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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928865/canine-distemper-virus-in-the-serengeti-ecosystem-molecular-adaptation-to-different-carnivore-species
#1
Veljko M Nikolin, Ximena A Olarte-Castillo, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Heribert Hofer, Edward Dubovi, Camila J Mazzoni, Edgar Brunner, Katja V Goller, Robert D Fyumagwa, Patricia D Moehlman, Dagmar Thierer, Marion L East
Was the 1993/1994 fatal canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemic in lions and spotted hyaenas in the Serengeti ecosystem caused by the recent spillover of a virulent domestic dog strain or one well adapted to these noncanids? We examine this question using sequence data from 13 'Serengeti' strains including five complete genomes obtained between 1993 and 2011. Phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses reveal that strains from noncanids during the epidemic were more closely related to each other than to those from domestic or wild canids...
December 7, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927792/genomic-analysis-reveals-hypoxia-adaptation-in-the-tibetan-mastiff-by-introgression-of-the-grey-wolf-from-the-tibetan-plateau
#2
EDITORIAL
Benpeng Miao, Zhen Wang, Yixue Li
The Tibetan Mastiff, a native of the Tibetan Plateau, has quickly adapted to the extreme highland environment. Recently, the impact of positive selection on the Tibetan Mastiff genome was studied and potential hypoxia-adaptive genes were identified. However, the origin of the adaptive variants remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the signature of genetic introgression in the adaptation of Tibetan Mastiffs with dog and wolf genomic data from different altitudes in close geographic proximity. On a genome-wide scale, the Tibetan Mastiff was much more closely related to other dogs than wolves...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898670/gray-wolf-exposure-to-emerging-vector-borne-diseases-in-wisconsin-with-comparison-to-domestic-dogs-and-humans
#3
Rocio F Jara, Adrian P Wydeven, Michael D Samuel
World-wide concern over emerging vector-borne diseases has increased in recent years for both animal and human health. In the United Sates, concern about vector-borne diseases in canines has focused on Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, and heartworm which infect domestic and wild canids. Of these diseases, Lyme and anaplasmosis are also frequently diagnosed in humans. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) recolonized Wisconsin in the 1970s, and we evaluated their temporal and geographic patterns of exposure to these four vector-borne diseases in Wisconsin as the population expanded between 1985 and 2011...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891564/a-homozygous-pign-missense-mutation-in-soft-coated-wheaten-terriers-with-a-canine-paroxysmal-dyskinesia
#4
Ana L Kolicheski, Gary S Johnson, Tendai Mhlanga-Mutangadura, Jeremy F Taylor, Robert D Schnabel, Taroh Kinoshita, Yoshiko Murakami, Dennis P O'Brien
Hereditary paroxysmal dyskinesias (PxD) are a heterogeneous group of movement disorders classified by frequency, duration, and triggers of the episodes. A young-adult onset canine PxD has segregated as an autosomal recessive trait in Soft-Coated Wheaten Terriers. The medical records and videos of episodes from 25 affected dogs were reviewed. The episodes of hyperkinesia and dystonia lasted from several minutes to several hours and could occur as often as >10/day. They were not associated with strenuous exercise or fasting but were sometimes triggered by excitement...
November 28, 2016: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887695/reprint-of-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-stricto-s-s-from-the-critically-endangered-antelope-addax-nasomaculatus-in-tunisia
#5
Belgees Boufana, Yousra Saïd, Mokhtar Dhibi, Philip S Craig, Samia Lahmar
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia...
November 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887693/reprint-of-survey-and-first-molecular-characterization-of-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-stricto-g1-in-pampas-fox-lycalopex-gymnocercus-in-buenos-aires-province-argentina
#6
Nathalia Paula Scioscia, Romina Sandra Petrigh, Pablo Martín Beldomenico, Martín Fugassa, Guillermo María Denegri
Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) has a world-wide distribution and its transmission is primarily maintained in a synanthropic cycle with dogs as definitive hosts and livestock species as intermediate hosts. However, many wild canids also function as definitive hosts for E. granulosus s. l. Echinococcosis in humans is mainly caused by E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.) G1 genotype. In the present work, we expanded the epidemiological study on echinococcosis reported cases in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) to provide a prevalence estimate for rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina...
