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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141203/mouse-adenovirus-type-1-infection-of-adipose-tissue
#1
Caitlyn T Molloy, Laura J Adkins, Cameron Griffin, Kanakadurga Singer, Jason B Weinberg
Human adenovirus (HAdV) type 36 seropositivity has been linked to obesity in humans. That link is supported by a small number of studies using HAdV-36 infection of animals that are not natural hosts for HAdVs. In this study, we infected mice with mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1), a mouse pathogen, to determine whether MAV-1 infected adipose tissue and was associated with adipose tissue inflammation and obesity. We detected MAV-1 in adipose tissue during acute MAV-1 infection, but we did not detect virus-induced increases in adipose tissue cytokine expression or histological evidence of adipose tissue inflammation during acute infection...
November 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132350/avian-infectious-bronchitis-virus-disrupts-the-melanoma-differentiation-associated-gene-5-mda5-signaling-pathway-by-cleavage-of-the-adaptor-protein-mavs
#2
Liping Yu, Xiaorong Zhang, Tianqi Wu, Jin Su, Yuyang Wang, Yuexin Wang, Baoyang Ruan, Xiaosai Niu, Yantao Wu
BACKGROUND: Melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) and retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) selectively sense cytoplasmic viral RNA to induce an antiviral immune response. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the most important infectious agents in chickens, and in chicken cells, it can be recognized by MDA5 to activate interferon production. RIG-I is considered to be absent in chickens. However, the absence of RIG-I in chickens raises the question of whether this protein influences the antiviral immune response against IBV infection...
November 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125880/mavs-activates-tbk1-and-ikk%C3%AE%C2%B5-through-trafs-in-nemo-dependent-and-independent-manner
#3
Run Fang, Qifei Jiang, Xiang Zhou, Chenguang Wang, Yukun Guan, Jianli Tao, Jianzhong Xi, Ji-Ming Feng, Zhengfan Jiang
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) transmits signals from RIG-I-like receptors after RNA virus infections. However, the mechanism by which MAVS activates downstream components, such as TBK1 and IKKα/β, is unclear, although previous work suggests the involvement of NEMO or TBK1-binding proteins TANK, NAP1, and SINTBAD. Here, we report that MAVS-mediated innate immune activation is dependent on TRAFs, partially on NEMO, but not on TBK1-binding proteins. MAVS recruited TBK1/IKKε by TRAFs that were pre-associated with TBK1/IKKε via direct interaction between the coiled-coil domain of TRAFs and the SDD domain of TBK1/IKKε...
November 10, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117566/cytosolic-recognition-of-rna-drives-the-immune-response-to-heterologous-erythrocytes
#4
Claudia Loetsch, Joanna Warren, Adrienne Laskowski, Rodrigo Vazquez-Lombardi, Christoph Jandl, David B Langley, Daniel Christ, David R Thorburn, David K Ryugo, Jonathan Sprent, Marcel Batten, Cecile King
The archetypal T cell-dependent antigen is sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), which have defined much of what we know about humoral immunity. Early studies using solubilized or sonicated SRBCs argued that the intact structure of SRBCs was important for optimal antibody responses. However, the reason for the requirement of intact SRBCs for the response to polyvalent protein antigen remained unknown. Here, we report that the immune response to SRBCs is driven by cytosolic recognition of SRBC RNA through the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mitochondrial anti-viral signaling adaptor (MAVS) pathway...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102119/rig-1-and-mda-5-signaling-pathways-contribute-to-ifn-%C3%AE-production-and-viral-replication-in-porcine-circovirus-virus-type-2-infected-pk-15-cells-in-vitro
#5
Bei Huang, Jiansheng Li, Xinchen Zhang, Qiling Zhao, Mingqing Lu, Yingjun Lv
Type I Interferons (IFNs) is known for its antiviral activity; however, it is surprising that in vitro treatment of IFN-α and IFN-γ enhanced the replication of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), indicating a complex relationship between interferon and PCV2. To date, it remains poorly understood how the interferon is produced during PCV2 infection and whether the interferon induced by PCV2 itself can promote viral replication. In this study, PCV2 induced the up-regulation of IFN-β in PK-15 cells, while treatment of PCV2-infected cells with the interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF3) inhibitor, BX795, decreased the expression of IFN-β, whereas treatment with the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) inhibitor, BAY11-7082, did not...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100916/molecular-characterization-ontogeny-and-expression-profiling-of-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-adapter-mavs-from-asian-seabass-lates-calcarifer-bloch-1790
#6
Rahul Krishnan, P Girish Babu, K Jeena, Gayathri Tripathi, Kurcheti Pani Prasad
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), an innate immune signaling adapter coordinates the signals received from two independent cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors (RIG-1 and MDA5) to induce antiviral genes. In the present study the MAVS gene of Lates calcarifer (LcMAVS) was cloned and characterized. The complete cDNA sequence of LcMAVS was 3160 bp and encodes a poly peptide of 577 amino acids. Structural analysis of LcMAVS revealed an N-terminal CARD-like domain, central proline-rich domain and a C-terminal transmembrane domain...
