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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332118/nutrition-and-training-influences-on-the-regulation-of-mitochondrial-adenosine-diphosphate-sensitivity-and-bioenergetics
#1
REVIEW
Graham P Holloway
Since the seminal finding almost 50 years ago that exercise training increases mitochondrial content in skeletal muscle, a considerable amount of research has been dedicated to elucidate the mechanisms inducing mitochondrial biogenesis. The discovery of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α as a major regulator of exercise-induced gene transcription was instrumental in beginning to understand the signals regulating this process. However, almost two decades after its discovery, our understanding of the signals inducing mitochondrial biogenesis remain poorly defined, limiting our insights into possible novel training modalities in elite athletes that can increase the oxidative potential of muscle...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328717/perceived-sleep-quality-mood-states-and-their-relationship-with-performance-among-brazilian-elite-athletes-during-a-competitive-period
#2
Ricardo Brandt, Guilherme G Bevilacqua, Alexandro Andrade
Brandt, R, Bevilacqua, GG, and Andrade, A. Perceived sleep quality, mood states, and their relationship with performance among Brazilian elite athletes during a competitive period. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1033-1039, 2017-We described the perceived sleep quality and mood states of elite athletes during a competitive period, and clarified their relationship to athletes' sport performance. Participants were 576 Brazilian elite athletes (404 men and 172 women) of individual and team sports. Mood states were evaluated using the Brunel Mood Scale, whereas perceived sleep quality was evaluated using a single question ("How would you evaluate the quality of your sleep in the last few days?")...
April 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326044/geographical-variations-in-the-interaction-of-relative-age-effects-in-youth-and-adult-elite-soccer
#3
Christina Steingröver, Nick Wattie, Joseph Baker, Werner F Helsen, Jörg Schorer
Selection biases based on the use of cut-off dates and the timing of athletes' birthdates have been termed relative age effects. These effects have been shown to differentially affect individuals involved in sport. For example, young male soccer players born early in their age group are overrepresented in elite teams while studies in adult soccer indicated potential carry-over effects from talent development systems. This two-study approach focuses on the processes within multi-year age groups in youth and adult elite soccer and on the role of players' age position within the age band with regard to players' birth year and birth month...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316585/is-elite-sport-really-bad-for-you-can-we-answer-the-question
#4
Florence Lebrun, Dave Collins
Elite athletes are not immune to mental health issues. Yet, quality research on mental health in elites has so far been limited. Thus, while research on mental health emphasises the prevalence and nature of disorders in the general population, its extent in elite performers remains unclear. Indeed, the prevalence of mental conditions cannot be accurately calculated in elite athletes due to a lack of diagnostic criteria and screening tools specifically adapted to this unique population. Researchers and practitioners are, therefore, confronted with biases reflecting the use of clinical norms and instruments initially developed for the general population...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296943/new-approaches-to-determine-fatigue-in-elite-athletes-during-intensified-training-resting-metabolic-rate-and-pacing-profile
#5
Amy L Woods, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Bronwen Lundy, Anthony J Rice, Kevin G Thompson
BACKGROUND: Elite rowers complete a high volume of training across a number of modalities to prepare for competition, including periods of intensified load, which may lead to fatigue and short-term performance decrements. As yet, the influence of substantial fatigue on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and exercise regulation (pacing), and their subsequent utility as monitoring parameters, has not been explicitly investigated in elite endurance athletes. METHOD: Ten National-level rowers completed a four-week period of intensified training...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295487/sperm-dna-fragmentation-as-a-result-of-ultra-endurance-exercise-training-in-male-athletes
#6
D Vaamonde, C Algar-Santacruz, A Abbasi, J M García-Manso
Intensive sports practice seems to exert negative effects on semen parameters; in order to assess these effects, the objective of this study was to assess semen, including DNA fragmentation, and hormone parameters in elite triathletes. Twelve high-level triathletes preparing for a National Triathlon Championship participated in the study. The qualitative sperm parameters analysed were volume, sperm count, motility, morphology and DNA fragmentation; when needed, additional testing was performed. Assessed hormones were testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and testosterone-cortisol ratio (T/C)...
