Read by QxMD icon Read


Yu Chen, Xiaoling Deng, Junfang Deng, Jiehua Zhou, Yuping Ren, Shengxuan Liu, Deborah J Prusak, Thomas G Wood, Xiaoyong Bao
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory infection in young children. Repeated infections occur throughout life, but its immune evasion mechanisms are largely unknown. We recently found that hMPV M2-2 protein elicits immune evasion by targeting mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an antiviral signaling molecule. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such inhibition are not known. Our mutagenesis studies revealed that PDZ-binding motifs, 29-DEMI-32 and 39-KEALSDGI-46, located in an immune inhibitory region of M2-2, are responsible for M2-2-mediated immune evasion...
October 13, 2016: Virology
Young Bong Choi, Noula Shembade, Kislay Parvatiyar, Siddharth Balachandran, Edward William Harhaj
The host response to RNA virus infection consists of an intrinsic innate immune response and the induction of apoptosis as mechanisms to restrict viral replication. The mitochondrial adaptor molecule MAVS plays critical roles in coordinating both virus-induced type I interferon production and apoptosis; however, the regulation of MAVS-mediated apoptosis is poorly understood. Here, we show that the adaptor protein TAX1BP1 functions as a negative regulator of virus-induced apoptosis. TAX1BP1-deficient cells are highly sensitive to apoptosis in response to infection with the RNA viruses vesicular stomatitis virus and Sendai virus and transfection with poly(I:C)...
October 10, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Ning Li, Tianqi Hong, Rong Li, Yao Wang, Mengjiao Guo, Zongxi Cao, Yumei Cai, Sidang Liu, Tongjie Chai, Liangmeng Wei
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Shengfeng Wan, Usama Ashraf, Jing Ye, Xiaodong Duan, Ali Zohaib, Wentao Wang, Zheng Chen, Bibo Zhu, Yunchuan Li, Huanchun Chen, Shengbo Cao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in regulating the host immune response. Here we found that miR-22 is induced in glial cells upon stimulation with poly(I:C). Overexpression of miR-22 in the cultured cells resulted in decreased activity of interferon regulatory factor-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B, which in turn led to reduced expression of interferon-β and inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, upon stimulation with poly(I:C), whereas knockdown of miR-22 had the opposite effect...
October 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Morgan Quinn, Claire Moody, Bill Tunnicliffe, Zahid Khan, Mav Manji, Sandeep Gudibande, Nick Murphy, Tony Whitehouse, Catherine Snelson, Tonny Veenith
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and is associated with significant costs to the healthcare organizations. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether high or low-dose statin therapy improved mortality in patients with sepsis. METHODS: The trials analyzed in this study were multicenter or single center randomized control studies using statins for sepsis in a hospital setting. The patients included were adults with suspected or confirmed infection...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Yao Li, Feng Cao, Tat Thang Vo Doan, Hirotaka Sato
The mechanisms and principles of insect flight have long been investigated by researchers working on micro and nano air vehicles (MAVs/NAVs). However, studies of insect flight maneuvers require high speed filming and high spatial resolution in a small experimental space, or the tethering of the insect to a fixed place. Under such artificial conditions, the insects may deviate its flying behavior from that of regular flight. In this study, we mounted a tiny wireless system, or 'backpack', on live beetles (Mecynorrhina torquata; length 62 ± 8 mm; mass 7...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Mark J van Tilburg, Barbara S Herrmann, John J Guinan, Steven D Rauch
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) ability to track disease progression in Ménière's disease patients over time and identify the most sensitive outcome measurement. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Large specialty hospital, department of otolaryngology. SUBJECTS: Twenty nine Ménière's patients and seven migraine associated vertigo (MAV) patients. INTERVENTION: All patients underwent two cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential tests at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 Hz with a minimum test interval of 3 months...
September 23, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Magdalena Zurawek, Marta Fichna, Marta Kazimierska, Piotr Fichna, Agnieszka Dzikiewicz-Krawczyk, Grzegorz Przybylski, Marek Ruchala, Jerzy Nowak
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is an intracellular adaptor molecule, downstream of viral sensors, retinoid acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs). Impaired antiviral cell signaling might contribute to autoimmunity. Studies have recently shown variations in genes encoding RLRs as risk factors for autoimmune diseases. We investigated whether MAVS coding polymorphisms are associated with Addison's disease (AD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Polish population. We genotyped 140 AD, 532 T1D patients and 600 healthy controls for MAVS rs17857295, rs7262903, rs45437096 and rs7269320...