October 31, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097393/nlrp11-disrupts-mavs-signalosome-to-inhibit-type-i-interferon-signaling-and-virus-induced-apoptosis
#7
Yunfei Qin, Zexiong Su, Yaoxing Wu, Chenglei Wu, Shouheng Jin, Weihong Xie, Wei Jiang, Rongbin Zhou, Jun Cui
MAVS signalosome plays an important role in RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-induced antiviral signaling. Upon the recognition of viral RNAs, RLRs activate MAVS, which further recruits TRAF6 and other signaling proteins to initiate type I interferon (IFN) activation. MAVS signalosome also regulates virus-induced apoptosis to limit viral replication. However, the mechanisms that control the activity of MAVS signalosome are still poorly defined. Here, we report NLRP11, a Nod-like receptor, is induced by type I IFN and translocates to mitochondria to interact with MAVS upon viral infection...
November 2, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093090/inducible-microrna-3570-feedback-inhibits-the-rig-i-dependent-innate-immune-response-to-rhabdovirus-in-teleost-fish-by-targeting-mavs-ips-1
#8
Tianjun Xu, Qing Chu, Junxia Cui, Dekun Bi
Effectively recognizing invading viruses and subsequently inducing the innate antiviral immunity are essential for the host antiviral defense. Although these processes are closely regulated by the host to maintain the immune balance, viruses have evolved the abilities to downregulate or upregulate these processes for their survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNAs that play vital roles in modulating host immune response. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that host miRNAs as mediators are involved in regulating viral replication and host anti-viral immunity in mammals...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074131/grouper-mavs-functions-as-a-crucial-antiviral-molecule-against-nervous-necrosis-virus-infection
#9
Youhua Huang, Jingcheng Zhang, Zhengliang Ouyang, Jiaxin Liu, Ya Zhang, Yin Hu, Xiaohong Huang, Qiwei Qin
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), also known as IPS-1, VISA, and Cardif, has been well studied for its crucial roles in the mammalian interferon immune response. To better understand the actions of MAVS in fish immune response, a MAVS homolog from orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) (EcMAVS) was cloned and characterized in this study. EcMAVS encoded a 563-amino acid peptide which showed 64% and 20% identity to rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and human (Homo sapiens), respectively...
