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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110170/distribution-and-host-associations-of-ixodid-ticks-collected-from-wildlife-in-florida-usa
#1
Jeffrey C Hertz, Bambi C Ferree Clemons, Cynthia C Lord, Sandra A Allan, Phillip E Kaufman
A tick survey was conducted to document tick-host associations with Florida (USA) wildlife, and to determine the relative abundance and distribution of ixodid ticks throughout the state. The survey was conducted using collection kits distributed to licensed Florida hunters as well as the examination of archived specimens from ongoing state wildlife research programs. Collected tick samples were obtained from 66% of Florida counties and were collected from nine wildlife hosts, including black bear, bobcat, coyote, deer, gray fox, Florida panther, raccoon, swine, and wild turkey...
November 6, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074881/rancher-reported-efficacy-of-lethal-and-non-lethal-livestock-predation-mitigation-strategies-for-a-suite-of-carnivores
#2
J D Scasta, B Stam, J L Windh
Pastoralists have dealt with livestock losses from predators for millennia, yet effective mitigation strategies that balance wildlife conservation and sustainable agriculture are still needed today. In Wyoming, USA, 274 ranchers responded to a retrospective survey, and rated the efficacy of predation mitigation strategies for foxes, dogs, coyotes, wolves, bobcats, mountain lions, bears, and birds (buzzards, eagles, hawks, ravens). Rancher reported efficacy of mitigation varied by predator species, mitigation strategy, and lethality of strategies, but not livestock type...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061166/toxoplasma-gondii-seroprevalence-and-genotype-diversity-in-select-wildlife-species-from-the-southeastern-united-states
#3
Richard W Gerhold, Pooja Saraf, Alycia Chapman, Xuan Zou, Graham Hickling, William H Stiver, Allan Houston, Marcy Souza, Chunlei Su
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite that infects humans and other animals. Previous studies indicate some genotypes of T. gondii are more frequently isolated in wildlife than agricultural animals, suggesting a wild/feral animal diversity model. To determine seroprevalence and genetic diversity of T. gondii in southeastern US wildlife, we collected sera from 471 wild animals, including 453 mammals and 18 birds, between 2011 and 2014. These serum samples were assayed for T...
October 23, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046813/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-and-microsatellites-in-the-canine-glutathione-s-transferase-pi-1-gstp1-gene-promoter
#4
James Sacco, Sarah Mann, Keller Toral
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms within the glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene affect the elimination of toxic xenobiotics by the GSTP1 enzyme. In dogs, exposure to environmental chemicals that may be GSTP1 substrates is associated with cancer. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic variability in the GSTP1 promoter in a diverse population of 278 purebred dogs, compare the incidence of any variants found between breeds, and predict their effects on gene expression...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038862/examining-spatial-patterns-of-selection-and-use-for-an-altered-predator-guild
#5
Matthew A Mumma, Joseph D Holbrook, Nathaniel D Rayl, Christopher J Zieminski, Todd K Fuller, John F Organ, Shane P Mahoney, Lisette P Waits
Anthropogenic disturbances have altered species' distributions potentially impacting interspecific interactions. Interference competition is when one species denies a competing species access to a resource. One mechanism of interference competition is aggression, which can result in altered space-use of a subordinate species due to the threat of harm, otherwise known as a 'landscape of fear'. Alternatively, subordinates might outcompete dominant species in resource-poor environments via a superior ability to extract resources...
December 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030315/natural-history-of-ixodes-affinis-in-virginia
#6
Robyn M Nadolny, Holly D Gaff
The ixodid tick species Ixodes affinis is expanding its range northward, changing the tick community population dynamics in the Mid-Atlantic United States. We present five years of surveillance on newly established populations of I. affinis throughout southeastern Virginia and discuss the habitat and host associations of I. affinis in this northernmost extent of its range. We found that I. affinis populations tend to persist once they are established, and populations tend to increase as ecological succession progresses, provided a vegetated understory persists...
