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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388474/behind-the-potential-evolution-towards-prion-resistant-species
#1
Natalia Fernández-Borges, Hasier Eraña, Joaquín Castilla
Historically, the observation of naturally occurring cases of prion disease led to the classification of different susceptibility grades and to the designation of prion resistant species. However, the development of highly efficient in vitro prion propagation systems and the generation of ad hoc transgenic models allowed determining that leporidae and equidae families have been erroneously considered resistant to prion infection. On the contrary, similar approaches revealed an unexpected high level of resistance of the canidae family...
February 1, 2018: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309708/a-new-stubby-species-of-demodectic-mite-acari-demodicidae-from-the-domestic-dog-canidae
#2
Tatsushi Morita, Aki Ohmi, Akihito Kiwaki, Kazunori Ike, Katsuyuki Nagata
A new species of Demodex was detected in the earwax of a dog with otitis externa in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, in July 2010. The opisthosoma length of the mite was slightly shorter than 1/2 of its body length, which was different from the other species in domestic dogs, D. canis and D. injai, but was similar to the form of mites termed "short-bodied species", including D. cornei. However, the stubby external form was morphologically different from those of "short-bodied species", excluding a case without a species description reported from Greece...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282715/dynamic-occupancy-modelling-reveals-a-hierarchy-of-competition-among-fishers-grey-foxes-and-ringtails
#3
David S Green, Sean M Matthews, Robert C Swiers, Richard L Callas, J Scott Yaeger, Stuart L Farber, Michael K Schwartz, Roger A Powell
Determining how species coexist is critical for understanding functional diversity, niche partitioning and interspecific interactions. Identifying the direct and indirect interactions among sympatric carnivores that enable their coexistence is particularly important to elucidate because they are integral for maintaining ecosystem function. We studied the effects of removing nine fishers (Pekania pennanti) on their population dynamics and used this perturbation to elucidate the interspecific interactions among fishers, grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and ringtails (Bassariscus astutus)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110666/development-of-real-time-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-assay-for-rapid-and-sensitive-detection-of-canine-parvovirus-2
#4
Yunyun Geng, Jianchang Wang, Libing Liu, Yan Lu, Ke Tan, Yan-Zhong Chang
BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus 2, a linear single-stranded DNA virus belonging to the genus Parvovirus within the family Parvoviridae, is a highly contagious pathogen of domestic dogs and several wild canidae species. Early detection of canine parvovirus (CPV-2) is crucial to initiating appropriate outbreak control strategies. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), a novel isothermal gene amplification technique, has been developed for the molecular detection of diverse pathogens...
November 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761463/the-33-1-kda-excretory-secretory-protein-produced-by-toxocara-canis-larvae-serves-as-a-potential-common-biomarker-for-serodiagnosis-of-toxocariasis-in-paratenic-animals-and-human
#5
Huu-Hung Nguyen, Doan-Trung Vo, Thi-Tuyet-Trinh Thai, Thi-Thanh-Thao LE, Thanh-Dong LE, Nghia-Son Hoang
BACKGROUND: Toxocariasis is a prevalent zoonosis disease caused by the closely related nematode species Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati which parasitise Canidae and Felidae respectively. In paratenic hosts, larvae of these worms cause multiple organ damage. However, how these paratenic hosts response to these worms and whether any common biomarker can be applied for diagnosis are still unclear. METHODS: Excreted/secreted (E/S) antigens were prepared by culture of T...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728944/ultrasound-guided-thoracic-paravertebral-block-cadaveric-study-in-foxes-vulpes-vulpes
#6
Paolo Monticelli, Ian Jones, Jaime Viscasillas
OBJECTIVE: To describe an ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block in canidae. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, experimental, cadaveric study. ANIMALS: Twelve thawed fox cadavers. METHODS: A 15 MHz linear transducer was used to visualize the paravertebral space at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebrae. Iohexol (300 mg mL(-1)) at 0.2 mL kg(-1) was injected into the right and left paravertebral spaces under ultrasound guidance using a Tuohy needle...
March 22, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680689/rensching-cats-and-dogs-feeding-ecology-and-fecundity-trends-explain-variation-in-the-allometry-of-sexual-size-dimorphism
#7
P J Johnson, M J Noonan, A C Kitchener, L A Harrington, C Newman, D W Macdonald
The tendency for sexual size dimorphism (SSD) to increase with body mass in taxa where males are larger, and to decrease when females are larger, is known as Rensch's rule. In mammals, where the trend occurs, it is believed to be the result of a competitive advantage for larger males, while female mass is constrained by the energetics of reproduction. Here, we examine the allometry of SSD within the Felidae and Canidae, demonstrating distinctly different patterns: in felids, there is positive allometric scaling, while there is no trend in canids...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679462/analysis-of-zp1-gene-reveals-differences-in-zona-pellucida-composition-in-carnivores
#8
C Moros-Nicolás, A Leza, P Chevret, A Guillén-Martínez, L González-Brusi, F Boué, M Lopez-Bejar, J Ballesta, M Avilés, M J Izquierdo-Rico
The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular envelope that surrounds mammalian oocytes. This coat participates in the interaction between gametes, induction of the acrosome reaction, block of polyspermy and protection of the oviductal embryo. Previous studies suggested that carnivore ZP was formed by three glycoproteins (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4), with ZP1 being a pseudogene. However, a recent study in the cat found that all four proteins were expressed. In the present study, in silico and molecular analyses were performed in several carnivores to clarify the ZP composition in this order of mammals...