November 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843722/the-origin-of-the-lower-fourth-molar-in-canids-inferred-by-individual-variation
#7
Masakazu Asahara
BACKGROUND: An increase in tooth number is an exception during mammalian evolution. The acquisition of the lower fourth molar in the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis, Canidae, Carnivora, Mammalia) is one example; however, its developmental origin is not clear. In some canids (Canidae), individual variation exist as supernumerary molar M4. This study focuses on the acquisition of the lower fourth molar in canids and proposes that the inhibitory cascade model can explain its origin. METHODS: Occlusal view projected area of lower molars was determined from 740 mandibles obtained from Canis latrans, Nyctereutes procyonoides, and Urocyon cinereoargenteus museum specimens...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832063/one-health-interactions-of-chagas-disease-vectors-canid-hosts-and-human-residents-along-the-texas-mexico-border
#8
Melissa N Garcia, Sarah O'Day, Susan Fisher-Hoch, Rodion Gorchakov, Ramiro Patino, Teresa P Feria Arroyo, Susan T Laing, Job E Lopez, Alexandra Ingber, Kathryn M Jones, Kristy O Murray
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi infection) is the leading cause of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy in Latin America. Texas, particularly the southern region, has compounding factors that could contribute to T. cruzi transmission; however, epidemiologic studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of T. cruzi in three different mammalian species (coyotes, stray domestic dogs, and humans) and vectors (Triatoma species) to understand the burden of Chagas disease among sylvatic, peridomestic, and domestic cycles...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811300/comparative-locomotor-costs-of-domestic-dogs-reveal-energetic-economy-of-wolf-like-breeds
#9
C M Bryce, T M Williams
The broad diversity in morphology and geographic distribution of the 35 free-ranging members of the family Canidae is only rivaled by that of the domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris. Considered to be among nature's most elite endurance athletes, both domestic and wild canids provide a unique opportunity to examine the variability in mammalian aerobic exercise performance and energy expenditure. To determine the potential effects of domestication and selective breeding on locomotor gait and economy in canids, we measured the kinematics and mass-specific metabolism of three large (>20 kg) dog breed groups (northern breeds, retrievers, and hounds) of varying morphological and genomic relatedness to their shared progenitor, the gray wolf...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805842/neospora-caninum-in-wild-waterfowl-occurrence-of-parasite-dna-and-low-antibody-titers
#10
Guido Rocchigiani, Alessandro Poli, Simona Nardoni, Papini Roberto, Francesca Mancianti
Thirty-five adult waterfowl (14 males and 21 females) representing various orders and species were sampled during the hunting season from 2015 to 2016. Antibodies to Neospora caninum were detected by IFAT on blood samples, while heart and brain were subjected to molecular analysis for the detection of Neospora caninum DNA. Twelve birds (34.3%) (6 Anas crecca, 3 Anas platyrhynchos, 2 Anas penelope, 1 Anas acuta) showed antibodies versus N. caninum, while 10 animals out of 35 (4 Anas crecca, 2 Anas platyrhynchos, 2 Anas penelope, 1 Anas acuta, and 1 Vanellus vanellus) scored positive for at least 1 sample, with an overall prevalence of 28...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796367/serological-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-canine-adenovirus-type-1-in-red-foxes-vulpes-vulpes-in-the-united-kingdom
#11
David Walker, Seán A Fee, Gill Hartley, Jane Learmount, Maria J H O'Hagan, Anna L Meredith, Barend M de C Bronsvoort, Thibaud Porphyre, Colin P Sharp, Adrian W Philbey
Canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) causes infectious canine hepatitis (ICH), a frequently fatal disease which primarily affects canids. In this study, serology (ELISA) and molecular techniques (PCR/qPCR) were utilised to investigate the exposure of free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to CAV-1 in the United Kingdom (UK) and to examine their role as a wildlife reservoir of infection for susceptible species. The role of canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), primarily a respiratory pathogen, was also explored. In foxes with no evidence of ICH on post-mortem examination, 29 of 154 (18...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788289/brachial-plexus-in-the-pampas-fox-lycalopex-gymnocercus-a-descriptive-and-comparative-analysis
#12
Paulo de Souza Junior, Natan da Cruz de Carvalho, Karine de Mattos, Marcelo Abidu Figueiredo, André Luiz Quagliatto Santos
Twenty thoracic limbs of ten Lycalopex gymnocercus were dissected to describe origin and distribution of the nerves forming brachial plexuses. The brachial plexus resulted from the connections between the ventral branches of the last three cervical nerves (C6, C7 and C8) and first thoracic nerve (T1). These branches connected the suprascapular, subscapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial, median and ulnar nerves to the intrinsic musculature and connected the brachiocephalic, thoracodorsal, lateral thoracic, long thoracic, cranial pectoral and caudal pectoral nerves to the extrinsic musculature...
