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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843722/the-origin-of-the-lower-fourth-molar-in-canids-inferred-by-individual-variation
#1
Masakazu Asahara
BACKGROUND: An increase in tooth number is an exception during mammalian evolution. The acquisition of the lower fourth molar in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis, Canidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) is one example; however, its developmental origin is not clear. In some canids (Canidae), individual variation exist as supernumerary molar M4. This study focuses on the acquisition of the lower fourth molar in canids and proposes that the inhibitory cascade model can explain its origin. METHODS: Occlusal view projected area of lower molars was determined from 740 mandibles obtained from Canis latrans, Nyctereutes procyonoides, and Urocyon cinereoargenteus museum specimens...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811300/comparative-locomotor-costs-of-domestic-dogs-reveal-energetic-economy-of-wolf-like-breeds
#2
C M Bryce, T M Williams
The broad diversity in morphology and geographic distribution of the 35 free-ranging members of the family Canidae is only rivaled by that of the domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris. Considered to be among nature's most elite endurance athletes, both domestic and wild canids provide a unique opportunity to examine the variability in mammalian aerobic exercise performance and energy expenditure. To determine the potential effects of domestication and selective breeding on locomotor gait and economy in canids, we measured the kinematics and mass-specific metabolism of three large (>20 kg) dog breed groups (northern breeds, retrievers, and hounds) of varying morphological and genomic relatedness to their shared progenitor, the gray wolf...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760521/an-interspecific-assessment-of-bergmann-s-rule-in-22-mammalian-families
#3
Jostein Gohli, Kjetil L Voje
BACKGROUND: Bergmann's rule proposes that animals in cold habitats will be larger than those in warm habitats. This prediction has been tested thoroughly at the intraspecific level, but few studies have investigated the hypothesis with interspecific data using phylogenetic comparative approaches. Many clades of mammals have representatives in numerous distinct biomes, making this order highly suitable for a large-scale interspecific assessment of Bergmann's rule. Here, we evaluate Bergmann's rule within 22 mammalian families-with a dataset that include ~35 % of all described species-using a phylogenetic comparative approach...
October 19, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724937/a-review-of-piroplasmid-infections-in-wild-carnivores-worldwide-importance-for-domestic-animal-health-and-wildlife-conservation
#4
Mario Alvarado-Rybak, Laia Solano-Gallego, Javier Millán
Piroplasmids are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes or other leukocytes) or endothelial cells of numerous wild and domestic vertebrates worldwide. They cause severe disease in livestock, dogs, cats, wild mammals and, occasionally, in humans. Piroplasmid infections are prevalent in wild carnivores worldwide although there is limited information about their clinical and epidemiological importance. There are currently nine recognized species of Babesia, two of Theileria, two of Cytauxzoon and one of Rangelia infecting captive and wild carnivores, including members of Canidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Ursidae, Viverridae, Hyaenidae and Herpestidae in the Americas, Eurasia and Africa...
October 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715424/population-structure-of-the-raccoon-dog-on-the-grounds-of-the-imperial-palace-tokyo-revealed-by-microsatellite-analysis-of-fecal-dna
#5
Wataru Saito, Yosuke Amaike, Takako Sako, Yayoi Kaneko, Ryuichi Masuda
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, Canidae, Carnivora) is highly adaptable to urban environments. Populations of carnivorans inhabiting urban areas sometimes differ ecologically and genetically from those in rural areas. However, there is little information on urban raccoon dogs. This study focused on raccoon dog populations in Tokyo, one of the most highly urbanized cities in the world. We examined the genotypes of 10 microsatellites for 101 fecal samples from raccoon dogs inhabiting the grounds of the Imperial Palace, a green space in central Tokyo...
October 2016: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707682/detection-of-candidatus-neoehrlichia-mikurensis-and-other-anaplasmataceae-and-rickettsiaceae-in-canidae-in-switzerland-and-mediterranean-countries
#6
R Hofmann-Lehmann, N Wagmann, M L Meli, B Riond, M Novacco, D Joekel, F Gentilini, F Marsilio, M G Pennisi, A Lloret, T Carrapiço, F S Boretti
'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic agent that primarily affects immunocompromised human patients. Dogs and foxes are frequently exposed to ticks, and both species are in close proximity to humans. This is the first study to systematically investigate the occurrence of 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' in Canidae in Europa. We analyzed 1'739 blood samples from dogs in Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Portugal and 162 blood samples from free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Switzerland...