July 6, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630705/physiological-effects-of-stress-related-to-helicopter-travel-in-federal-emergency-management-agency-search-and-rescue-canines
#9
E Perry, N Gulson, T-W Liu Cross, K S Swanson
Working canines are deployed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), as part of a National Disaster Response Plan. Stress associated with helicopter flight and the resulting physical effects on the dog are unknown. Our objective was to test the hypotheses that (1) helicopter travel affects the physiology and faecal microbiota of working canines, but that (2) physiological consequences of helicopter travel will not negatively affect their work performance. A total of nine FEMA canines were loaded onto helicopters and flown for 30 min in July 2015...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491252/inhibitory-effects-of-carvacrol-on-the-expression-of-secreted-aspartyl-proteinases-1-3-in-fluconazole-resistant-candida-albicans-isolates
#10
Seyedeh Sedigheh Hosseini, Mohammad Hossein Yadegari, Masoumeh Rajabibazl, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase (SAP) is one of the main virulence factors in the pathogenesis of Candida. This enzyme is encoded by a family of at least ten genes. Among these genes, the role of SAP1-3 in mucosal infections is evident. This study aimed to investigate the expression of SAP1-3 genes of Candida albicans isolates after treatment with Echinophora platyloba extract, carvacrol and caspofungin drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vaginal samples of 68 women with suspected vaginitis were obtained and cultured...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429379/retrospective-evaluation-of-thoracic-computed-tomography-findings-in-dogs-naturally-infected-by-angiostrongylus-vasorum
#11
Mark E Coia, Gawain Hammond, Daniel Chan, Randi Drees, David Walker, Kevin Murtagh, Janine Stone, Nicholas Bexfield, Lizzie Reeve, Jenny Helm
Angiostrongylus vasorum (A. vasorum) is an important emerging disease of canidae. Cardiorespiratory signs are common in affected dogs, therefore thoracic imaging is critical for diagnosing and monitoring disease. Descriptions of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings in dogs naturally infected with A. vasorum are currently lacking. Aims of this multicenter, retrospective study were to describe thoracic CT findings in a group of dogs with confirmed disease, determine whether any changes were consistent among dogs, and propose standardized terms for describing thoracic CT findings...
April 20, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344097/whence-river-blindness-the-domestication-of-mammals-and-host-parasite-co-evolution-in-the-nematode-genus-onchocerca
#12
Emilie Lefoulon, Alessio Giannelli, Benjamin L Makepeace, Yasen Mutafchiev, Simon Townson, Shigehiko Uni, Guilherme G Verocai, Domenico Otranto, Coralie Martin
The genus Onchocerca includes 34 described species and represents one of the largest genera of the filarial nematodes within the family Onchocercidae. Representative members of this genus are mainly parasites of ungulates, with some exceptions such as Onchocerca lupi and Onchocerca volvulus, infecting carnivores and/or humans. For a long time, the evolutionary relationships amongst onchocercids remained poorly studied, as the systematics of this genus was impaired by the high morphological variability of species included in the taxon...
July 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122375/satellite-dna-sequences-in-canidae-and-their-chromosome-distribution-in-dog-and-red-fox
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Miluse Vozdova, Svatava Kubickova, Halina Cernohorska, Jan Fröhlich, Jiri Rubes
Satellite DNA is a characteristic component of mammalian centromeric heterochromatin, and a comparative analysis of its evolutionary dynamics can be used for phylogenetic studies. We analysed satellite and satellite-like DNA sequences available in NCBI for 4 species of the family Canidae (red fox, Vulpes vulpes, VVU; domestic dog, Canis familiaris, CFA; arctic fox, Vulpes lagopus, VLA; raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides, NPR) by comparative sequence analysis, which revealed 86-90% intraspecies and 76-79% interspecies similarity...
