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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549220/physiological-responses-during-intermittent-running-exercise-differ-between-outdoor-and-treadmill-running
#1
Marco Panascì, Romuald Lepers, Antonio La Torre, Matteo Bonato, Hervè Assadi
The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses during 15 min of intermittent running consisting of 30 s high intensity running exercise at maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) interspersed with 30 s passive recovery (30-30) performed outdoor versus on a motorized treadmill. Fifteen collegiate physically active males (age: 22±1 years-old; body mass: 66±7 kg; stature: 176±06 cm, weekly training volume: 5±2 h·week<sup>-1</sup>), performed Fitness Intermittent test 45-15 in order to determine VO<sub>2max</sub> and Maximal Aerobic Velocity (MAV) and then completed in random order three different training sessions consisting of 30s run -30s rest outdoor on athletic track (30-30 Track) at MAV; 30s run -30s rest on treadmill (30-30 Treadmill) at MAV; 30s run -30s rest at MAV+15% (30-30+15% MAV Treadmill)...
May 26, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542569/fas-associated-factor-1-positively-regulates-type-i-interferon-response-to-rna-virus-infection-by-targeting-nlrx1
#2
Jae-Hoon Kim, Min-Eun Park, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Tae-Hwan Kim, Md Bashir Uddin, Hyun-Cheol Lee, Eunhee Kim, Jin Yeul Ma, Jae U Jung, Chul-Joong Kim, Jong-Soo Lee
FAS-associated factor-1 (FAF1) is a component of the death-inducing signaling complex involved in Fas-mediated apoptosis. It regulates NF-κB activity, ubiquitination, and proteasomal degradation. Here, we found that FAF1 positively regulates the type I interferon pathway. FAF1gt/gt mice, which deficient in FAF1, and FAF1 knockdown immune cells were highly susceptible to RNA virus infection and showed low levels of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon (IFN) production. FAF1 was bound competitively to NLRX1 and positively regulated type I IFN signaling by interfering with the interaction between NLRX1 and MAVS, thereby freeing MAVS to bind RIG-I, which switched on the MAVS-RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling cascade...
May 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527664/a-new-hdv-mouse-model-identifies-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mavs-as-a-key-player-in-ifn-%C3%AE-induction
#3
Lester Suárez-Amarán, Carla Usai, Marianna Di Scala, Cristina Godoy, Yi Ni, Mirja Hommel, Laura Palomo, Víctor Segura, Cristina Olagüe, Africa Vales, Alicia Ruiz-Ripa, Maria Buti, Eduardo Salido, Jesús Prieto, Stephan Urban, Francisco Rodríguez-Frias, Rafael Aldabe, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studying hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and developing new treatments is hampered by the limited availability of small animal models. Here a description of a robust mouse model of HDV infection that mimics several important characteristics of the human disease is presented. METHODS: HDV- and HBV-replication competent genomes were delivered to the mouse liver using adeno-associated viruses (AAV) (AAV-HDV and AAV-HBV). Viral load, antigen expression and genomes were quantified at different time points after AAV injection...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512148/erratum-for-the-research-article-reactive-oxygen-species-induce-virus-independent-mavs-oligomerization-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-by-i-a-buskiewicz-t-montgomery-e-c-yasewicz-s-a-huber-m-p-murphy-r-c-hartley-r-kelly-m-k-crow-a-perl-r-c-budd-a-koenig
#4
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511661/a-preliminary-investigation-on-the-utility-of-temporal-features-of-force-myography-in-the-two-class-problem-of-grasp-vs-no-grasp-in-the-presence-of-upper-extremity-movements
#5
Gautam P Sadarangani, Carlo Menon
BACKGROUND: In upper-extremity stroke rehabilitation applications, the potential use of Force Myography (FMG) for detecting grasping is especially relevant, as the presence of grasping may be indicative of functional activity, which is a key goal of rehabilitation. To date, most FMG research has focused on the classification of the raw FMG signal (i.e. instantaneous FMG samples) in order to determine the state of the hand. However, given the temporal nature of force generation during grasping, the use of temporal feature extraction techniques may yield increased accuracy...
