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Jostein Gohli, Kjetil L Voje
BACKGROUND: Bergmann's rule proposes that animals in cold habitats will be larger than those in warm habitats. This prediction has been tested thoroughly at the intraspecific level, but few studies have investigated the hypothesis with interspecific data using phylogenetic comparative approaches. Many clades of mammals have representatives in numerous distinct biomes, making this order highly suitable for a large-scale interspecific assessment of Bergmann's rule. Here, we evaluate Bergmann's rule within 22 mammalian families-with a dataset that include ~35 % of all described species-using a phylogenetic comparative approach...
October 19, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Petras Prakas, Eglė Rudaitytė, Dalius Butkauskas, Liuda Kutkienė
In the present study, we describe Sarcocystis entzerothi n. sp. from the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) based on the microscopical and DNA analysis. By light microscopy (LM), cysts of S. entzerothi were spindle-shaped with pointed tips, 950-1900 × 70-150 μm in size and had 5-6 μm long finger-like cyst wall protrusions. Cyst wall of S. entzerothi by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was type 10a-like; villar protrusions were up to 1.2 μm wide, densely packed, lying about 0.1 μm between each other, had profuse microgranules and microfilaments, parasitophorous vacuolar membrane had many minute invaginations, and the ground substance layer measured up to 0...
October 18, 2016: Parasitology Research
Christopher James Whipp, Pierre-Yves Daoust, Gary Conboy, Hans Gelens
A large abdominal mass containing numerous cysticerci identified as those of Taenia crassiceps (=Cysticercus longicollis) was found in the pelvic region of the abdominal cavity of a severely constipated and emaciated red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Cysticercosis has not previously been reported in a wild canid in North America.
October 17, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Betul Sonmez, Ergun Koroglu, Sami Simsek
Taenia multiceps is a cestode (family Taeniidae) that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. The metacestode, known as Coenurus cerebralis, is usually found in the central nervous system including brain and spinal card in sheep and other ruminants. The presence of cysts typically leads to neurological symptoms that in the majority of cases result in the death of the animal. Coenurosis could cause high losses in sheep farms because the disease commonly affects young animals...
October 6, 2016: Parasitology
Thangadurai Mani, Catherine Bourguinat, Kathy Keller, Elena Carreton, Andrew Peregrine, Roger K Prichard
Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial parasite, causes cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and wild canids. The macrocyclic lactone (ML) class of drugs has been used to prevent heartworm infection. There is confirmed ML resistance in D. immitis and thus there is an urgent need to find new anthelmintics that could prevent and/or control the disease. Targeting ion channels of D. immitis for drug design has obvious advantages. These channels, present in the nematode nervous system, control movement, feeding, mating and respond to environmental cues which are necessary for survival of the parasite...
July 1, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Débora Nunes de Souza, Pedro Carnieli, Carla Isabel Macedo, Rafael de Novaes Oliveira, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho Ruthner Batista, Adriana Candido Rodrigues, Patricia Mariano Cruz Pereira, Samira Maria Achkar, Luiz Fernando Pereira Vieira, Juliana Galera Castilho Kawai
Cases of canine rabies continue to occur in North and Northeast Brazil, and the number of notifications of rabies cases in wild canids has increased as a result of the expansion of urban areas at the expense of areas with native vegetation. In light of this, we performed molecular characterization of rabies virus isolates from dogs and Cerdocyon thous from various states in North and Northeast Brazil. In all, 102 samples from dogs (n = 56) and Cerdocyon thous (n = 46) collected between 2006 and 2012 were used...
September 26, 2016: Archives of Virology
Kantapon Suraprasit, Jean-Jacques Jaeger, Yaowalak Chaimanee, Olivier Chavasseau, Chotima Yamee, Pannipa Tian, Somsak Panha
The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf...
