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Ana Margarida Alho, José Meireles, Manuela Schnyder, Luís Cardoso, Silvana Belo, Peter Deplazes, Luís Madeira de Carvalho
Cardiopulmonary nematodes are life-threatening pet parasites increasingly reported throughout Europe, with overlapping endemic areas. Dirofilaria immitis is a mosquito-borne whilst Angiostrongylus vasorum is a snail-borne pathogen. Both adult nematodes reside in the pulmonary arteries and right cardiac ventricle of domestic and wild canids, causing a wide spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from cough, dyspnoea and exercise intolerance to severe vascular and pulmonary disease with hearth failure that may lead to death...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Barend L Penzhorn, Edward C Netherlands, Courtney A Cook, Nico J Smit, Ilse Vorster, Robert F Harrison-White, Marinda C Oosthuizen
BACKGROUND: Domestic dogs are not native to sub-Saharan Africa, which may account for their susceptibility to Babesia rossi, of which endemic black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) are natural reservoirs. There is virtually no information on the occurrence of potentially pathogenic haemogregarines (e.g. Hepatozoon canis) or even rickettsial bacteria (e.g. Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp.) in indigenous canids in sub-Saharan Africa. Such organisms could pose a risk to domestic dogs, as well as to populations of endangered indigenous canid species...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Maayan Margalit Levi, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Roni King, Gad Baneth
BACKGROUND: Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a variety of animals, including canids. Their life-cycle includes an invertebrate hematophagous vector as a definitive host and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild golden jackals (Canis aureus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel and to compare spleen with blood sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Andrea Talenti, Dayna L Dreger, Stefano Frattini, Michele Polli, Stefano Marelli, Alexander C Harris, Luigi Liotta, Raffaella Cocco, Andrew N Hogan, Daniele Bigi, Romolo Caniglia, Heidi G Parker, Giulio Pagnacco, Elaine A Ostrander, Paola Crepaldi
Through thousands of years of breeding and strong human selection, the dog ( Canis lupus familiaris ) exists today within hundreds of closed populations throughout the world, each with defined phenotypes. A singular geographic region with broad diversity in dog breeds presents an interesting opportunity to observe potential mechanisms of breed formation. Italy claims 14 internationally recognized dog breeds, with numerous additional local varieties. To determine the relationship among Italian dog populations, we integrated genetic data from 263 dogs representing 23 closed dog populations from Italy, seven Apennine gray wolves, and an established dataset of 161 globally recognized dog breeds, applying multiple genetic methods to characterize the modes by which breeds are formed within a single geographic region...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Axel H Newton, Frantisek Spoutil, Jan Prochazka, Jay R Black, Kathryn Medlock, Robert N Paddle, Marketa Knitlova, Christy A Hipsley, Andrew J Pask
The Tasmanian tiger or thylacine ( Thylacinus cynocephalus ) was an iconic Australian marsupial predator that was hunted to extinction in the early 1900s. Despite sharing striking similarities with canids, they failed to evolve many of the specialized anatomical features that characterize carnivorous placental mammals. These evolutionary limitations are thought to arise from functional constraints associated with the marsupial mode of reproduction, in which otherwise highly altricial young use their well-developed forelimbs to climb to the pouch and mouth to suckle...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Muhammad A Saeed, Mohammed H Rashid, Jane Vaughan, Abdul Jabbar
Members of the genus Sarcocystis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) are intracellular protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals, resulting in economic losses in production animals worldwide. Sarcocystis spp. have indirect life-cycles where canids and felids serve as main definitive hosts while a range of domestic and wild animals serve as intermediate hosts, including South American camelids (SACs) such as alpacas, llamas and guanacos. These animals primarily occur in South American countries on Andean, elevated plains but in recent years, alpacas and llamas have become emerging animal industries in other parts of the world such as Australia, Europe and the USA due to their high-quality fiber, meat and hides...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Rachel Dale, Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Friederike Range
While food sharing among related individuals can be explained by kin selection, food sharing between unrelated individuals has been more of an evolutionary puzzle. The food-for-sex hypothesis provides an explanation for the occurrence of food sharing among nonkin. However, little is known about the socio-ecological factors that can promote such a commodity exchange. A species mating system is a factor potentially influencing food-for-sex patterns of behavior. Here, we compared wolves, which form pair-bonds, with dogs, which are typically promiscuous in free-ranging contexts, to investigate the effect of reproductive stages on the behavior around a food source in 2 different contexts...
