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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904763/winter-bait-stations-as-a-multispecies-survey-tool
#1
Lacy Robinson, Samuel A Cushman, Michael K Lucid
Winter bait stations are becoming a commonly used technique for multispecies inventory and monitoring but a technical evaluation of their effectiveness is lacking. Bait stations have three components: carcass attractant, remote camera, and hair snare. Our 22,975 km(2) mountainous study area was stratified with a 5 × 5 km sampling grid centered on northern Idaho and including portions of Washington, Montana, and British Columbia. From 2010-14, we conducted 563 sampling sessions at 497 bait stations in 453 5 × 5 km cells...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899810/quantity-discrimination-in-canids-dogs-canis-familiaris-and-wolves-canis-lupus-compared
#2
Miletto Petrazzini Maria Elena, Clive D L Wynne
Accumulating evidence indicates that animals are able to discriminate between quantities. Recent studies have shown that dogs' and coyotes' ability to discriminate between quantities of food items decreases with increasing numerical ratio. Conversely, wolves' performance is not affected by numerical ratio. Cross-species comparisons are difficult because of differences in the methodologies employed, and hence it is still unclear whether domestication altered quantitative abilities in canids. Here we used the same procedure to compare pet dogs and wolves in a spontaneous food choice task...
September 9, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876360/all-about-neosporosis-in-brazil
#3
Camila Koutsodontis Cerqueira-Cézar, Rafael Calero-Bernal, Jitender Prakash Dubey, Solange Maria Gennari
Neospora caninum is protozoan parasite with domestic and wild dogs, coyotes and grey wolves as the definitive hosts and many warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts. It was cultivated and named in 1988. Neosporosis is a major disease of cattle and has no public health significance. Since 1990's N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, including in Brazil. N. caninum also causes clinical infections in several other animal species. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the biology of N...
August 31, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863171/studies-of-wolf-x-coyote-hybridization-via-artificial-insemination
#4
L David Mech, Cheryl S Asa, Margaret Callahan, Bruce W Christensen, Fran Smith, Julie K Young
Following the production of western gray wolf (Canis lupus) x western coyote (Canis latrans) hybrids via artificial insemination (AI), the present article documents that the hybrids survived in captivity for at least 4 years and successfully bred with each other. It further reports that backcrossing one of the hybrids to a male gray wolf by AI also resulted in the birth of live pups that have survived for at least 10 months. All male hybrids (F1 and F2) produced sperm by about 10 months of age, and sperm quality of the F1 males fell within the fertile range for domestic dogs, but sperm motility and morphology, in particular, were low in F2 males at 10 months but improved in samples taken at 22 months of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833978/mammal-diversity-and-metacommunity-dynamics-in-urban-green-spaces-implications-for-urban-wildlife-conservation
#5
Travis Gallo, Mason Fidino, Elizabeth W Lehrer, Seth B Magle
As urban growth expands and natural environments fragment, it is essential to understand the ecological roles fulfilled by urban green spaces. To evaluate how urban green spaces function as wildlife habitat, we estimated mammal diversity and metacommunity dynamics in city parks, cemeteries, golf courses, and natural areas throughout the greater Chicago, IL, USA region. We found similar α-diversity (with the exception of city parks), but remarkably dissimilar communities in different urban green spaces. Additionally, the type of urban green space greatly influenced species colonization and persistence rates...
August 21, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829928/green-tree-frog-hyla-cinerea-and-ground-squirrel-xerospermophilus-spilosoma-mortality-attributed-to-inland-brevetoxin-transportation-at-padre-island-national-seashore-texas-2015
#6
Danielle E Buttke, Alicia Walker, I-Shuo Huang, Leanne Flewelling, Julia Lankton, Anne E Ballmann, Travis Clapp, James Lindsay, Paul V Zimba
On 16 September 2015, a red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom impacted coastal areas of Padre Island National Seashore Park. Two days later and about 0.9 km inland, 30-40 adult green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) were found dead after displaying tremors, weakness, labored breathing, and other signs of neurologic impairment. A rainstorm, accompanied by high winds, rough surf, and high tides, which could have aerosolized brevetoxin, occurred on the morning of the mortality event. Frog carcasses were healthy but contained significant brevetoxin in tissues...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821188/panmixia-and-limited-interspecific-introgression-in-coyotes-canis-latrans-from-west-virginia-and-virginia-usa
#7
Justin H Bohling, Lauren L Mastro, Jennifer R Adams, Eric M Gese, Sheldon F Owen, Lisette P Waits
The expansion of coyotes (Canis latrans) into the eastern United States has had major consequences for ecological communities and wildlife managers. Despite this, there has been little investigation of the genetics of coyotes across much of this region, especially outside of the northeast. Understanding patterns of genetic structure and interspecific introgression would provide insights into the colonization history of the species, its response to the modern environment, and interactions with other canids. We examined the genetic characteristics of 121 coyotes from the mid-Atlantic states of West Virginia and Virginia by genotyping 17 polymorphic nuclear DNA microsatellite loci...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814297/genotyping-and-comparative-pathology-of-spirocerca-in-black-backed-jackals-canis-mesomelas-in-south-africa
#8
M M Bumby, M C Williams, J C A Steyl, R Harrison-White, H Lutermann, G T Fosgate, P J de Waal, J Mitha, S J Clift
BACKGROUND: The pathology of spirocercosis, a disease caused by the infestation of carnivores with the nematode Spirocerca lupi, has been extensively described in domestic dogs and coyotes. However, it has not been described in wild carnivores in South Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether black-backed jackals are a host for Spirocerca species and to provide a detailed description of the associated pathology. Jackals were also stratified according to age and the Spirocerca species recovered were characterized using molecular techniques...