September 29, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988304/levels-of-plasma-and-fecal-glucocorticoid-metabolites-following-an-acth-challenge-in-male-and-female-coyotes-canis-latrans
#7
Erika T Stevenson, Eric M Gese, Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Susannah S French
Knowledge of endocrine stress responses can be advantageous for understanding how animals respond to their environment. One tool in wildlife endocrinology is to measure the adrenocortical activity as a parameter of disturbance of animals. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCMs) provide a noninvasive assessment of adrenocortical activity. Using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge administered to 28 captive coyotes (Canis latrans), we measured the levels of plasma cortisol, and fecal cortisol and corticosterone metabolites (i...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981825/the-influence-of-sniffing-on-airflow-and-odorant-deposition-in-the-canine-nasal-cavity
#8
Alex D Rygg, Blaire Van Valkenburgh, Brent A Craven
Nasal airflow plays a critical role in olfaction by transporting odorant from the environment to the olfactory epithelium, where chemical detection occurs. Most studies of olfaction neglect the unsteadiness of sniffing and assume that nasal airflow and odorant transport are "quasi-steady," wherein reality most mammals "sniff." Here, we perform computational fluid dynamics simulations of airflow and odorant deposition in an anatomically accurate model of the coyote (Canis latrans) nasal cavity during quiet breathing, a notional quasi-steady sniff, and unsteady sniffing to: quantify the influence of unsteady sniffing, assess the validity of the quasi-steady assumption, and investigate the functional advantages of sniffing compared to breathing...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938920/oral-vaccination-of-wildlife-using-a-vaccinia-rabies-glycoprotein-recombinant-virus-vaccine-raboral-v-rg-%C3%A2-a-global-review
#9
REVIEW
Joanne Maki, Anne-Laure Guiot, Michel Aubert, Bernard Brochier, Florence Cliquet, Cathleen A Hanlon, Roni King, Ernest H Oertli, Charles E Rupprecht, Caroline Schumacher, Dennis Slate, Boris Yakobson, Anne Wohlers, Emily W Lankau
RABORAL V-RG(®) is an oral rabies vaccine bait that contains an attenuated ("modified-live") recombinant vaccinia virus vector vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein gene (V-RG). Approximately 250 million doses have been distributed globally since 1987 without any reports of adverse reactions in wildlife or domestic animals since the first licensed recombinant oral rabies vaccine (ORV) was released into the environment to immunize wildlife populations against rabies. V-RG is genetically stable, is not detected in the oral cavity beyond 48 h after ingestion, is not shed by vaccinates into the environment, and has been tested for thermostability under a range of laboratory and field conditions...
September 22, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936111/agile-development-of-a-smartphone-app-for-perinatal-monitoring-in-a-resource-constrained-setting
#10
Boris Martinez, Rachel Hall-Clifford, Enma Coyote, Lisa Stroux, Camilo E Valderrama, Christopher Aaron, Aaron Francis, Cate Hendren, Peter Rohloff, Gari D Clifford
Technology provides the potential to empower frontline healthcare workers with low levels of training and literacy, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. An obvious platform for achieving this aim is the smartphone, a low cost, almost ubiquitous device with good supply chain infrastructure and a general cultural acceptance for its use. In particular, the smartphone offers the opportunity to provide augmented or procedural information through active audiovisual aids to illiterate or untrained users, as described in this article...
2017: Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935611/introduction-of-canine-parvovirus-2-into-wildlife-on-the-island-of-newfoundland-canada
#11
Marta Canuti, Bruce Rodrigues, Hugh G Whitney, Andrew S Lang
Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) (species Carnivore protoparvovirus 1, family Parvoviridae) cause a severe gastrointestinal disease associated with immune depression in a broad range of terrestrial carnivores. We report here the first molecular epidemiological investigation of protoparvoviruses on the Island of Newfoundland, Canada. In particular, we investigated red foxes (Vulpes vulpes deletrix) and lynx (Lynx canadensis subsolanus), two autochthonous species, and coyotes (Canis latrans), which immigrated onto the island during the 1980s...
September 18, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904763/winter-bait-stations-as-a-multispecies-survey-tool
#12
Lacy Robinson, Samuel A Cushman, Michael K Lucid
Winter bait stations are becoming a commonly used technique for multispecies inventory and monitoring but a technical evaluation of their effectiveness is lacking. Bait stations have three components: carcass attractant, remote camera, and hair snare. Our 22,975 km(2) mountainous study area was stratified with a 5 × 5 km sampling grid centered on northern Idaho and including portions of Washington, Montana, and British Columbia. From 2010-14, we conducted 563 sampling sessions at 497 bait stations in 453 5 × 5 km cells...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899810/quantity-discrimination-in-canids-dogs-canis-familiaris-and-wolves-canis-lupus-compared
#13
Maria Elena Miletto Petrazzini, Clive D L Wynne
Accumulating evidence indicates that animals are able to discriminate between quantities. Recent studies have shown that dogs' and coyotes' ability to discriminate between quantities of food items decreases with increasing numerical ratio. Conversely, wolves' performance is not affected by numerical ratio. Cross-species comparisons are difficult because of differences in the methodologies employed, and hence it is still unclear whether domestication altered quantitative abilities in canids. Here we used the same procedure to compare pet dogs and wolves in a spontaneous food choice task...