June 2017: Current Zoology
Alessandra Snak, Felipe Gustavo Garcia, Arielle Aparecida Lara, Hilda Fátima Jesus Pena, Silvia Cristina Osaki
Neospora caninum is a heteroxenous protozoa, whose definitive hosts are canids and intermediate hosts are herbivores, and is of great importance in cattle. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of N. caninum in dairy cattle and dogs, to detect the presence of the protozoa at the molecular level in aborted fetuses, and to identify the risk factors associated with infection in properties in the western region of the state of Paraná. For this study, 600 bovine serum samples from 60 properties, 163 canine serum samples from 52 properties and 17 bovine fetuses from nine properties were collected...
February 19, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Abdullah S Ahmad, Muhammad A Saeed, Imran Rashid, Kamran Ashraf, Wasim Shehzad, Rebecca J Traub, Gad Baneth, Abdul Jabbar
Hepatozoon canis is a tick-borne pathogen of canids, which is distributed worldwide. However, very little is known about this protozoan parasite in Pakistan. This study provides the first molecular evidence of H. canis from farm dogs from three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan. A conventional PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene was used to characterize H. canis from farm dogs from three districts, namely Kasur, Rawalpindi, and Muzaffargarh, in Punjab. Of 341 blood samples tested, 155 (45.5%) were positive for H...
February 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
Clare Rusbridge, Francisco J Salguero, Monique Antoinette David, Kiterie M E Faller, Jose T Bras, Rita J Guerreiro, Angela C Richard-Londt, Duncan Grainger, Elizabeth Head, Sebastian G P Brandner, Brian Summers, John Hardy, Mourad Tayebi
Many of the molecular and pathological features associated with human Alzheimer disease (AD) are mirrored in the naturally occurring age-associated neuropathology in the canine species. In aged dogs with declining learned behavior and memory the severity of cognitive dysfunction parallels the progressive build up and location of Aβ in the brain. The main aim of this work was to study the biological behavior of soluble oligomers isolated from an aged dog with cognitive dysfunction through investigating their interaction with a human cell line and synthetic Aβ peptides...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Ning Wang, Yu Wang, Qinghua Ye, Yingdong Yang, Jie Wan, Cheng Guo, Jiafei Zhan, Xiaobin Gu, Weimin Lai, Yue Xie, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Taenia multiceps is a tapeworm that leads to the death of livestock, resulting in major economic losses worldwide. The adult stage of this parasite invades the small intestine of dogs and other canids. In the present study, we developed a direct PCR assay to detect T. multiceps eggs isolated from dog feces to help curb further outbreaks. The genomic DNA was rapidly released using a lysis buffer and the PCR reaction was developed to amplify a 433-bp fragment of the T. multiceps mitochondrial gene encoding NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) from eggs isolated from dog feces...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Kathrin Schug, Friederike Krämer, Roland Schaper, Jörg Hirzmann, Klaus Failing, Carlos Hermosilla, Anja Taubert
BACKGROUND: Angiostrongylus vasorum, Crenosoma vulpis and Eucoleus aerophilus are a source of increasing concern, potentially causing significant pulmonary and severe cardiac/systemic diseases in domestic dogs and wild canids, especially red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). To investigate the prevalence and geographical distribution of these parasites in central Germany, a total of 569 foxes were examined by dissection. METHODS: Pluck (heart and lung) and faecal samples of red foxes were collected from three regions of Germany...
February 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Natalia Fernández-Borges, Hasier Eraña, Joaquín Castilla
Historically, the observation of naturally occurring cases of prion disease led to the classification of different susceptibility grades and to the designation of prion resistant species. However, the development of highly efficient in vitro prion propagation systems and the generation of ad hoc transgenic models allowed determining that leporidae and equidae families have been erroneously considered resistant to prion infection. On the contrary, similar approaches revealed an unexpected high level of resistance of the canidae family...
