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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923925/biliary-secretion-of-quasi-enveloped-human-hepatitis-a-virus
#1
Asuka Hirai-Yuki, Lucinda Hensley, Jason K Whitmire, Stanley M Lemon
: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an unusual picornavirus that is released from cells cloaked in host-derived membranes. These quasi-enveloped virions (eHAV) are the only particle type circulating in blood during infection, whereas only nonenveloped virions are shed in feces. The reason for this is uncertain. Hepatocytes, the only cell type known to support HAV replication in vivo, are highly polarized epithelial cells with basolateral membranes facing onto hepatic (blood) sinusoids and apical membranes abutting biliary canaliculi from which bile is secreted to the gut...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903802/a-protective-role-for-il-1-signaling-during-mouse-adenovirus-type-1-induced-encephalitis
#2
Luiza A Castro-Jorge, Carla Pretto, Asa Smith, Oded Foreman, Kelly E Carnahan, Katherine R Spindler
: IL-1β, an inflammatory cytokine and IL-1 receptor ligand, has diverse activities in the brain. We examined whether IL-1 signaling contributes to the encephalitis observed in mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infection, using mice lacking the IL-1 receptor, Il1r1(-/-) Il1r1(-/-) mice had lower survival, higher disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), higher brain viral loads, and higher brain inflammatory cytokines and chemokines than control C57BL/6 mice. We also examined infections of mice defective in IL-1β production (Pycard(-/-)mice) and mice defective in trafficking of TLRs to the endosome (Unc93b1(-/-) mice)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903800/genetic-variability-of-myxoma-virus-genomes
#3
Christoph Braun, Andrea Thürmer, Rolf Daniel, Anne-Kathrin Schultz, Ingo Bulla, Horst Schirrmeier, Dietmar Mayer, Andreas Neubert, Claus-Peter Czerny
: Myxomatosis is a recurrent problem on rabbit farms throughout Europe despite the success of vaccines. To identify gene variations of field and vaccine strains that may be responsible for changes in virulence, immunomodulation, and immunoprotection, the genomes of 6 Myxoma virus strains (MYXV) were sequenced: German field isolates Munich-1, FLI-H, 2604, 3207, vaccine strain MAV, and challenge strain ZA. The analyzed genomes ranged from 147.6 kb (strain MAV) to 161.8 kb (strain 3207) in size...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899525/reactive-oxygen-species-induce-virus-independent-mavs-oligomerization-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#4
Iwona A Buskiewicz, Theresa Montgomery, Elizabeth C Yasewicz, Sally A Huber, Michael P Murphy, Richard C Hartley, Ryan Kelly, Mary K Crow, Andras Perl, Ralph C Budd, Andreas Koenig
The increased expression of genes induced by type I interferon (IFN) is characteristic of viral infections and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We showed that mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein, which normally forms a complex with retinoic acid gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases during viral infection, was activated by oxidative stress independently of RIG-I helicases. We found that chemically generated oxidative stress stimulated the formation of MAVS oligomers, which led to mitochondrial hyperpolarization and decreased adenosine triphosphate production and spare respiratory capacity, responses that were not observed in similarly treated cells lacking MAVS...
November 29, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886168/hitting-the-right-button-mavs-mediated-defense-against-hav-infection
#5
Percy A Knolle
Studying the immune response against infection with hepatitis viruses is hampered by the lack of suitable preclinical model systems. A recent publication in Science identifies the cytosolic adapter molecule MAVS as being responsible for species restriction of infection with hepatitis A virus as well as linking cytosolic immune sensing in infected hepatocytes with innate effector functions and protective adaptive immunity.
November 25, 2016: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881448/prion-like-polymerization-in-immunity-and-inflammation
#6
Xin Cai, Hui Xu, Zhijian J Chen
The innate immune system relies on receptors that sense common signs of infection to trigger a robust host-defense response. Receptors such as RIG-I and NLRP3 activate downstream adaptors mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), respectively, to propagate immune and inflammatory signaling. Recent studies have indicated that both MAVS and ASC form functional prion-like polymers to propagate immune signaling. Here, we summarize the biochemical, genetic, and structural studies that characterize the prion-like behavior of MAVS and ASC in their respective signaling pathways...
November 23, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829372/identification-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-secreted-proteins-using-an-in-vitro-system-mimicking-the-phagosomal-environment
#7
Jessica J Chinison, Lia Danelishvili, Rashmi Gupta, Sasha J Rose, Lmar M Babrak, Luiz E Bermudez
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is a common intracellular pathogen that infects patients with HIV/AIDS and cause lung infection in patients with underlying lung pathology. M.avium preferably infects macrophages and uses diverse mechanisms to alter phagosome maturation. Once in the macrophage, the pathogen can alter the host cellular defenses by secreting proteins into the cytosol of host cells, but despite considerable research, only a few secreted effector proteins have been identified...