November 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876360/all-about-neosporosis-in-brazil
#14
Camila Koutsodontis Cerqueira-Cézar, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Jitender Prakash Dubey, Solange Maria Gennari
Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite with domestic and wild dogs, coyotes and grey wolves as the definitive hosts and many warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. It was cultivated and named in 1988. Neosporosis is a major disease of cattle and has no public health significance. Since 1990's N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, including in Brazil. N. caninum also causes clinical infections in several other animal species. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of N...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863171/studies-of-wolf-x-coyote-hybridization-via-artificial-insemination
#15
L David Mech, Cheryl S Asa, Margaret Callahan, Bruce W Christensen, Fran Smith, Julie K Young
Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833978/mammal-diversity-and-metacommunity-dynamics-in-urban-green-spaces-implications-for-urban-wildlife-conservation
#16
Travis Gallo, Mason Fidino, Elizabeth W Lehrer, Seth B Magle
As urban growth expands and natural environments fragment, it is essential to understand the ecological roles fulfilled by urban green spaces. To evaluate how urban green spaces function as wildlife habitat, we estimated mammal diversity and metacommunity dynamics in city parks, cemeteries, golf courses, and natural areas throughout the greater Chicago, IL, USA region. We found similar α-diversity (with the exception of city parks), but remarkably dissimilar communities in different urban green spaces. Additionally, the type of urban green space greatly influenced species colonization and persistence rates...
August 21, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829928/green-tree-frog-hyla-cinerea-and-ground-squirrel-xerospermophilus-spilosoma-mortality-attributed-to-inland-brevetoxin-transportation-at-padre-island-national-seashore-texas-2015
#17
Danielle E Buttke, Alicia Walker, I-Shuo Huang, Leanne Flewelling, Julia Lankton, Anne E Ballmann, Travis Clapp, James Lindsay, Paul V Zimba
On 16 September 2015, a red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom impacted coastal areas of Padre Island National Seashore Park. Two days later and about 0.9 km inland, 30-40 adult green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) were found dead after displaying tremors, weakness, labored breathing, and other signs of neurologic impairment. A rainstorm, accompanied by high winds, rough surf, and high tides, which could have aerosolized brevetoxin, occurred on the morning of the mortality event. Frog carcasses were healthy but contained significant brevetoxin in tissues...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821188/panmixia-and-limited-interspecific-introgression-in-coyotes-canis-latrans-from-west-virginia-and-virginia-usa
#18
Justin H Bohling, Lauren L Mastro, Jennifer R Adams, Eric M Gese, Sheldon F Owen, Lisette P Waits
The expansion of coyotes (Canis latrans) into the eastern United States has had major consequences for ecological communities and wildlife managers. Despite this, there has been little investigation of the genetics of coyotes across much of this region, especially outside of the northeast. Understanding patterns of genetic structure and interspecific introgression would provide insights into the colonization history of the species, its response to the modern environment, and interactions with other canids. We examined the genetic characteristics of 121 coyotes from the mid-Atlantic states of West Virginia and Virginia by genotyping 17 polymorphic nuclear DNA microsatellite loci...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814297/genotyping-and-comparative-pathology-of-spirocerca-in-black-backed-jackals-canis-mesomelas-in-south-africa
#19
M M Bumby, M C Williams, J C A Steyl, R Harrison-White, H Lutermann, G T Fosgate, P J de Waal, J Mitha, S J Clift
BACKGROUND: The pathology of spirocercosis, a disease caused by the infestation of carnivores with the nematode Spirocerca lupi, has been extensively described in domestic dogs and coyotes. However, it has not been described in wild carnivores in South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether black-backed jackals are a host for Spirocerca species and to provide a detailed description of the associated pathology. Jackals were also stratified according to age and the Spirocerca species recovered were characterized using molecular techniques...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692394/using-an-emergency-department-syndromic-surveillance-system-to-evaluate-reporting-of-potential-rabies-exposures-illinois-2013-2015
#20
Kelley Bemis, Mabel Frias, Megan Toth Patel, Demian Christiansen
OBJECTIVES: Mandatory reporting of potential rabies exposures and initiation of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) allow local health authorities to monitor PEP administration for errors. Our objectives were to use an emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance system to (1) estimate reporting compliance for exposure to rabies in suburban Cook County, Illinois, and (2) initiate interventions to improve reporting and reassess compliance. METHODS: We queried ED records from 45 acute care hospitals in Cook County and surrounding areas from January 1, 2013, through June 30, 2015, for chief complaints or discharge diagnoses pertaining to rabies, PEP, or contact with a wild mammal (eg, bat, raccoon, skunk, fox, or coyote)...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
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