May 16, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480979/down-regulation-of-trif-tlr3-and-mavs-in-hcv-infected-liver-correlates-with-the-outcome-of-infection
#6
Premashis Kar, Deepak Kumar, Phani Kumar Gumma, Soumya Jyoti Chowdhury, Vijay Kumar Karra
AIMS: In virus-infected cells, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recruits their specific adaptor molecules, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) and TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF6) which induces interferon. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) induces activation of the NF-kappa B (NF-κB) for interferon production. The study has been designed to assess the correlation of TLR3, MAVS, TRIF and TRAF6 outcome of HCV infection...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473813/asunaprevir-evokes-hepatocytes-innate-immunity-to-restrict-the-replication-of-hepatitis-c-and-dengue-virus
#7
Wei-Lun Tsai, Jin-Shiung Cheng, Chih-Wen Shu, Kwok-Hung Lai, Hoi-Hung Chan, Chun-Ching Wu, Jing-Mei Wu, Ping-I Hsu, Raymond T Chung, Tsung-Hsien Chang
Type I Interferon-mediated innate immunity against Flaviviridae, such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Dengue virus (DENV), involves TLR3, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and JAK-STAT signal pathways. Asunaprevir is a newly developed HCV protease inhibitor for HCV treatment. Whether, asunaprevir activates innate immunity to restrict viral infection is unclear. Thus, this study investigates the effect of asunaprevir on innate immunity and its influence on HCV and DENV infection. Huh 7.5.1, Hep-G2 cells, JFH-1 infection model, and DENV-2 infection were used for the analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471483/human-sle-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-bmscs-have-a-senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype-sasp-mediated-by-a-mavs-ifn%C3%AE-feedback-loop
#8
Lin Gao, Anna K Bird, Nida Meednu, Kristin Dauenhauer, Jane Liesveld, Jennifer Anolik, R John Looney
Objective - BMSCs create a special microenvironment for hematopoiesis and immunity and also display robust immunomodulatory properties which are impaired in SLE. This study was undertaken to define the mechanisms of defects in human SLE BMSCs. Methods - Patients fulfilling SLE classification criteria and healthy controls were recruited under an Institutional Review Board approved protocol (n=6 each). BMSCs were isolated with low density Ficoll/Hypaque. BMSCs were verified by flow cytometry and studied using immunocytochemistry, real-time PCR, western blotting, comet assay, beta-galactosidase assay, and RNA interference...
May 4, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469175/ube2d3-and-ube2n-are-essential-for-rig-i-mediated-mavs-aggregation-in-antiviral-innate-immunity
#9
Yuheng Shi, Bofeng Yuan, Wenting Zhu, Rui Zhang, Lin Li, Xiaojing Hao, She Chen, Fajian Hou
Innate immunity plays a pivotal role in virus infection. RIG-I senses viral RNA and initiates an effective innate immune response for type I interferon production. To transduce RIG-I-mediated antiviral signalling, a mitochondrial protein MAVS forms prion-like aggregates to activate downstream kinases and transcription factors. However, the activation mechanism of RIG-I is incompletely understood. Here we identify two ubiquitin enzymes Ube2D3 and Ube2N through chromatographic purification as activators for RIG-I on virus infection...
May 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466692/dna-methylation-changes-in-tbx3-in-a-mouse-model-exposed-to-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers
#10
Takashi Shimbo, June K Dunnick, Amy Brix, Deepak Mav, Ruchir Shah, John D Roberts, Paul A Wade
DE-71, a commercial mixture of polybrominated diphenyl ethers widely used in flame retardants, is a pervasive environmental contaminant due to its continuing release from waste material and its long half-life in humans. Although the genotoxic potential of DE-71 appears to be low based on bacterial mutagenicity, it remains a public health concern due to its reported involvement in tumor development. Molecular mechanisms by which DE-71 influences tumor incidence or progression remain understudied. We used liver carcinoma tissue from mice exposed to DE-71 to test the hypothesis that epigenetic alterations consistent with tumor development, specifically DNA methylation, result from long-term DE-71 exposure...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465426/a-novel-agonist-of-the-trif-pathway-induces-a-cellular-state-refractory-to-replication-of-zika-chikungunya-and-dengue-viruses
#11
Kara M Pryke, Jinu Abraham, Tina M Sali, Bryan J Gall, Iris Archer, Andrew Liu, Shelly Bambina, Jason Baird, Michael Gough, Marita Chakhtoura, Elias K Haddad, Ilsa T Kirby, Aaron Nilsen, Daniel N Streblow, Alec J Hirsch, Jessica L Smith, Victor R DeFilippis
The ongoing concurrent outbreaks of Zika, Chikungunya, and dengue viruses in Latin America and the Caribbean highlight the need for development of broad-spectrum antiviral treatments. The type I interferon (IFN) system has evolved in vertebrates to generate tissue responses that actively block replication of multiple known and potentially zoonotic viruses. As such, its control and activation through pharmacological agents may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for simultaneously impairing growth of multiple virus types and rendering host populations resistant to virus spread...