March 15, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294692/lower-extremity-isokinetic-strength-ratios-of-elite-springboard-and-platform-diving-athletes
#7
Amilton Vieira, Savio Alex, André Martorelli, Lee E Brown, Ricardo Moreira, Martim Bottaro
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine knee extensor and flexor muscle strength ratios of an elite group of diving athletes. METHODS: Sixteen divers (10 females and 6 males) from the Brazil national team were assessed for lower-body strength. They had participated in international competitions such as the 2016 Olympic Games and 2015 Pan American Games. The dynamic concentric torque of their knee flexor and extensor muscles were evaluated using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer...
March 15, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294577/the-enigma-of-inhaled-salbutamol-and-sport-unresolved-after-45-years
#8
K D Fitch
During the past 45 years, there have been more changes on the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) Prohibited List (the List) to the status of inhaled salbutamol than any other substance. With 658 athletes, 6.1% of all participating athletes approved to inhale salbutamol at the 2008 Beijing Games, it is one of the medications used most frequently by Olympic athletes. Nevertheless, since the 2008 Games, WADA has made numerous changes to inhaled salbutamol on the List including prohibiting its use, then a year later permitting it without prior notification and recommending a pharmacokinetic study if an athlete exceeds the urinary threshold of 1000 ng/mL...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287028/technique-analysis-in-elite-athletes-using-principal-component-analysis
#9
Øyvind Gløersen, Håvard Myklebust, Jostein Hallén, Peter Federolf
The aim of this study was to advance current movement analysis methodology to enable a technique analysis in sports facilitating (1) concurrent comparison of the techniques between several athletes; (2) identification of potentially beneficial technique modifications and (3) a visual representation of the findings for feedback to the athletes. Six elite cross-country skiers, three world cup winners and three national elite, roller ski skated using the V2 technique on a treadmill while their movement patterns were recorded using 41 reflective markers...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284723/prevalence-of-surgical-repair-for-athletic-pubalgia-and-impact-on-performance-in-football-athletes-participating-in-the-national-football-league-combine
#10
Derrick M Knapik, Jeremy J Gebhart, Shane J Nho, Joseph E Tanenbaum, James E Voos, Michael J Salata
PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence and impact of athletic pubalgia (AP) surgery in elite American football athletes participating in the National Football League (NFL) Combine. METHODS: Results from 1,311 athletes participating in the Combine from 2012 to 2015 were evaluated. Athletes with a history of AP repair were identified using the NFL Combine Database. Athlete history and available imaging was reviewed. NFL performance based on draft status, games played, games started, and current status in the NFL was gathered using publicly available databases...
March 8, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282752/discovering-frequently-recurring-movement-sequences-in-team-sport-athlete-spatiotemporal-data
#11
Alice J Sweeting, Robert J Aughey, Stuart J Cormack, Stuart Morgan
Athlete external load is typically analysed from predetermined movement thresholds. The combination of movement sequences and differences in these movements between playing positions is also currently unknown. This study developed a method to discover the frequently recurring movement sequences across playing position during matches. The external load of 12 international female netball athletes was collected by a local positioning system during four national-level matches. Velocity, acceleration and angular velocity were calculated from positional (X, Y) data, clustered via one-dimensional k-means and assigned a unique alphabetic label...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282745/overuse-wrist-injuries-in-young-athletes-what-do-sports-physicians-consider-important-signals-and-functional-limitations
#12
Laura S Kox, P Paul F M Kuijer, Jip Opperman, Gino M M J Kerkhoffs, Mario Maas, Monique H W Frings-Dresen
This study's objective was to collect items from experienced sports physicians, relating to the presence and severity of overuse wrist injuries in young athletes, for developing a measurement instrument for signals of overuse wrist injury. Seven Dutch elite sports physicians involved in guidance and treatment of young athletes in wrist-loading sports (gymnastics, tennis, judo, field hockey, volleyball and rowing) participated in a focus group. They discussed signals and limitations related to overuse wrist injuries in young athletes...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281879/six-year-body-composition-change-in-male-elite-senior-rugby-league-players
#13
Ben Jones, Kevin Till, Gregory Roe, John O'Hara, Matthew Lees, Matthew J Barlow, Karen Hind
This study investigated the change in body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) of senior rugby league (RL) players between 2008 and 2014. Twelve male professional RL players (age, 24.6 ± 4.0 years; stature, 183.4 ± 8.4 cm) received a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan during preseason in 2008 and 2014. Between 2008 and 2014, very likely increases in leg lean mass (LM), total trunk and leg BMC, and a likely increase in arm BMC and possible increases in body mass (BM), total and trunk fat mass (FM), and total, trunk and arm LM were observed...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281390/reliability-of-lower-limb-biomechanics-in-two-sport-specific-sidestep-cutting-tasks
#14
Kam-Ming Mok, Roald Bahr, Tron Krosshaug
The purpose of this study was to assess the within- and between-session reliability of lower limb biomechanics in two sport-specific sidestep cutting tasks performed by elite female handball and football (soccer) athletes. Moreover, we aimed at determining the minimum number of trials necessary to obtain a reliable measure. Nineteen elite female handball and 22 elite female football (soccer) athletes (M ± SD: 22 ± 4 yrs old, 168 ± 5 cm, 66 ± 8 kg) were tested. The reliability was quantified by intra-class correlations (ICCs), typical error and Spearman's rank correlation...