November 9, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822926/effectiveness-of-varicella-vaccination-program-in-preventing-laboratory-confirmed-cases-in-children-in-seoul-korea
#8
Young Hwa Lee, Young June Choe, Sung Il Cho, Cho Ryok Kang, Ji Hwan Bang, Myoung Don Oh, Jong Koo Lee
A universal one-dose varicella vaccination program was introduced in 2005 in Republic of Korea. However, the incidence of varicella in Korea has tripled over the last decade. We conducted a community based 1:1 matched case-control study to assess the effectiveness of one MAV strain-based vaccine and three Oka strain-based vaccines licensed for use in Korea. All cases were children in Seoul, Korea with varicella who were reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System in Seoul during 2013. The controls were age-matched children with mumps or scarlet fever but no history of varicella...
December 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807226/subcellular-localizations-of-rig-i-trim25-and-mavs-complexes
#9
M T Sánchez-Aparicio, J Ayllón, A Leo-Macias, T Wolff, A García-Sastre
: The RIG-I signaling pathway is essential for the recognition of viruses and the initiation of host IFN-mediated antiviral responses. Once activated, RIG-I interacts with polyubiquitin chains generated by TRIM25 and binds MAVS, leading to the production of type I IFN. We now show specific interactions among these key partners in the RLR pathway, through the use of Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) and super resolution microscopy. Dimers of RIG-I, TRIM25 and MAVS localize into different compartments...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794419/mitochondria-as-a-centrally-positioned-hub-in-the-innate-immune-response
#10
REVIEW
Rajat Sandhir, Avishek Halder, Aditya Sunkaria
Mitochondria are vital organelles involved in numerous cellular functions ranging from energy metabolism to cell survival. Emerging evidence suggests that mitochondria provide a platform for signaling pathways involved in innate immune response. Mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) release, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) are key triggers in the activation of innate immune response following variety of stress signals that include infection, tissue damage and metabolic dysregulation...
October 26, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793594/cross-regulation-of-two-type-i-interferon-signaling-pathways-in-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-controls-anti-malaria-immunity-and-host-mortality
#11
Xiao Yu, Baowei Cai, Mingjun Wang, Peng Tan, Xilai Ding, Jian Wu, Jian Li, Qingtian Li, Pinghua Liu, Changsheng Xing, Helen Y Wang, Xin-Zhuan Su, Rong-Fu Wang
Type I interferon (IFN) is critical for controlling pathogen infection; however, its regulatory mechanisms in plasmacytoid cells (pDCs) still remain unclear. Here, we have shown that nucleic acid sensors cGAS-, STING-, MDA5-, MAVS-, or transcription factor IRF3-deficient mice produced high amounts of type I IFN-α and IFN-β (IFN-α/β) in the serum and were resistant to lethal plasmodium yoelii YM infection. Robust IFN-α/β production was abolished when gene encoding nucleic acid sensor TLR7, signaling adaptor MyD88, or transcription factor IRF7 was ablated or pDCs were depleted...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743962/functional-motifs-responsible-for-human-metapneumovirus-m2-2-mediated-innate-immune-evasion
#12
Yu Chen, Xiaoling Deng, Junfang Deng, Jiehua Zhou, Yuping Ren, Shengxuan Liu, Deborah J Prusak, Thomas G Wood, Xiaoyong Bao
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory infection in young children. Repeated infections occur throughout life, but its immune evasion mechanisms are largely unknown. We recently found that hMPV M2-2 protein elicits immune evasion by targeting mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an antiviral signaling molecule. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such inhibition are not known. Our mutagenesis studies revealed that PDZ-binding motifs, 29-DEMI-32 and 39-KEALSDGI-46, located in an immune inhibitory region of M2-2, are responsible for M2-2-mediated immune evasion...
December 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736772/tax1bp1-restrains-virus-induced-apoptosis-by-facilitating-itch-mediated-degradation-of-the-mitochondrial-adaptor-mavs
#13
Young Bong Choi, Noula Shembade, Kislay Parvatiyar, Siddharth Balachandran, Edward William Harhaj
The host response to RNA virus infection consists of an intrinsic innate immune response and the induction of apoptosis as mechanisms to restrict viral replication. The mitochondrial adaptor molecule MAVS plays critical roles in coordinating both virus-induced type I interferon production and apoptosis; however, the regulation of MAVS-mediated apoptosis is poorly understood. Here, we show that the adaptor protein TAX1BP1 functions as a negative regulator of virus-induced apoptosis. TAX1BP1-deficient cells are highly sensitive to apoptosis in response to infection with the RNA viruses vesicular stomatitis virus and Sendai virus and transfection with poly(I:C)...