September 20, 2016: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Jamal Atman, Manuel Popp, Jan Ruppelt, Gert F Trommer
Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) equipped with various sensors are able to carry out autonomous flights. However, the self-localization of autonomous agents is mostly dependent on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). In order to provide an accurate navigation solution in absence of GNSS signals, this article presents a hybrid sensor. The hybrid sensor is a deep integration of a monocular camera and a 2D laser rangefinder so that the motion of the MAV is estimated. This realization is expected to be more flexible in terms of environments compared to laser-scan-matching approaches...
2016: Sensors
Asuka Hirai-Yuki, Lucinda Hensley, David R McGivern, Olga González-López, Anshuman Das, Hui Feng, Lu Sun, Justin E Wilson, Fengyu Hu, Zongdi Feng, William Lovell, Ichiro Misumi, Jenny P-Y Ting, Stephanie Montgomery, John Cullen, Jason K Whitmire, Stanley M Lemon
Hepatotropic viruses are important causes of human disease, but the intrahepatic immune response to hepatitis viruses is poorly understood because of a lack of tractable small- animal models. We describe a murine model of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection that recapitulates critical features of type A hepatitis in humans. We demonstrate that the capacity of HAV to evade MAVS-mediated type I interferon responses defines its host species range. HAV-induced liver injury was associated with interferon-independent intrinsic hepatocellular apoptosis and hepatic inflammation that unexpectedly resulted from MAVS and IRF3/7 signaling...
September 30, 2016: Science
Takahisa Kouwaki, Yoshimi Fukushima, Takuji Daito, Takahiro Sanada, Naoki Yamamoto, Edin J Mifsud, Chean Ring Leong, Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara, Michinori Kohara, Misako Matsumoto, Tsukasa Seya, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
UNLABELLED: The innate immune system is essential for controlling viral infection. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistently infects human hepatocytes and causes hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the innate immune response to HBV infection in vivo remains unclear. Using a tree shrew animal model, we showed that HBV infection induced hepatic interferon (IFN)-γ expression during early infection. Our in vitro study demonstrated that hepatic NK cells produced IFN-γ in response to HBV only in the presence of hepatic F4/80(+) cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Zhongying Cao, Zhangchuan Xia, Yaqin Zhou, Xiaodan Yang, Hua Hao, Nanfang Peng, Shi Liu, Ying Zhu
RNA virus infections are detected by the RIG-I family of receptors, which signal through the adaptor molecule mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). MAVS then recruits the adaptor's tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 3 and TRAF6, which in turn activate IRF3 and NF-κB, respectively, to induce interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory responses. Here we show that the biotin-containing enzyme methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (MCCC1) enhances virus-induced, MAVS-mediated IFN and inflammatory cytokine expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway...
2016: Scientific Reports
Chean Ring Leong, Kenji Funami, Hiroyuki Oshiumi, Deng Mengao, Hiromi Takaki, Misako Matsumoto, Hussein H Aly, Koichi Watashi, Kazuaki Chayama, Tsukasa Seya
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) barely induces host interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs), which allows efficient HBV replication in the immortalized mouse hepatocytes as per human hepatocytes. Here we found that transfection of Isg20 plasmid robustly inhibits the HBV replication in HBV-infected hepatocytes irrespective of IRF3 or IFN promoter activation. Transfection of Isg20 is thus effective to eradicate HBV in the infected hepatocytes. Transfection of HBV genome or ε-stem of HBV pgRNA (active pgRNA moiety) failed to induce Isg20 in the hepatocytes, while control polyI:C (a viral dsRNA analogue mimic) activated MAVS pathway leading to production of type I IFN and then ISGsg20 via the IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR)...