October 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691945/prevalence-of-healed-long-bone-fractures-in-wild-carnivores-from-the-northeastern-united-states
#7
George C Argyros, Aaron J Roth
Museum specimens representing 12 species of terrestrial carnivores from the northeastern United States were inspected for evidence of healed long-bone fractures. Of 413 individuals, 18 (4.4%) exhibited healed fractures. Thirteen (72.2%) occurred in hind limbs; five (27.8%) occurred in forelimbs. Mustelids had the highest prevalence of healed long-bone fractures (38.8%) of all observed fractures. Within family, 5.6% of Canidae and 2.8% of Mustelidae exhibited healed fractures. Bobcats had the highest taxon prevalence of fractures, 18%...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669159/using-a-control-to-better-understand-phyllosphere-microbiota
#8
Andrea R Ottesen, Sasha Gorham, Elizabeth Reed, Michael J Newell, Padmini Ramachandran, Travis Canida, Marc Allard, Peter Evans, Eric Brown, James Robert White
An important data gap in our understanding of the phyllosphere surrounds the origin of the many microbes described as phyllosphere communities. Most sampling in phyllosphere research has focused on the collection of microbiota without the use of a control, so the opportunity to determine which taxa are actually driven by the biology and physiology of plants as opposed to introduced by environmental forces has yet to be fully realized. To address this data gap, we used plastic plants as inanimate controls adjacent to live tomato plants (phyllosphere) in the field with the hope of distinguishing between bacterial microbiota that may be endemic to plants as opposed to introduced by environmental forces...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661997/divergent-sapovirus-strains-and-infection-prevalence-in-wild-carnivores-in-the-serengeti-ecosystem-a-long-term-study
#9
Ximena A Olarte-Castillo, Heribert Hofer, Katja V Goller, Vito Martella, Patricia D Moehlman, Marion L East
The genus Sapovirus, in the family Caliciviridae, includes enteric viruses of humans and domestic animals. Information on sapovirus infection of wildlife is limited and is currently lacking for any free-ranging wildlife species in Africa. By screening a large number of predominantly fecal samples (n = 631) obtained from five carnivore species in the Serengeti ecosystem, East Africa, sapovirus RNA was detected in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta, family Hyaenidae), African lion (Panthera leo, family Felidae), and bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis, family Canidae), but not in golden or silver-backed jackals (Canis aureus and C...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560989/molecular-assessment-of-the-phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-a-recently-diversified-endemic-group-of-south-american-canids-mammalia-carnivora-canidae
#10
Ligia Tchaicka, Thales Renato Ochotorena de Freitas, Alex Bager, Stela Luengos Vidal, Mauro Lucherini, Agustín Iriarte, Andres Novaro, Eli Geffen, Fabricio Silva Garcez, Warren E Johnson, Robert K Wayne, Eduardo Eizirik
To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca...
July 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512133/inferring-node-dates-from-tip-dates-in-fossil-canidae-the-importance-of-tree-priors
#11
Nicholas J Matzke, April Wright
Tip-dating methods are becoming popular alternatives to traditional node calibration approaches for building time-scaled phylogenetic trees, but questions remain about their application to empirical datasets. We compared the performance of the most popular methods against a dated tree of fossil Canidae derived from previously published monographs. Using a canid morphology dataset, we performed tip-dating using BEAST v. 2.1.3 and MrBayes v. 3.2.5. We find that for key nodes (Canis, approx. 3.2 Ma, Caninae approx...
August 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484638/canine-distemper-virus-isolated-from-a-monkey-efficiently-replicates-on-vero-cells-expressing-non-human-primate-slam-receptors-but-not-human-slam-receptor
#12
Na Feng, Yuxiu Liu, Jianzhong Wang, Weiwei Xu, Tiansong Li, Tiecheng Wang, Lei Wang, Yicong Yu, Hualei Wang, Yongkun Zhao, Songtao Yang, Yuwei Gao, Guixue Hu, Xianzhu Xia
BACKGROUND: In 2008, an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in monkeys was reported in China. We isolated CDV strain (subsequently named Monkey-BJ01-DV) from lung tissue obtained from a rhesus monkey that died in this outbreak. We evaluated the ability of this virus on Vero cells expressing SLAM receptors from dog, monkey and human origin, and analyzed the H gene of Monkey-BJ01-DV with other strains. RESULTS: The Monkey-BJ01-DV isolate replicated to the highest titer on Vero cells expressing dog-origin SLAM (10(5...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459260/molecular-assessment-of-the-phylogeny-and-biogeography-of-a-recently-diversified-endemic-group-of-south-american-canids-mammalia-carnivora-canidae
#13
Ligia Tchaicka, Thales Renato Ochotorena de Freitas, Alex Bager, Stela Luengos Vidal, Mauro Lucherini, Agustín Iriarte, Andres Novaro, Eli Geffen, Fabricio Silva Garcez, Warren E Johnson, Robert K Wayne, Eduardo Eizirik
To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca...