2016: ZooKeys
Angie M Johnston, Paul C Holden, Laurie R Santos
When learning from others, human children tend to faithfully copy - or 'overimitate' - the actions of a demonstrator, even when these actions are irrelevant for solving the task at hand. We investigate whether domesticated dogs (Canis familiaris) and dingoes (Canis dingo) share this tendency to overimitate in three experiments. In Experiment 1, dogs and dingoes had the opportunity to solve a puzzle after watching an ostensive demonstrator who used both a relevant action and an irrelevant action. We find clear evidence against overimitation in both species...
September 22, 2016: Developmental Science
Kylie M Cairns, Alan N Wilton
How and when dingoes arrived in Oceania poses a fascinating question for scientists with interest in the historical movements of humans and dogs. The dingo holds a unique position as top terrestrial predator of Australia and exists in a wild state. In the first geographical survey of genetic diversity in the dingo using whole mitochondrial genomes, we analysed 16,428 bp in 25 individuals from five separate populations. We also investigated 13 nuclear loci to compare with the mitochondrial population history patterns...
October 2016: Genetica
Natalie E Kelso-Chichetto, Chukwuemeka N Okafor, Jeffrey S Harman, Shantrel S Canidate, Christa L Cook, Robert L Cook
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to describe complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use and to assess the relationships between CAM use and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA viral load suppression among a sample of persons living with HIV (PLWH) engaged in care in the state of Florida. DESIGN: The Florida Medical Monitoring Project (n = 803) collected repeated cross-sectional data for surveillance of clinical outcomes among PLWH from 2009 to 2010...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
R Ghasemikhah, M Shahdoust, H Sarmadian, M Rezaei, B Ghorbanzadeh, A Gorji, M Zare-Bidaki
Objective: Echinococcosis or hydatid cyst in humans and livestock is resulted from the larval stage of dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. Although Iran is considered as an endemic focus of echinococcosis in the world, however, the status of three well-known aspects of the infection, ie canids, livestock and humans populations, is not still completely elucidated in Arak city, the capital of the Markazi province. This study aimed to elucidate the livestock infection in the region. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, after necessary coordination with the provincial administration of Iranian Veterinary Organization, totally 860 171 livestock slaughtered in industrial slaughterhouse of Arak city, including 364 682 sheep, 117 495 cattle and 377 994 goats were investigated during 2006 to 2012...
October 14, 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
Angélica da Silva Vasconcellos, Zsófia Virányi, Friederike Range, César Ades, Jördis Kristin Scheidegger, Erich Möstl, Kurt Kotrschal
The welfare of animals in captivity is of considerable societal concern. A major source of stress, especially for wild animals, is the lack of control over their environment, which includes not being able to avoid contact with human beings. Paradoxically, some studies have shown that interactions with human beings may improve the welfare of wild animals in captivity. Here, we investigated the behavioural (behaviours indicative of cooperation or stress) and physiological (variations in salivary cortisol concentrations) effects of the increasingly used practice of training wild animals as a way to facilitate handling and/or as behavioural enrichment...
2016: PloS One
Katherina A Vizcaychipi, Miguel Rinas, Lucia Irazu, Adriana Miyagi, Carina F Argüelles, Karen E DeMatteo
Wildlife remains an important source of zoonotic diseases for the most vulnerable groups of humans, primarily those living in rural areas or coexisting with forest. The Upper Paraná Atlantic forest of Misiones, Argentina is facing ongoing environmental and anthropogenic changes, which affect the local biodiversity, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), a small canid considered Near Threatened globally and Endangered locally. This project aimed to expand the knowledge of zoonotic parasites present in the bush dog and the potential implications for human health and conservation medicine...
October 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Christopher L Campbell, Claude Bhérer, Bernice E Morrow, Adam R Boyko, Adam Auton
Meiotic recombination in mammals has been shown to largely cluster into hotspots, which are targeted by the chromatin modifier PRDM9. The canid family, including wolves and dogs, has undergone a series of disrupting mutations in this gene, rendering PRDM9 inactive. Given the importance of PRDM9 it is of great interest to learn how its absence in the dog genome affects patterns of recombination placement. We have used genotypes from domestic dog pedigrees to generate sex-specific genetic maps of recombination in this species...