October 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069650/dnajb1-hsp40-suppresses-melanoma-differentiation-associated-gene-5-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-function-in-conjunction-with-hsp70
#10
Ken Takashima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Misako Matsumoto, Tsukasa Seya
Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) is a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes cytoplasmic viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and initiates rapid innate antiviral responses. MDA5 forms a filament-like multimer along the dsRNA leading to oligomerization, which in turn activates the adaptor protein mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) to provide a signal platform for the induction of type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines. The conformational switch of MDA5 causes antiviral defense, but excessive activation of the MDA5-MAVS pathway may result in autoimmune diseases...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060408/features-selection-for-bayes-classification-of-prolonged-fatigue-on-rectus-femoris-muscle
#11
Fauzani N Jamaluddin, Siti A Ahmad, Samsul Bahari Mohd Noor, Wan Zuha Wan Hassan, Y Azhar
Sports training is very important to athletes in improving and maintaining their performances. It commonly involves high intensity exercise and requires longer time for fatigue to recover, compares to normal activity. During training, adequate rest is essential to allow recuperation and build body strength. Unfortunately, inadequate rest exposes the body to prolonged fatigue (PF). Hence, this condition needs to be managed accordingly to avoid chronic fatigue syndrome. Recent findings indicate that there are strong characteristics on surface EMG under PF conditions...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059846/electromyographic-bridge-a-multi-movement-volitional-control-method-for-functional-electrical-stimulation-prototype-system-design-and-experimental-validation
#12
Yu-Xuan Zhou, Hai-Peng Wang, Xiao-Peng Cao, Zheng-Yang Bi, Yu-Jie Gao, Xiao-Bin Chen, Xiao-Ying Lu, Zhi-Gong Wang
The voluntary participation of the paralyzed patients is crucial for the functional electrical stimulation (FES) therapy. In this study, we developed a strategy called "EMG Bridge" (EMGB) for volitional control of multiple movements using FES technique. The surface electromyography (sEMG) signals of the agonist muscles were transformed to stimulation pulses with various pulse width and frequency to stimulate the target paralyzed muscles using MAV/NSS co-modulation (MNDC) algorithm we proposed recently. Motion pattern classification based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was included to recognize the motion status and mapping the sEMG detection channel to the corresponding stimulation channel...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054339/force-estimation-in-fatigue-condition-using-a-muscle-twitch-model-during-isometric-finger-contraction
#13
Youngjin Na, Sangjoon J Kim, Jung Kim
We propose a force estimation method in fatigue condition using a muscle-twitch model and surface electromyography (sEMG). The twitch model, which is an estimate of force by a single spike, was obtained from sEMG features and measured forces. Nine healthy subjects performed isometric index finger abduction until exhaustion for a series of dynamic contractions (0-20% MVC) to characterize the twitch model and static contractions (50% MVC) to induce muscle fatigue. Muscle fatigue was identified based on the changes of twitch model; the twitch peak decreased and the contraction time increased as muscle fatigue developed...
December 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053956/assembly-of-the-whip-trim14-ppp6c-mitochondrial-complex-promotes-rig-i-mediated-antiviral-signaling
#14
Peng Tan, Lian He, Jun Cui, Chen Qian, Xin Cao, Meng Lin, Qingyuan Zhu, Yinyin Li, Changsheng Xing, Xiao Yu, Helen Y Wang, Rong-Fu Wang
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling platform protein (MAVS) acts as a central hub for RIG-I receptor proximal signal propagation. However, key components in the assembly of the MAVS mitochondrial platform that promote RIG-I mitochondrial localization and optimal activation are still largely undefined. Employing pooled RNAi and yeast two-hybrid screenings, we report that the mitochondrial adaptor protein tripartite motif (TRIM)14 provides a docking platform for the assembly of the mitochondrial signaling complex required for maximal activation of RIG-I-mediated signaling, consisting of WHIP and protein phosphatase PPP6C...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042669/rna-editing-by-adar1-regulates-innate-and-antiviral-immune-functions-in-primary-macrophages
#15
Maria Pujantell, Eva Riveira-Muñoz, Roger Badia, Marc Castellví, Edurne Garcia-Vidal, Guillem Sirera, Teresa Puig, Cristina Ramirez, Bonaventura Clotet, José A Esté, Ester Ballana
