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Miriam Maas, Annika van Roon, Cecile Dam-Deisz, Marieke Opsteegh, Alessandro Massolo, Gunita Deksne, Peter Teunis, Joke van der Giessen
A new method, based on a magnetic capture based DNA extraction followed by qPCR, was developed for the detection of the zoonotic parasite Echinococcus multilocularis in definitive hosts. Latent class analysis was used to compare this new method with the currently used phenol-chloroform DNA extraction followed by single tube nested PCR. In total, 60 red foxes and coyotes from three different locations were tested with both molecular methods and the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) or intestinal scraping technique (IST)...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Hailey Wilmer, María E Fernández-Giménez
Rangeland researchers are increasingly interested in understanding working rangelands as integrated social-ecological systems and in investigating the contexts of human decision-making processes that support system resilience. U.S. public lands ranchers are key partners in rangeland conservation, but the role of women in building system resilience has not yet been explored. We conducted life-history interviews with 19 ranching women in the Southwestern United States. We analyzed the resulting transcripts by identifying contradictions between women's material practices and traditional discourses in the ranching livelihood that illustrated women's efforts to maintain both a way of life and a living during social and ecological change...
December 2016: Ambio
Melissa N Garcia, Sarah O'Day, Susan Fisher-Hoch, Rodion Gorchakov, Ramiro Patino, Teresa P Feria Arroyo, Susan T Laing, Job E Lopez, Alexandra Ingber, Kathryn M Jones, Kristy O Murray
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi infection) is the leading cause of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Texas, particularly the southern region, has compounding factors that could contribute to T. cruzi transmission; however, epidemiologic studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of T. cruzi in three different mammalian species (coyotes, stray domestic dogs, and humans) and vectors (Triatoma species) to understand the burden of Chagas disease among sylvatic, peridomestic, and domestic cycles...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Whitni K Redman, Jay E Bryant, Gul Ahmad
AIM: This survey was carried out on the carcasses of 29 coyotes from Southeastern Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa to document the helminths present in the intestinal track of these carnivorous animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 adult coyote carcasses were generously donated in the autumn and winter (November-February) of 2014-2015 by trappers, fur buyers and hunters of Southeast Nebraska and Shenandoah area of Iowa. The intestine of individual animals were examined for the recovery of helminth parasites as per the established procedures...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Lisa Stroux, Boris Martinez, Enma Coyote Ixen, Nora King, Rachel Hall-Clifford, Peter Rohloff, Gari D Clifford
Limited funding for medical technology, low levels of education and poor infrastructure for delivering and maintaining technology severely limit medical decision support in low- and middle-income countries. Perinatal and maternal mortality is of particular concern with millions dying every year from potentially treatable conditions. Guatemala has one of the worst maternal mortality ratios, the highest incidence of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), and one of the lowest gross national incomes per capita within Latin America...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
Adelina Anthony, Aimee Carrillo Rowe
This interview explores how performing artist, activist, writer, director, performer Adelina Anthony stages queer women of color affects as a complex terrain to mobilize a decolonial imaginary. Anthony's characters are complex, contradictory, surly, and resilient with whom audience members connect and feel deeply. Especially for queer women of color, who rarely get to see their own experiences on film or on stage, Anthony's work provides a critical forum for discussing, imagining, naming, and envisioning the connections between our personal struggles and broader forces of imperialism, heterosexual capitalism, and settler colonialism...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Lesbian Studies
N C Pedersen, J K Dhanota, H Liu
Specific polymorphisms in the endoplasmic reticulum amino peptidase genes ERAP1 and ERAP2, when present with certain MHC class receptor types, have been associated with increased risk for specific cancers, infectious diseases and autoimmune disorders in humans. This increased risk has been linked to distinct polymorphisms in both ERAPs and MHC class I receptors that affect the way cell-generated peptides are screened for antigenicity. The incidence of cancer, infectious disease and autoimmune disorders differ greatly among pure breeds of dogs as it does in humans and it is possible that this heightened susceptibility is also due to specific polymorphisms in ERAP1 and ERAP2...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Ying Bai, Amy Gilbert, Karen Fox, Lynn Osikowicz, Michael Kosoy
Spleen samples from 292 wild carnivores from Colorado, US were screened for Bartonella infection. Bartonella DNA was detected in coyotes ( Canis latrans ) (28%), striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) (23%), red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ) (27%), and raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) (8%) but not in black bears ( Ursus americanus ), gray foxes ( Urocyon cinereoargenteus ), and mountain lions ( Puma concolor ). Two Bartonella species, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. rochalimae, were identified. All 10 infected striped skunks exclusively carried B...