September 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
N C Pedersen, J K Dhanota, H Liu
Specific polymorphisms in the endoplasmic reticulum amino peptidase genes ERAP1 and ERAP2, when present with certain MHC class receptor types, have been associated with increased risk for specific cancers, infectious diseases and autoimmune disorders in humans. This increased risk has been linked to distinct polymorphisms in both ERAPs and MHC class I receptors that affect the way cell-generated peptides are screened for antigenicity. The incidence of cancer, infectious disease and autoimmune disorders differ greatly among pure breeds of dogs as it does in humans and it is possible that this heightened susceptibility is also due to specific polymorphisms in ERAP1 and ERAP2...
October 15, 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Grzegorz R Juszczak, Michal Miller
Detour tasks are commonly used to study problem solving skills and inhibitory control in canids and primates. However, there is no comparable detour test designed for rodents despite its significance for studying the development of executive skills. Furthermore, mice offer research opportunities that are not currently possible to achieve when primates are used. Therefore, the aim of the study was to translate the classic detour task to mice and to compare obtained data with key findings obtained previously in other mammals...
2016: PloS One
Ligia Tchaicka, Thales Renato Ochotorena de Freitas, Alex Bager, Stela Luengos Vidal, Mauro Lucherini, Agustín Iriarte, Andres Novaro, Eli Geffen, Fabricio Silva Garcez, Warren E Johnson, Robert K Wayne, Eduardo Eizirik
To investigate the evolution and biogeography of an endemic group of South American foxes, we examined mitochondrial DNA control region sequences for 118 individuals belonging to all six extant species of the genus Lycalopex. Phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses supported the inference that this genus has undergone a very recent and rapid radiation, stemming from a common ancestor that lived ca. 1 million years ago. The Brazilian endemic L. vetulus was supported as the most basal species in this genus, whereas the most internal group is comprised by the recently diverged (ca...
July 2016: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Benjamin N Sacks, Jennifer L Brazeal, Jeffrey C Lewis
Invasive mammalian carnivores contribute disproportionately to declines in global biodiversity. In California, nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) have significantly impacted endangered ground-nesting birds and native canids. These foxes derive primarily from captive-reared animals associated with the fur-farming industry. Over the past five decades, the cumulative area occupied by nonnative red fox increased to cover much of central and southern California. We used a landscape-genetic approach involving mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 13 microsatellites of 402 nonnative red foxes removed in predator control programs to investigate source populations, contemporary connectivity, and metapopulation dynamics...
July 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Claudio Sillero-Zubiri, Jorgelina Marino, Christopher H Gordon, Eric Bedin, Alo Hussein, Fekede Regassa, Ashley Banyard, Anthony R Fooks
Diseases are a major cause of population declines in endangered populations of several canid species. Parenteral vaccination efforts to protect Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis) from rabies have targeted the domestic dog reservoir, or the wolves themselves in response to confirmed outbreaks. Oral vaccination offers a more cost-efficient, safe and proactive approach to protect Ethiopian wolves and other threatened canids from rabies. Field trials of the oral vaccine Rabigen® SAG2Dog were undertaken in the Bale Mountains of southeastern Ethiopia...
September 14, 2016: Vaccine
Miljan Krstić, Simona Gabrielli, Marina Ignjatović, Sara Savić, Gabriella Cancrini, Gordana Ranđelović, Stefan Momčilović, Slavica Stojnev, Suzana Otašević
Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens are mosquito-borne nematodes that primarily infect canids, and can also cause mild to serious superficial or visceral infection in humans. In the present survey, peripheral blood from 150 asymptomatic dogs from Serbia were examined using the modified Knott's technique. Dirofilaria immitis, identified based on morphological and morphometric characteristics, was prevalent in dogs not receiving preventative treatment (in 44% and 60% of pound and pet dogs, respectively). These results, together with findings of autochthonous cases of subcutaneous D...
August 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
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