February 1, 2018: Prion
Reza Zolfaghari Emameh, Sami Purmonen, Antti Sukura, Seppo Parkkila
Foodborne parasites are a source of human parasitic infection. Zoonotic infections of humans arise from a variety of domestic and wild animals, including sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses, pigs, boars, bears, felines, canids, amphibians, reptiles, poultry, and aquatic animals such as fishes and shrimp. Therefore, the implementation of efficient, accessible, and controllable inspection policies for livestock, fisheries, slaughterhouses, and meat processing and packaging companies is highly recommended. In addition, more attention should be paid to the education of auditors from the quality control (QC) and assurance sectors, livestock breeders, the fishery sector, and meat inspection veterinarians in developing countries with high incidence of zoonotic parasitic infections...
January 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Nina Gillis-Germitsch, Marta B Manser, Monika Hilbe, Manuela Schnyder
Angiostronglyus vasorum is a cardiopulmonary nematode infecting mainly canids such as dogs (Canis familiaris) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Natural infections have also been reported in mustelids and red pandas (Ailurus fulgens fulgens). We report the occurrence of natural A. vasorum infections in a group of captive meerkats (Suricata suricatta), housed at a university facility in Switzerland. A. vasorum first-stage larvae (L1) were initially identified in a pooled faecal sample. Individual samples, investigated with the Baermann-Wetzel technique, revealed that 41% (7/17) of the meerkats were infected, with ranges of 2-125 L1/g faeces...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Aleksandra Penezić, Roberta Moriano, Marija Spasić, Duško Ćirović
Dirofilaria immitis causes a severe and life-threatening cardio-pulmonary disease in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Americas; also, zoonotic infections have been reported. This parasitic vector-borne disease is mostly common in domestic and wild canids and felids. Here, we present a rare finding of this roundworm in the heart of a Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). Four mature specimens of D. immitis were found in the right ventricle of the heart. Necropsy was performed after the animal was found road-killed in Eastern Serbia, close to the Danube River...
January 26, 2018: Parasitology Research
Marcus A Mueller, David Drake, Maximilian L Allen
Urban environments are increasing worldwide and are inherently different than their rural counterparts, with a variety of effects on wildlife due to human presence, increased habitat fragmentation, movement barriers, and access to anthropogenic food sources. Effective management of urban wildlife requires an understanding of how urbanization affects their behavior and ecology. The spatial activity and interactions of urban wildlife, however, have not been as rigorously researched as in rural areas. From January 2015 to December 2016, we captured, radio-collared, and tracked 11 coyotes and 12 red foxes in Madison, WI...
2018: PloS One
Jonatas C Almeida, Renata P B Melo, Pomy C P Kim, Neurisvan R Guerra, Leucio C Alves, Diego F Costa, Clebert José Alves, Wagnner J N Porto, Rinaldo A Mota
The aim of this study was to detect DNA and antibodies anti-Leishmania spp., Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in captive and free-range crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from northeastern Brazil. Twenty-five crab-eating foxes from different states of northeastern Brazil were sampled by this study. Blood samples were collected by cephalic or jugular vein punctures. The whole blood was submitted to PCR, and the sera samples to the serological analysis as follows: MAT for T. gondii, NAT for N. caninum, and ELISA for L...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
Yichi Zhang, Wei Zhao, Di Yang, Yuan Tian, Weizhe Zhang, Aiqin Liu
Taenia multiceps and Taenia hydatigena are widely distributed tapeworms of canids. Due to a lack of genetic information on these two parasites in China, in this study we analyzed six coenurus cerebralis and two cysticercus tenuicollis cysts from goats or sheep in Inner Mongolia, northern China by amplifying three mitochondrial genes (cox1, nad4, and cytb). Two haplotypes were obtained at each locus for either of the two Taenia cestode species, with ten nucleotide sequences being novel. The degrees of genetic variations were 1...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
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