August 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692394/using-an-emergency-department-syndromic-surveillance-system-to-evaluate-reporting-of-potential-rabies-exposures-illinois-2013-2015
#9
Kelley Bemis, Mabel Frias, Megan Toth Patel, Demian Christiansen
OBJECTIVES: Mandatory reporting of potential rabies exposures and initiation of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) allow local health authorities to monitor PEP administration for errors. Our objectives were to use an emergency department (ED) syndromic surveillance system to (1) estimate reporting compliance for exposure to rabies in suburban Cook County, Illinois, and (2) initiate interventions to improve reporting and reassess compliance. METHODS: We queried ED records from 45 acute care hospitals in Cook County and surrounding areas from January 1, 2013, through June 30, 2015, for chief complaints or discharge diagnoses pertaining to rabies, PEP, or contact with a wild mammal (eg, bat, raccoon, skunk, fox, or coyote)...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639466/genetic-characterization-of-sarcoptes-scabiei-from-black-bears-ursus-americanus-and-other-hosts-in-eastern-united-states
#10
Sarah Peltier, Justin D Brown, Mark Ternent, Kevin D Niedringhaus, Krysten Schuler, Elizabeth Bunting, Megan Kirchgessner, Michael John Yabsley
Since the early 1990s there has been an increase in the number of cases and geographic expansion of severe mange in the black bear (Ursus americanus) population in Pennsylvania. Although there are 3 species of mites associated with mange in bears, Sarcoptes scabiei has been identified as the etiologic agent in these Pennsylvania cases. Historically S. scabiei-associated mange in bears has been uncommon and sporadic although it is widespread and relatively common in canid populations. To better understand this recent emergence of sarcoptic mange in bears in Pennsylvania and nearby states, we genetically characterized S...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630899/comment-on-whole-genome-sequence-analysis-shows-two-endemic-species-of-north-american-wolf-are-admixtures-of-the-coyote-and-gray-wolf
#11
Paul A Hohenlohe, Linda Y Rutledge, Lisette P Waits, Kimberly R Andrews, Jennifer R Adams, Joseph W Hinton, Ronald M Nowak, Brent R Patterson, Adrian P Wydeven, Paul A Wilson, Brad N White
Whole-genome data do not support a recent hybrid origin for red and eastern wolves.
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628436/contaminated-stream-water-as-source-for-escherichia-coli-o157-illness-in-children
#12
William S Probert, Glen M Miller, Katya E Ledin
In May 2016, an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infections occurred among children who had played in a stream flowing through a park. Analysis of E. coli isolates from the patients, stream water, and deer and coyote scat showed that feces from deer were the most likely source of contamination.
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616198/seed-dispersal-of-diospyros-virginiana-in-the-past-and-the-present-evidence-for-a-generalist-evolutionary-strategy
#13
Mimi Rebein, Charli N Davis, Helena Abad, Taylor Stone, Jillian Del Sol, Natalie Skinner, Matthew D Moran
Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), and coyote (Canis latrans), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420038/retrospective-evaluation-of-coyote-attacks-in-dogs-154-cases-1997-2012
#14
Virginia M Frauenthal, Philip Bergman, Robert J Murtaugh
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation and outcome of known attacks in client-owned dogs caused by the common coyote, Canis latrans. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Private referral hospital. ANIMALS: One hundred fifty-four client-owned dogs known to be attacked by coyotes. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Records from a private referral hospital from May 1997 through December 2012 were reviewed...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410591/eurasian-golden-jackal-as-host-of-canine-vector-borne-protists
#15
Barbora Mitková, Kristýna Hrazdilová, Gianluca D'Amico, Georg Gerhard Duscher, Franz Suchentrunk, Pavel Forejtek, Călin Mircea Gherman, Ioana Adriana Matei, Angela Monica Ionică, Aikaterini Alexandra Daskalaki, Andrei Daniel Mihalca, Jan Votýpka, Pavel Hulva, David Modrý
BACKGROUND: Jackals are medium-sized canids from the wolf-like clade, exhibiting a unique combination of ancestral morphotypes, broad trophic niches, and close phylogenetic relationships with the wolf and dog. Thus, they represent a potential host of several pathogens with diverse transmission routes. Recently, populations of the Eurasian golden jackal Canis aureus have expanded into the Western Palaearctic, including most of Europe. The aim of our study was to examine Eurasian golden jackals from Romania, Czech Republic and Austria for a wide spectrum of vector-borne protists and to evaluate the role of this species as a reservoir of disease for domestic dogs and/or humans...