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Shylo R Johnson, Nikki J Crider, Grant A Weyer, Randall D Tosh, Kurt C VerCauteren
Oral vaccination is one tool used to control wildlife diseases. A challenge to oral vaccination is identifying baits specific to target species. The US has been conducting oral vaccination against rabies since the 1990s. Improvements in bait development will hasten disease elimination. In Colorado, we examined a novel bait for oral vaccination and offered two different flavors, sweet and fish, to captive raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) and striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) to assess consumption and flavor preference and observed bait removal by target and nontarget species in the field...
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Amber M Aher, Danny Caudill, Gretchen Caudill, Ryan S Butryn, Dan Wolf, Mark Fox, Damer P Blake, Mark W Cunningham
We detected heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in 37.2% of 212 coyotes ( Canis latrans ) collected from 28 counties in Florida, US, between February 2010 and April 2014. Adult coyotes had a higher prevalence (45.6% of 103) than juveniles (29% of 80), and there was no significant difference in prevalence between adult male and female coyotes. Adults demonstrated a higher prevalence of heartworm in northern counties (56% of 91) than in southern counties (23.1% of 121) and a higher prevalence in urban areas (58.1% of 31) than in rural areas (33...
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Maegwin Bonar, Micheline Manseau, Justin Geisheimer, Travis Bannatyne, Susan Lingle
Juvenile survival is a highly variable life-history trait that is critical to population growth. Antipredator tactics, including an animal's use of its physical and social environment, are critical to juvenile survival. Here, we tested the hypothesis that habitat and social characteristics influence coyote (Canis latrans) predation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) fawns in similar ways during the neonatal period. This would contrast to winter when the habitat and social characteristics that provide the most safety for each species differ...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Christopher J Schell, Julie K Young, Elizabeth V Lonsdorf, Jill M Mateo, Rachel M Santymire
Hormones are fundamental mediators of personality traits intimately linked with reproductive success. Hence, alterations to endocrine factors may dramatically affect individual behavior that has subsequent fitness consequences. Yet it is unclear how hormonal or behavioral traits change with environmental stressors or over multiple reproductive opportunities, particularly for biparental fauna. To simulate an environmental stressor, we exposed captive coyote (Canis latrans) pairs to novel coyote odor attractants (i...
October 15, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Rachel Curtis-Robles, Barbara C Lewis, Sarah A Hamer
Infection with the zoonotic vector-borne protozoal parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease in humans and dogs throughout the Americas. Despite the recognized importance of various wildlife species for perpetuating Trypanosoma cruzi in nature, relatively little is known about the development of cardiac disease in infected wildlife. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected cardiac tissue and blood from hunter-donated wildlife carcasses- including raccoon (Procyon lotor), coyote (Canis latrans), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) - from central Texas, a region with established populations of infected triatomine vectors and increasing diagnoses of Chagas disease in domestic dogs...
August 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Justin H Bohling, Justin Dellinger, Justin M McVey, David T Cobb, Christopher E Moorman, Lisette P Waits
When hybridizing species come into contact, understanding the processes that regulate their interactions can help predict the future outcome of the system. This is especially relevant in conservation situations where human activities can influence hybridization dynamics. We investigated a developing hybrid zone between red wolves and coyotes in North Carolina, USA to elucidate patterns of hybridization in a system heavily managed for preservation of the red wolf genome. Using noninvasive genetic sampling of scat, we surveyed a 2880 km(2) region adjacent to the Red Wolf Experimental Population Area (RWEPA)...