May 2, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448848/transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-infection-induces-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-through-rlr-mediated-signaling
#12
Zhen Ding, Kang An, Lilan Xie, Wei Wu, Ruoxi Zhang, Dang Wang, Ying Fang, Huanchun Chen, Shaobo Xiao, Liurong Fang
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine enteric coronavirus which causes lethal severe watery diarrhea in piglets. The pathogenesis of TGEV is strongly associated with inflammation. In this study, we found that TGEV infection activates transcription factors NF-κB, IRF3 and AP-1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in porcine kidney cells. Treatment with the NF-κB-specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 significantly decreased TGEV-induced proinflammatory cytokine production, but did not affect virus replication...
April 24, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446676/grass-carp-reovirus-vp41-targets-fish-mita-to-abrogate-the-ifn-response
#13
Long-Feng Lu, Shun Li, Zhao-Xi Wang, Si-Qi Du, Dan-Dan Chen, Pin Nie, Yong-An Zhang
Although fish possess an efficient interferon (IFN) system to defend against aquatic virus infection, the grass carp reovirus (GCRV) still causes hemorrhagic disease in grass carp. To date, GCRV's strategy for evading the fish IFN response is still unknown. Here, we report that the GCRV VP41 inhibits fish IFN production by suppressing the phosphorylation of the mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA). First, the activation of the IFN promoter (IFNpro) stimulated by the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and MITA was decreased by the overexpression of VP41, whereas such activation induced by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) was not affected...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436963/a-sting-activating-nanovaccine-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
Min Luo, Hua Wang, Zhaohui Wang, Haocheng Cai, Zhigang Lu, Yang Li, Mingjian Du, Gang Huang, Chensu Wang, Xiang Chen, Matthew R Porembka, Jayanthi Lea, Arthur E Frankel, Yang-Xin Fu, Zhijian J Chen, Jinming Gao
The generation of tumour-specific T cells is critically important for cancer immunotherapy. A major challenge in achieving a robust T-cell response is the spatiotemporal orchestration of antigen cross-presentation in antigen-presenting cells with innate stimulation. Here, we report a minimalist nanovaccine, comprising a simple physical mixture of an antigen and a synthetic polymeric nanoparticle, PC7A NP, which generates a strong cytotoxic T-cell response with low systemic cytokine expression. Mechanistically, the PC7A NP achieves efficient cytosolic delivery of tumour antigens to antigen-presenting cells in draining lymph nodes, leading to increased surface presentation while simultaneously activating type I interferon-stimulated genes...
April 24, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436945/adar1-controls-apoptosis-of-stressed-cells-by-inhibiting-staufen1-mediated-mrna-decay
#15
Masayuki Sakurai, Yusuke Shiromoto, Hiromitsu Ota, Chunzi Song, Andrew V Kossenkov, Jayamanna Wickramasinghe, Louise C Showe, Emmanuel Skordalakes, Hsin-Yao Tang, David W Speicher, Kazuko Nishikura
Both p150 and p110 isoforms of ADAR1 convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). ADAR1p150 suppresses the dsRNA-sensing mechanism that activates MDA5-MAVS-IFN signaling in the cytoplasm. In contrast, the biological function of the ADAR1p110 isoform, which is usually located in the nucleus, is largely unknown. Here, we show that stress-activated phosphorylation of ADAR1p110 by MKK6-p38-MSK MAP kinases promotes its binding to Exportin-5 and its export from the nucleus. After translocating to the cytoplasm, ADAR1p110 suppresses apoptosis in stressed cells by protecting many antiapoptotic gene transcripts that contain 3'-untranslated-region dsRNA structures primarily comprising inverted Alu repeats...
April 24, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432927/type-2-bvdv-n-pro-suppresses-ifn-1-pathway-signaling-in-bovine-cells-and-augments-brsv-replication
#16
Abdulrahman A Alkheraif, Christina L Topliff, Jay Reddy, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Ruben O Donis, Gregor Meyers, Kent M Eskridge, Clayton L Kelling
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection induces immunosuppression and in conjunction with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) contributes to the bovine respiratory disease complex. Bovine turbinate cells were single or co-infected with type 2 BVDV wild-type (BVDV2-wt), its dysfunctional N(pro) mutant (BVDV2-E), and/or BRSV. BVDV2-E significantly up-regulated PKR, IRF-7, TBK-1, IRF-3, and IFN-β mRNAs based on real-time Q-RT-PCR. BRSV-infected cells expressed significantly up-regulated PKR, IRF-3, IRF-7, and IFN-β mRNAs, whereas BVDV2-wt, but not BVDV2-E, abolished this up-regulation in co-infection...