March 10, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279844/practices-attitudes-towards-recovery-in-elite-asian-uk-adolescent-athletes
#15
Andrew M Murray, Anthony P Turner, John Sproule, Marco Cardinale
OBJECTIVES: Assess current practice and attitudes towards recovery in adolescent athletes. DESIGN: Questionnaires were administered either via print or online questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: Athletes and coaches from within Asia were surveyed (n = 112 & 53), with a comparative sample in the UK (n = 53 & 8). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The approaches and attitudes to recovery in both training and competition. RESULTS: Adolescent athletes perceive a variety of recovery modalities as important, though prioritise active recovery, nutrition and sleep...
December 23, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279266/parallels-between-astronauts-and-terrestrial-patients-taking-physiotherapy-rehabilitation-to-infinity-and-beyond
#16
Julie Hides, Gunda Lambrecht, Gita Ramdharry, Rebecca Cusack, Jacob Bloomberg, Maria Stokes
Exposure to the microgravity environment induces physiological changes in the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and sensorimotor systems in healthy astronauts. As space agencies prepare for extended duration missions, it is difficult to predict the extent of the effects that prolonged exposure to microgravity will have on astronauts. Prolonged bed rest is a model used by space agencies to simulate the effects of spaceflight on the human body, and bed rest studies have provided some insights into the effects of immobilisation and inactivity...
January 2017: Musculoskelet Sci Pract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278378/subsequent-injuries-are-more-common-than-injury-recurrences
#17
Caroline F Finch, Jill Cook, Breanne E Kunstler, Muhammad Akram, John Orchard
BACKGROUND: It is known that some people can, and do, sustain >1 injury over a playing season. However, there is currently little high-quality epidemiological evidence about the risk of, and relationships between, multiple and subsequent injuries. PURPOSE: To describe the subsequent injuries sustained by Australian Football League (AFL) players over 1 season, including their most common injury diagnoses. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277424/comparing-performance-during-morning-vs-afternoon-training-sessions-in-intercollegiate-basketball-players
#18
Aaron D Heishman, Michael A Curtis, Ethan Saliba, Robert J Hornett, Steven K Malin, Arthur L Weltman
Time of day is a key factor that influences the optimization of athletic performance. Intercollegiate coaches oftentimes hold early morning strength training sessions for a variety of factors including convenience. However, few studies have specifically investigated the effect of early morning vs. late afternoon strength training on performance indices of fatigue. This is athletically important because circadian/ultradian rhythms and alterations in sleep patterns can impact training ability. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of morning vs...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276913/postural-stability-clicker-reaction-time-and-bow-draw-force-predict-performance-in-elite-recurve-archery
#19
Wayne Spratford, Rhiannon Campbell
Recurve archery is an Olympic sport that requires extreme precision, upper body strength and endurance. The purpose of this research was to quantify how postural stability variables both pre- and post-arrow release, draw force, flight time, arrow length and clicker reaction time, collectively, impacted on the performance or scoring outcomes in elite recurve archery athletes. Thirty-nine elite-level recurve archers (23 male and 16 female; mean age = 24.7 ± 7.3 years) from four different countries volunteered to participate in this study prior to competing at a World Cup event...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276909/how-should-we-categorise-self-reported-data-on-subsequent-injuries
#20
Philip von Rosen, Annette Heijne
Classifying subsequent injuries is of high importance in injury epidemiology since a previous injury has been reported to increase the risk of a new injury or increase the risk of a more severe injury. Multiple reports have shown that self-reported data provide an extensive view of an injury problem and add valuable information to the understanding of the athlete's health. The purpose of this study was to display a method that can be used to facilitate classification of subsequent injuries and to discuss challenges faced when categorising subsequent injuries based on self-reported data...
March 5, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
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