July 25, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437948/mercury-content-in-organs-and-tissues-of-indigenous-vulpes-vulpes-l-and-invasive-nyctereutes-procyonoides-gray-species-of-canids-from-areas-near-cherepovets-north-western-industrial-region-russia
#14
V T Komov, E S Ivanova, V A Gremyachikh, N Y Poddubnaya
Trophic and spatial components of ecological niches of two canids native Vulpes vulpes and introduced Nyctereutes procyonoides are overlapping partially in the studied region. Maximum concentrations of mercury in predatory mammals of Canidae family from surroundings of Cherepovets have been determined in liver and kidneys (over 0.50 mg/kg wet weight), with minimal concentrations in brain (<0.2 mg/kg wet weight). The amount of mercury in the same organs of the red fox and raccoon dog is not significantly different...
October 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334825/ancylostoma-ancylostoma-buckleyi-nematoda-ancylostomatidae-new-wild-host-and-distribution-expansion
#15
Nathalia Paula Scioscia, Pablo Martín Beldomenico, Guillermo María Denegri
Here we report the occurrence of Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Le Roux and Biocca, 1957) (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in the small intestine of Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) (Mammalia: Canidae). This fox is the most abundant native carnivore in southern South America, where it inhabits grasslands, open woodlands and areas highly modified by extensive ranching and agricultural activities. Material from 80 foxes in rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina was examined. The intestinal tracts were carefully removed from each carcass and subsequently isolated by ligatures (pylorus and rectum)...
June 7, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323129/isolation-and-characterization-of-polymorphic-microsatellite-markers-for-blue-fox-alopex-lagopus
#16
Y M Li, P C Guo, J Y Lu, C Y Bai, Z H Zhao, S Q Yan
The blue fox, belonging to the family Canidae, is a coat color variant of the native arctic fox (Alopex lagopus). To date, microsatellite loci in blue fox are typically amplified using canine simple sequence repeat primers. In the present study, we constructed an (AC)n enrichment library, and isolated and identified 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers for blue fox. The number of alleles per locus is from two to seven based on 24 examined individuals. The expected and observed heterozygosities were in the range of 0...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276669/ancylostoma-ancylostoma-buckleyi-nematoda-ancylostomatidae-new-wild-host-and-distribution-expansion
#17
Nathalia Paula Scioscia, Pablo Martín Beldomenico, Guillermo María Denegri
Here we report the occurrence of Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Le Roux and Biocca, 1957) (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in the small intestine of Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) (Mammalia: Canidae). This fox is the most abundant native carnivore in southern South America, where it inhabits grasslands, open woodlands and areas highly modified by extensive ranching and agricultural activities. Material from 80 foxes in rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina was examined. The intestinal tracts were carefully removed from each carcass and subsequently isolated by ligatures (pylorus and rectum)...
June 7, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27180732/dna-barcoding-of-three-species-canis-aureus-canis-lupus-and-vulpes-vulpes-of-canidae
#18
Eren Aksöyek, Osman İbiş, Servet Özcan, Mohammad Moradi, Coşkun Tez
Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene have been used for DNA barcoding and determining the genetic diversity of mammal species. In the current study, our intention was to test the validity of COI barcodes for detecting genetic divergence and to reveal whether or not there is a genetic variation at this marker within canids. Three species (Canis aureus, Canis lupus and Vulpes vulpes) from the family Canidae were selected for DNA barcoding using samples collected from Iran and Turkey...
May 14, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113211/trichinella-pseudospiralis-an-elusive-nematode
#19
Edoardo Pozio
Trichinella pseudospiralis is one of the three species whose larvae do not encapsulate after muscle cell differentiation, and the only one infecting both mammals and birds. More than 40 years after its discovery, the epidemiology remains, at least in part, still enigmatic. The aim of this work was to reconsider the current knowledge on the T. pseudospiralis epidemiology by collecting the information available in the literature and in the website of the International Trichinella Reference Center. Over the last decade, there was an increasing number of reports of T...
April 6, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103346/scaling-and-accommodation-of-jaw-adductor-muscles-in-canidae
#20
Fay Penrose, Graham J Kemp, Nathan Jeffery
The masticatory apparatus amongst closely related carnivoran species raises intriguing questions about the interplay between allometry, function, and phylogeny in defining interspecific variations of cranial morphology. Here we describe the gross structure of the jaw adductor muscles of several species of canid, and then examine how the muscles are scaled across the range of body sizes, phylogenies, and trophic groups. We also consider how the muscles are accommodated on the skull, and how this is influenced by differences of endocranial size...
July 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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