April 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425034/the-molluscum-contagiosum-virus-death-effector-domain-containing-protein-mc160-rxdl-motifs-are-not-required-for-its-known-viral-immune-evasion-functions
#17
Michael Beaury, Uday Kiran Velagapudi, Sarah Weber, Cassandra Soto, Tanaji T Talele, Daniel Brian Nichols
The molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) uses a variety of immune evasion strategies to antagonize host immune responses. Two MCV proteins, MC159 and MC160, contain tandem death effector domains (DEDs). They are reported to inhibit innate immune signaling events such as NF-κB and IRF3 activation, and apoptosis. The RxDL motif of MC159 is required for inhibition of both apoptosis and NF-κB activation. However, the role of the conserved RxDL motif in the MC160 DEDs remained unknown. To answer this question, we performed alanine mutations to neutralize the arginine and aspartate residues present in the MC160 RxDL in both DED1 and DED2...
April 20, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424327/rig-i-mavs-and-sting-signaling-promote-gut-integrity-during-irradiation-and-immune-mediated-tissue-injury
#18
Julius C Fischer, Michael Bscheider, Gabriel Eisenkolb, Chia-Ching Lin, Alexander Wintges, Vera Otten, Caroline A Lindemans, Simon Heidegger, Martina Rudelius, Sébastien Monette, Kori A Porosnicu Rodriguez, Marco Calafiore, Sophie Liebermann, Chen Liu, Stefan Lienenklaus, Siegfried Weiss, Ulrich Kalinke, Jürgen Ruland, Christian Peschel, Yusuke Shono, Melissa Docampo, Enrico Velardi, Robert R Jenq, Alan M Hanash, Jarrod A Dudakov, Tobias Haas, Marcel R M van den Brink, Hendrik Poeck
The molecular pathways that regulate the tissue repair function of type I interferon (IFN-I) during acute tissue damage are poorly understood. We describe a protective role for IFN-I and the RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway during acute tissue damage in mice. Mice lacking mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) were more sensitive to total body irradiation- and chemotherapy-induced intestinal barrier damage. These mice developed worse graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a preclinical model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) than did wild-type mice...
April 19, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424289/disruption-of-mda5-mediated-innate-immune-responses-by-the-3c-proteins-of-coxsackievirus-a16-coxsackievirus-a6-and-enterovirus-d68
#19
Yajuan Rui, Jiaming Su, Hong Wang, Junliang Chang, Shaohua Wang, Wenwen Zheng, Yong Cai, Wei Wei, James T Gordy, Richard Markham, Wei Kong, Wenyan Zhang, Xiao-Fang Yu
Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), A6 (CV-A6), and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) belong to the Picornaviridae family and are major causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and pediatric respiratory disease worldwide. The biological characteristics of these viruses, especially their interplay with the host innate immune system, have not been well investigated. In this study, we discovered that the 3C(pro) proteins from CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 bind MDA5 and inhibit its interaction with MAVS. Consequently, MDA5-triggered type I IFN signaling in the RLR pathway was blocked by CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3C(pro) Furthermore, CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3C(pro) all cleave TAK1, resulting in inhibition of NF-κB activation, a host response also critical for toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated signaling...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418930/the-innate-immunity-of-guinea-pigs-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-infection
#20
Kun Zhang, Wei Wei Xu, Zhaowei Zhang, Jing Liu, Jing Li, Lijuan Sun, Weiyang Sun, Peirong Jiao, Xiaoyu Sang, Zhiguang Ren, Zhijun Yu, Yuanguo Li, Na Feng, Tiecheng Wang, Hualei Wang, Songtao Yang, Yongkun Zhao, Xuemei Zhang, Peter R Wilker, WenJun Liu, Ming Liao, Hualan Chen, Yuwei Gao, Xianzhu Xia
H5N1 avian influenza viruses are a major pandemic concern. In contrast to the highly virulent phenotype of H5N1 in humans and many animal models, guinea pigs do not typically display signs of severe disease in response to H5N1 virus infection. Here, proteomic and transcriptional profiling were applied to identify host factors that account for the observed attenuation of A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) virulence in guinea pigs. RIG-I and numerous interferon stimulated genes were among host proteins with altered expression in guinea pig lungs during H5N1 infection...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
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