April 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369822/improving-the-assessment-of-predator-functional-responses-by-considering-alternate-prey-and-predator-interactions
#16
K Chan, S Boutin, T J Hossie, C J Krebs, M O'Donoghue, D L Murray
To improve understanding of the complex and variable patterns of predator foraging behavior in natural systems, it is critical to determine how density-dependent predation and predator hunting success are mediated by alternate prey or predator interference. Despite considerable theory and debate seeking to place predator-prey interactions in a more realistic context, few empirical studies have quantified the role of alternate prey or intraspecific interactions on predator-prey dynamics. We assessed functional responses of two similarly sized, sympatric carnivores, lynx (Lynx canadensis) and coyotes (Canis latrans), foraging on common primary (snowshoe hares; Lepus americanus) and alternate (red squirrels; Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) prey in a natural system...
March 29, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369133/isotopic-ecology-of-coyotes-from-scat-and-road-kill-carcasses-a-complementary-approach-to-feeding-experiments
#17
Rachel E B Reid, Paul L Koch
Scat is frequently used to study animal diets because it is easy to find and collect, but one concern is that gross fecal analysis (GFA) techniques exaggerate the importance of small-bodied prey to mammalian mesopredator diets. To capitalize on the benefits of scat, we suggest the analysis of scat carbon and nitrogen isotope values (δ13C and δ15N). This technique offers researchers a non-invasive method to gather short-term dietary information. We conducted three interrelated studies to validate the use of isotopic values from coyote scat: 1) we determined tissue-to-tissue apparent C and N isotope enrichment factors (ε13* and ε15*) for coyotes from road kill animals (n = 4); 2) we derived diet-to-scat isotope discrimination factors for coyotes; and 3) we used field collected coyote scats (n = 12) to compare estimates of coyote dietary proportions from stable isotope mixing models with estimates from two GFA techniques...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365457/the-history-of-rabies-in-the-western-hemisphere
#18
REVIEW
Andres Velasco-Villa, Matthew R Mauldin, Mang Shi, Luis E Escobar, Nadia F Gallardo-Romero, Inger Damon, Victoria A Olson, Daniel G Streicker, Ginny Emerson
Before the introduction of control programs in the 20th century, rabies in domestic dogs occurred throughout the Western Hemisphere. However, historical records and phylogenetic analysis of multiple virus isolates indicate that, before the arrival of the first European colonizers, rabies virus was likely present only in bats and skunks. Canine rabies was either rare or absent among domestic dogs of Native Americans, and first arrived when many new dog breeds were imported during the period of European colonization...
March 29, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358635/prevalence-of-alaria-infection-in-companion-animals-in-north-central-oklahoma-from-2006-through-2015-and-detection-in-wildlife
#19
Eileen M Johnson, Yoko Nagamori, Rebecca A Duncan-Decocq, Patrick N Whitley, Akhilesh Ramachandran, Mason V Reichard
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of Alaria infection in cats and dogs in north central Oklahoma over various periods and investigate whether wild animal species in this region were also infected. DESIGN Combined cross-sectional study and case series. SAMPLE Results of parasitological testing of fecal samples from 5,417 client-owned dogs and 1,246 client-owned cats (2006 through 2014); fecal samples from 837 shelter or rescue dogs and 331 shelter or rescue cats (2013 and 2014) and 268 feral cats (2015); tongue or jowl samples from cadavers of 43 wild pigs, 3 opossums, and 1 raccoon; and intestinal tract segments from cadavers of 48 cats and 5 coyotes...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301480/management-and-modeling-approaches-for-controlling-raccoon-rabies-the-road-to-elimination
#20
REVIEW
Stacey A Elmore, Richard B Chipman, Dennis Slate, Kathryn P Huyvaert, Kurt C VerCauteren, Amy T Gilbert
Rabies is an ancient viral disease that significantly impacts human and animal health throughout the world. In the developing parts of the world, dog bites represent the highest risk of rabies infection to people, livestock, and other animals. However, in North America, where several rabies virus variants currently circulate in wildlife, human contact with the raccoon rabies variant leads to the highest per capita population administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Previous rabies variant elimination in raccoons (Canada), foxes (Europe), and dogs and coyotes (United States) demonstrates that elimination of the raccoon variant from the eastern US is feasible, given an understanding of rabies control costs and benefits and the availability of proper tools...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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