September 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Takashi Adachi, Kazuya Ichikawa, Takayuki Inagaki, Makoto Moriyama, Taku Nakagawa, Kenji Ogawa, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Tetsuya Yagi
Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis (MAH) causes disease in both humans and swine; however, the genetic variations in MAH isolates are unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the genetic variations in MAH isolates from humans and swine in Japan. We analyzed the 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) using the Mycobacterium avium tandem repeat (MATR) loci, prevalence of ISMav6 and clarithromycin (CLA) resistance for MAH isolates from patients with pulmonary MAC (pMAC) disease (n = 69), HIV-seropositive and blood culture-positive (HIV-MAC) patients (n = 28), and swine (n = 23)...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Diana Machado, Rolando Cannalire, Sofia Santos Costa, Giuseppe Manfroni, Oriana Tabarrini, Violetta Cecchetti, Isabel Couto, Miguel Viveiros, Stefano Sabatini
The identification of efflux inhibitors to be used as adjuvants alongside existing drug regimens could have a tremendous value in the treatment of any mycobacterial infection. Here, we investigated the ability of four 2-(4'-propoxyphenyl)quinoline Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux inhibitors (1-4) to reduce the efflux activity in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium avium strains. All four compounds were able to inhibit efflux pumps in both mycobacterial species; in particular, O-ethylpiperazinyl derivative 2 showed an efflux inhibitory activity comparable to that of verapamil, the most potent mycobacterial efflux inhibitor reported to date, and was able to significantly reduce the MIC values of macrolides against different M...
December 11, 2015: ACS Infectious Diseases
Lei-Ke Zhang, Qi-Lin Xin, Sheng-Lin Zhu, Wei-Wei Wan, Wei Wang, Gengfu Xiao
: The Arenaviridae family includes several important human pathogens that can cause severe hemorrhagic fever and greatly threaten public health. As a major component of the innate immune system, the RLR/MAVS signaling pathway is involved in recognizing viral components and initiating antiviral activity. It has been reported that arenavirus infection can suppress the innate immune response, and arenavirus NP and Z proteins of pathogenic arenaviruses can disrupt RLR/MAVS signaling, thus inhibiting production of IFN-I...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
Aryn A Price, Dana Tedesco, Mona R Prasad, Kimberly A Workowski, Christopher M Walker, Mehul S Suthar, Jonathan R Honegger, Arash Grakoui
Maternal innate and adaptive immune responses are modulated during pregnancy to concurrently defend against infection and tolerate the semiallogeneic fetus. The restoration of these systems after childbirth is poorly understood. We reasoned that enhanced innate immune activation may extend beyond gestation while adaptive immunity recovers. To test this hypothesis, the transcriptional profiles of total peripheral blood mononuclear cells following delivery in healthy women were compared with those of nonpregnant control subjects...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Eun-Young Lee, Hyun-Cheol Lee, Hyun-Kwan Kim, Song Yee Jang, Seong-Jun Park, Yong-Hoon Kim, Jong Hwan Kim, Jungwon Hwang, Jae-Hoon Kim, Tae-Hwan Kim, Abul Arif, Seon-Young Kim, Young-Ki Choi, Cheolju Lee, Chul-Ho Lee, Jae U Jung, Paul L Fox, Sunghoon Kim, Jong-Soo Lee, Myung Hee Kim
The mammalian cytoplasmic multi-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC) is a depot system that regulates non-translational cellular functions. Here we found that the MSC component glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS) switched its function following viral infection and exhibited potent antiviral activity. Infection-specific phosphorylation of EPRS at Ser990 induced its dissociation from the MSC, after which it was guided to the antiviral signaling pathway, where it interacted with PCBP2, a negative regulator of mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) that is critical for antiviral immunity...
September 5, 2016: Nature Immunology
Omar Lakhdari, Christopher S McAllister, Michael Wang, Ivelina Minev, Lawrence S Prince, Lars Eckmann, Martin F Kagnoff
Innate immune responses to dsRNA result in signaling through the TLR3 pathway and/or the RIG-I/MDA-5/MAVS pathway which can activate type I IFN, proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. It is not clear whether MAVS could play a role in TLR3-dependent responses to extracellular dsRNA. Using a model of epithelial cells that express a functional TLR3 signaling pathway, we found that TLR3-dependent responses to extracellular dsRNA are negatively regulated by MAVS, precisely "miniMAVS", a recently described 50kDa isoform of MAVS...
August 24, 2016: Cellular Immunology
Shun Li, Long-Feng Lu, Zhao-Xi Wang, Dan-Dan Chen, Yong-An Zhang
Interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRF) are the crucial transcription factors for IFN expression, leading host cell response to viral infection. In mammals, only IRF6 is unaffected by IFN expression in the IRF family; however, in fish, a lower vertebrate, whether IRF6 is related to IFN regulation is unclear. In this study, we identified that zebrafish IRF6 was a positive regulator of IFN transcription and could be phosphorylated by both MyD88 and TBK1. First, the transcript level of cellular irf6 was upregulated by treatment with poly I:C (a mimic of viral RNAs), indicating IRF6 might be involved in the process of host cell response to viruses...
October 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"