October 10, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708647/cherry-valley-ducks-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mediated-signaling-pathway-and-antiviral-activity-research
#14
Ning Li, Tianqi Hong, Rong Li, Yao Wang, Mengjiao Guo, Zongxi Cao, Yumei Cai, Sidang Liu, Tongjie Chai, Liangmeng Wei
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705941/microrna-22-negatively-regulates-poly-i-c-triggered-type-i-interferon-and-inflammatory-cytokine-production-via-targeting-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mavs
#15
Shengfeng Wan, Usama Ashraf, Jing Ye, Xiaodong Duan, Ali Zohaib, Wentao Wang, Zheng Chen, Bibo Zhu, Yunchuan Li, Huanchun Chen, Shengbo Cao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in regulating the host immune response. Here we found that miR-22 is induced in glial cells upon stimulation with poly(I:C). Overexpression of miR-22 in the cultured cells resulted in decreased activity of interferon regulatory factor-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B, which in turn led to reduced expression of interferon-β and inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, upon stimulation with poly(I:C), whereas knockdown of miR-22 had the opposite effect...
October 1, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688630/systematic-review-of-statins-in-sepsis-there-is-no-evidence-of-dose-response
#16
Morgan Quinn, Claire Moody, Bill Tunnicliffe, Zahid Khan, Mav Manji, Sandeep Gudibande, Nick Murphy, Tony Whitehouse, Catherine Snelson, Tonny Veenith
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and is associated with significant costs to the healthcare organizations. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether high or low-dose statin therapy improved mortality in patients with sepsis. METHODS: The trials analyzed in this study were multicenter or single center randomized control studies using statins for sepsis in a hospital setting. The patients included were adults with suspected or confirmed infection...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679933/controlled-banked-turns-in-coleopteran-flight-measured-by-a-miniature-wireless-inertial-measurement-unit
#17
Yao Li, Feng Cao, Tat Thang Vo Doan, Hirotaka Sato
The mechanisms and principles of insect flight have long been investigated by researchers working on micro and nano air vehicles (MAVs/NAVs). However, studies of insect flight maneuvers require high speed filming and high spatial resolution in a small experimental space, or the tethering of the insect to a fixed place. Under such artificial conditions, the insects may deviate its flying behavior from that of regular flight. In this study, we mounted a tiny wireless system, or 'backpack', on live beetles (Mecynorrhina torquata; length 62 ± 8 mm; mass 7...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668791/serial-cvemp-testing-is-sensitive-to-disease-progression-in-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-patients
#18
Mark J van Tilburg, Barbara S Herrmann, John J Guinan, Steven D Rauch
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) ability to track disease progression in Ménière's disease patients over time and identify the most sensitive outcome measurement. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Large specialty hospital, department of otolaryngology. SUBJECTS: Twenty nine Ménière's patients and seven migraine associated vertigo (MAV) patients. INTERVENTION: All patients underwent two cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential tests at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 Hz with a minimum test interval of 3 months...
September 23, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652379/mavs-is-not-a-likely-susceptibility-locus-for-addison-s-disease-and-type-1-diabetes
#19
Magdalena Zurawek, Marta Fichna, Marta Kazimierska, Piotr Fichna, Agnieszka Dzikiewicz-Krawczyk, Grzegorz Przybylski, Marek Ruchala, Jerzy Nowak
Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is an intracellular adaptor molecule, downstream of viral sensors, retinoid acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs). Impaired antiviral cell signaling might contribute to autoimmunity. Studies have recently shown variations in genes encoding RLRs as risk factors for autoimmune diseases. We investigated whether MAVS coding polymorphisms are associated with Addison's disease (AD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Polish population. We genotyped 140 AD, 532 T1D patients and 600 healthy controls for MAVS rs17857295, rs7262903, rs45437096 and rs7269320...
September 20, 2016: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649203/navigation-aiding-by-a-hybrid-laser-camera-motion-estimator-for-micro-aerial-vehicles
#20
Jamal Atman, Manuel Popp, Jan Ruppelt, Gert F Trommer
Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) equipped with various sensors are able to carry out autonomous flights. However, the self-localization of autonomous agents is mostly dependent on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). In order to provide an accurate navigation solution in absence of GNSS signals, this article presents a hybrid sensor. The hybrid sensor is a deep integration of a monocular camera and a 2D laser rangefinder so that the motion of the MAV is estimated. This realization is expected to be more flexible in terms of environments compared to laser-scan-matching approaches...
2016: Sensors
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