks throughout the state. The survey was conducted using collection kits distributed to licensed Florida hunters as well as the examination of archived specimens from ongoing state wildlife research programs. Collected tick samples were obtained from 66% of Florida counties and were collected from nine wildlife hosts, including black bear, bobcat, coyote, deer, gray fox, Florida panther, raccoon, swine, and wild turkey...
October 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074881/rancher-reported-efficacy-of-lethal-and-non-lethal-livestock-predation-mitigation-strategies-for-a-suite-of-carnivores
#19
J D Scasta, B Stam, J L Windh
Pastoralists have dealt with livestock losses from predators for millennia, yet effective mitigation strategies that balance wildlife conservation and sustainable agriculture are still needed today. In Wyoming, USA, 274 ranchers responded to a retrospective survey, and rated the efficacy of predation mitigation strategies for foxes, dogs, coyotes, wolves, bobcats, mountain lions, bears, and birds (buzzards, eagles, hawks, ravens). Rancher reported efficacy of mitigation varied by predator species, mitigation strategy, and lethality of strategies, but not livestock type...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061166/toxoplasma-gondii-seroprevalence-and-genotype-diversity-in-select-wildlife-species-from-the-southeastern-united-states
#20
Richard W Gerhold, Pooja Saraf, Alycia Chapman, Xuan Zou, Graham Hickling, William H Stiver, Allan Houston, Marcy Souza, Chunlei Su
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects humans and other animals. Previous studies indicate some genotypes of T. gondii are more frequently isolated in wildlife than agricultural animals, suggesting a wild/feral animal diversity model. To determine seroprevalence and genetic diversity of T. gondii in southeastern US wildlife, we collected sera from 471 wild animals, including 453 mammals and 18 birds, between 2011 and 2014. These serum samples were assayed for T...
October 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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