ADAR1-dependent A-to-I editing has recently been recognized as a key process for marking dsRNA as self, therefore, preventing innate immune activation and affecting the development and resolution of immune-mediated diseases and infections. Here, we have determined the role of ADAR1 as a regulator of innate immune activation and modifier of viral susceptibility in primary myeloid and lymphoid cells. We show that ADAR1 knockdown significantly enhanced interferon, cytokine and chemokine production in primary macrophages that function as antiviral paracrine factors, rendering them resistant to HIV-1 infection...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040318/rapid-reversal-of-innate-immune-dysregulation-in-blood-of-patients-and-livers-of-humanized-mice-with-hcv-following-daa-therapy
#16
Matthew A Burchill, Justin A Roby, Nanette Crochet, Megan Wind-Rotolo, Amy E Stone, Michael G Edwards, Rachael J Dran, Michael S Kriss, Michael Gale, Hugo R Rosen
RESULTS: First, in patients receiving two different combinations of DAAs, we found that DAAs induced not only rapid viral clearance, but also a re-setting of antiviral immune responses in the peripheral blood. Specifically, we see a rapid decline in the expression of genes associated with chronic IFN stimulation (IFIT3, USP18, IFIT1) as well as a rapid decline in genes associated with inflammation (IL1β, CXCL10, CXCL11) in the peripheral blood that precedes the complete removal of virus from the blood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986577/replication-defective-viral-genomes-exploit-a-cellular-pro-survival-mechanism-to-establish-paramyxovirus-persistence
#17
Jie Xu, Yan Sun, Yize Li, Gordon Ruthel, Susan R Weiss, Arjun Raj, Daniel Beiting, Carolina B López
Replication defective viral genomes (DVGs) generated during virus replication are the primary triggers of antiviral immunity in many RNA virus infections. However, DVGs can also facilitate viral persistence. Why and how these two opposing functions of DVGs are achieved remain unknown. Here we report that during Sendai and respiratory syncytial virus infections DVGs selectively protect a subpopulation of cells from death, thereby promoting the establishment of persistent infections. We find that during Sendai virus infection this phenotype results from DVGs stimulating a mitochondrial antiviral-signaling (MAVS)-mediated TNF response that drives apoptosis of highly infected cells while extending the survival of cells enriched in DVGs...
October 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977405/genome-scale-detection-of-positive-selection-in-nine-primates-predicts-human-virus-evolutionary-conflicts
#18
Robin van der Lee, Laurens Wiel, Teunis J P van Dam, Martijn A Huynen
Hotspots of rapid genome evolution hold clues about human adaptation. We present a comparative analysis of nine whole-genome sequenced primates to identify high-confidence targets of positive selection. We find strong statistical evidence for positive selection in 331 protein-coding genes (3%), pinpointing 934 adaptively evolving codons (0.014%). Our new procedure is stringent and reveals substantial artefacts (20% of initial predictions) that have inflated previous estimates. The final 331 positively selected genes (PSG) are strongly enriched for innate and adaptive immunity, secreted and cell membrane proteins (e...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967880/nlrx1-promotes-immediate-irf1-directed-antiviral-responses-by-limiting-dsrna-activated-translational-inhibition-mediated-by-pkr
#19
Hui Feng, Erik M Lenarcic, Daisuke Yamane, Eliane Wauthier, Jinyao Mo, Haitao Guo, David R McGivern, Olga González-López, Ichiro Misumi, Lola M Reid, Jason K Whitmire, Jenny P-Y Ting, Joseph A Duncan, Nathaniel J Moorman, Stanley M Lemon
NLRX1 is unique among the nucleotide-binding-domain and leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) proteins in its mitochondrial localization and ability to negatively regulate antiviral innate immunity dependent on the adaptors MAVS and STING. However, some studies have suggested a positive regulatory role for NLRX1 in inducing antiviral responses. We found that NLRX1 exerted opposing regulatory effects on viral activation of the transcription factors IRF1 and IRF3, which might potentially explain such contradictory results...
December 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965816/tetherin-suppresses-type-i-interferon-signaling-by-targeting-mavs-for-ndp52-mediated-selective-autophagic-degradation-in-human-cells
#20
Shouheng Jin, Shuo Tian, Man Luo, Weihong Xie, Tao Liu, Tianhao Duan, Yaoxing Wu, Jun Cui
Tetherin (BST2/CD317) is an interferon-inducible antiviral factor known for its ability to block the release of enveloped viruses from infected cells. Yet its role in type I interferon (IFN) signaling remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that Tetherin is a negative regulator of RIG-I like receptor (RLR)-mediated type I IFN signaling by targeting MAVS. The induction of Tetherin by type I IFN accelerates MAVS degradation via ubiquitin-dependent selective autophagy in human cells. Moreover, Tetherin recruits E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8 to catalyze K27-linked ubiquitin chains on MAVS at lysine 7, which serves as a recognition signal for NDP52-dependent autophagic degradation...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
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