July 2016: Evolutionary Applications
John D J Clare, Daniel W Linden, Eric M Anderson, David M MacFarland
Understanding the conditions that facilitate top predator effects upon mesopredators and prey is critical for predicting where these effects will be significant. Intraguild predation (IGP) and the ecology of fear are hypotheses used to describe the effects of top predators upon mesopredators and prey species, but make different assumptions about organismal space use. The IGP hypothesis predicts that mesopredator resource acquisition and risk are positively correlated, creating a fitness deficit. But if shared prey also avoid a top predator, then mesopredators may not have to choose between risk and reward...
June 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Sarah Bevins, Ryan Pappert, John Young, Brandon Schmit, Dennis Kohler, Laurie Baeten
Using filter paper to collect blood from wildlife for antibody analysis can be a powerful technique to simplify the collection, transport, and storage of blood samples. Despite these advantages, there are limited data that detail how long these samples can be stored and how storage conditions affect antibody longevity. We used blood samples collected on filter paper from coyotes experimentally infected with Yersinia pestis to determine optimum sample storage conditions over time. Blood samples collected on filter paper were stored for 454 d or more in four groups: 1) at ambient temperature and at ambient relative humidity, 2) at ambient temperature with desiccant, 3) at 4 C with desiccant, and 4) at -20 C with desiccant...
July 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Marjorie J MacGregor, Cheryl S Asa, Donal C Skinner
Effective and humane management strategies for coyotes (Canis latrans) remain elusive. We hypothesised that exposure to a high dose of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist would cause prolonged suppression of the reproductive axis. Two groups of male coyotes were administered 47 mg deslorelin in the form of either five 9.4-mg controlled-release Suprelorin (Peptech Animal Health, Macquarie Park NSW, Australia) implants (n = 3) or 10 4.7-mg implants (n = 5). In the first group, deslorelin suppressed plasma LH, testosterone and testes volume in two of three coyotes for three breeding seasons...
May 10, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Vicente Palacios, José Vicente López-Bao, Luis Llaneza, Carlos Fernández, Enrique Font
Population monitoring is crucial for wildlife management and conservation. In the last few decades, wildlife researchers have increasingly applied bioacoustics tools to obtain information on several essential ecological parameters, such as distribution and abundance. One such application involves wolves (Canis lupus). These canids respond to simulated howls by emitting group vocalizations known as chorus howls. These responses to simulated howls reveal the presence of wolf litters during the breeding period and are therefore often used to determine the status of wolf populations...
2016: PloS One
Maureen H Murray, Jesse Hill, Peter Whyte, Colleen Cassady St Clair
Anthropogenic food is often concentrated in cities where it can attract wildlife, promote conflict with people, and potentially spread disease. Although these associations are well-documented for conventional garbage, they are unexplored for many seemingly innocuous and even environmentally friendly attractants such as piles of compost. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that municipal piles of compost are underappreciated and potentially important contributors to a recent rise in encounters with urban-adapted wildlife by attracting wildlife and promoting the spread of wildlife disease...
June 2016: EcoHealth
Bridgett M vonHoldt, Roland Kays, John P Pollinger, Robert K Wayne
Hybrid zones typically contain novel gene combinations that can be tested by natural selection in a unique genetic context. Parental haplotypes that increase fitness can introgress beyond the hybrid zone, into the range of parental species. We used the Affymetrix canine SNP genotyping array to identify genomic regions tagged by multiple ancestry informative markers that are more frequent in an admixed population than expected. We surveyed a hybrid zone formed in the last 100 years as coyotes expanded their range into eastern North America...
June 2016: Molecular Ecology
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