October 27, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774854/detection-of-leishmania-l-infantum-in-stray-dogs-by-molecular-techniques-with-sensitive-species-specific-primers
#13
Rodrigo C Silva, Virgínia B Richini-Pereira, Mariana Kikuti, Pâmela M Marson, Helio Langoni
BACKGROUND: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a worldwide parasitic zoonosis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum around the world. Canids are the definitive hosts and sand flies the intermediate hosts. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a new species-specific primers (Lch14:Lch15, targeting a multiple alignment for L. infantum kDNA minicircle) is an efficient diagnostic tool for L. infantum. METHODS: The presence of L. infantum DNA was assessed in blood samples of 69 stray dogs using the conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
November 9, 2016: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760521/an-interspecific-assessment-of-bergmann-s-rule-in-22-mammalian-families
#14
Jostein Gohli, Kjetil L Voje
BACKGROUND: Bergmann's rule proposes that animals in cold habitats will be larger than those in warm habitats. This prediction has been tested thoroughly at the intraspecific level, but few studies have investigated the hypothesis with interspecific data using phylogenetic comparative approaches. Many clades of mammals have representatives in numerous distinct biomes, making this order highly suitable for a large-scale interspecific assessment of Bergmann's rule. Here, we evaluate Bergmann's rule within 22 mammalian families-with a dataset that include ~35 % of all described species-using a phylogenetic comparative approach...
October 19, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752769/sarcocystis-entzerothi-n-sp-from-the-european-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#15
Petras Prakas, Eglė Rudaitytė, Dalius Butkauskas, Liuda Kutkienė
In the present study, we describe Sarcocystis entzerothi n. sp. from the European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) based on the microscopical and DNA analysis. By light microscopy (LM), cysts of S. entzerothi were spindle-shaped with pointed tips, 950-1900 × 70-150 μm in size and had 5-6 μm long finger-like cyst wall protrusions. Cyst wall of S. entzerothi by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was type 10a-like; villar protrusions were up to 1.2 μm wide, densely packed, lying about 0.1 μm between each other, had profuse microgranules and microfilaments, parasitophorous vacuolar membrane had many minute invaginations, and the ground substance layer measured up to 0...
October 18, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749195/abdominal-cysticercosis-in-a-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes
#16
Christopher James Whipp, Pierre-Yves Daoust, Gary Conboy, Hans Gelens
A large abdominal mass containing numerous cysticerci identified as those of Taenia crassiceps (=Cysticercus longicollis) was found in the pelvic region of the abdominal cavity of a severely constipated and emaciated red fox ( Vulpes vulpes ) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Cysticercosis has not previously been reported in a wild canid in North America.
October 17, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707419/molecular-characterization-and-detection-of-variants-of-taenia-multiceps-in-sheep-in-turkey
#17
Betul Sonmez, Ergun Koroglu, Sami Simsek
Taenia multiceps is a cestode (family Taeniidae) that in its adult stage lives in the small intestine of dogs and other canids. The metacestode, known as Coenurus cerebralis, is usually found in the central nervous system including brain and spinal card in sheep and other ruminants. The presence of cysts typically leads to neurological symptoms that in the majority of cases result in the death of the animal. Coenurosis could cause high losses in sheep farms because the disease commonly affects young animals...
October 6, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682347/polymorphism-in-ion-channel-genes-of-dirofilaria-immitis-relevant-knowledge-for-future-anthelmintic-drug-design
#18
Thangadurai Mani, Catherine Bourguinat, Kathy Keller, Elena Carreton, Andrew Peregrine, Roger K Prichard
Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial parasite, causes cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs, cats and wild canids. The macrocyclic lactone (ML) class of drugs has been used to prevent heartworm infection. There is confirmed ML resistance in D. immitis and thus there is an urgent need to find new anthelmintics that could prevent and/or control the disease. Targeting ion channels of D. immitis for drug design has obvious advantages. These channels, present in the nematode nervous system, control movement, feeding, mating and respond to environmental cues which are necessary for survival of the parasite...
July 1, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671776/phylogenetic-analysis-of-rabies-virus-isolated-from-canids-in-north-and-northeast-brazil
#19
Débora Nunes de Souza, Pedro Carnieli, Carla Isabel Macedo, Rafael de Novaes Oliveira, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho Ruthner Batista, Adriana Candido Rodrigues, Patricia Mariano Cruz Pereira, Samira Maria Achkar, Luiz Fernando Pereira Vieira, Juliana Galera Castilho Kawai
Cases of canine rabies continue to occur in North and Northeast Brazil, and the number of notifications of rabies cases in wild canids has increased as a result of the expansion of urban areas at the expense of areas with native vegetation. In light of this, we performed molecular characterization of rabies virus isolates from dogs and Cerdocyon thous from various states in North and Northeast Brazil. In all, 102 samples from dogs (n = 56) and Cerdocyon thous (n = 46) collected between 2006 and 2012 were used...
September 26, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667928/the-middle-pleistocene-vertebrate-fauna-from-khok-sung-nakhon-ratchasima-thailand-biochronological-and-paleobiogeographical-implications
#20
Kantapon Suraprasit, Jean-Jacques Jaeger, Yaowalak Chaimanee, Olivier Chavasseau, Chotima Yamee, Pannipa Tian, Somsak Panha
The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf...
2016: ZooKeys
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