2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843722/the-origin-of-the-lower-fourth-molar-in-canids-inferred-by-individual-variation
#14
Masakazu Asahara
BACKGROUND: An increase in tooth number is an exception during mammalian evolution. The acquisition of the lower fourth molar in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis, Canidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) is one example; however, its developmental origin is not clear. In some canids (Canidae), individual variation exist as supernumerary molar M4. This study focuses on the acquisition of the lower fourth molar in canids and proposes that the inhibitory cascade model can explain its origin. METHODS: Occlusal view projected area of lower molars was determined from 740 mandibles obtained from Canis latrans, Nyctereutes procyonoides, and Urocyon cinereoargenteus museum specimens...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811300/comparative-locomotor-costs-of-domestic-dogs-reveal-energetic-economy-of-wolf-like-breeds
#15
Caleb M Bryce, Terrie M Williams
The broad diversity in morphology and geographic distribution of the 35 free-ranging members of the family Canidae is only rivaled by that of the domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris. Considered to be among nature's most elite endurance athletes, both domestic and wild canids provide a unique opportunity to examine the variability in mammalian aerobic exercise performance and energy expenditure. To determine the potential effects of domestication and selective breeding on locomotor gait and economy in canids, we measured the kinematics and mass-specific metabolism of three large (>20 kg) dog breed groups (northern breeds, retrievers and hounds) of varying morphological and genomic relatedness to their shared progenitor, the gray wolf...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760521/an-interspecific-assessment-of-bergmann-s-rule-in-22-mammalian-families
#16
Jostein Gohli, Kjetil L Voje
BACKGROUND: Bergmann's rule proposes that animals in cold habitats will be larger than those in warm habitats. This prediction has been tested thoroughly at the intraspecific level, but few studies have investigated the hypothesis with interspecific data using phylogenetic comparative approaches. Many clades of mammals have representatives in numerous distinct biomes, making this order highly suitable for a large-scale interspecific assessment of Bergmann's rule. Here, we evaluate Bergmann's rule within 22 mammalian families-with a dataset that include ~35 % of all described species-using a phylogenetic comparative approach...
October 19, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724937/a-review-of-piroplasmid-infections-in-wild-carnivores-worldwide-importance-for-domestic-animal-health-and-wildlife-conservation
#17
REVIEW
Mario Alvarado-Rybak, Laia Solano-Gallego, Javier Millán
Piroplasmids are tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphocytes or other leukocytes) or endothelial cells of numerous wild and domestic vertebrates worldwide. They cause severe disease in livestock, dogs, cats, wild mammals and, occasionally, in humans. Piroplasmid infections are prevalent in wild carnivores worldwide although there is limited information about their clinical and epidemiological importance. There are currently nine recognized species of Babesia, two of Theileria, two of Cytauxzoon and one of Rangelia infecting captive and wild carnivores, including members of Canidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae, Ursidae, Viverridae, Hyaenidae and Herpestidae in the Americas, Eurasia and Africa...
October 10, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715424/population-structure-of-the-raccoon-dog-on-the-grounds-of-the-imperial-palace-tokyo-revealed-by-microsatellite-analysis-of-fecal-dna
#18
Wataru Saito, Yosuke Amaike, Takako Sako, Yayoi Kaneko, Ryuichi Masuda
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, Canidae, Carnivora) is highly adaptable to urban environments. Populations of carnivorans inhabiting urban areas sometimes differ ecologically and genetically from those in rural areas. However, there is little information on urban raccoon dogs. This study focused on raccoon dog populations in Tokyo, one of the most highly urbanized cities in the world. We examined the genotypes of 10 microsatellites for 101 fecal samples from raccoon dogs inhabiting the grounds of the Imperial Palace, a green space in central Tokyo...
October 2016: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707682/detection-of-candidatus-neoehrlichia-mikurensis-and-other-anaplasmataceae-and-rickettsiaceae-in-canidae-in-switzerland-and-mediterranean-countries
#19
R Hofmann-Lehmann, N Wagmann, M L Meli, B Riond, M Novacco, D Joekel, F Gentilini, F Marsilio, M G Pennisi, A Lloret, T Carrapiço, F S Boretti
'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic agent that primarily affects immunocompromised human patients. Dogs and foxes are frequently exposed to ticks, and both species are in close proximity to humans. This is the first study to systematically investigate the occurrence of 'Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis' in Canidae in Europa. We analyzed 1'739 blood samples from dogs in Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Portugal and 162 blood samples from free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Switzerland...
October 2016: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691945/prevalence-of-healed-long-bone-fractures-in-wild-carnivores-from-the-northeastern-united-states
#20
George C Argyros, Aaron J Roth
Museum specimens representing 12 species of terrestrial carnivores from the northeastern United States were inspected for evidence of healed long-bone fractures. Of 413 individuals, 18 (4.4%) exhibited healed fractures. Thirteen (72.2%) occurred in hind limbs; five (27.8%) occurred in forelimbs. Mustelids had the highest prevalence of healed long-bone fractures (38.8%) of all observed fractures. Within family, 5.6% of Canidae and 2.8% of Mustelidae exhibited healed fractures. Bobcats had the highest taxon prevalence of fractures, 18%...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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