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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779223/gene-editing-vectors-for-studying-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-cholinergic-transmission
#1
Can Peng, Yijin Yan, Veronica J Kim, Staci E Engle, Jennifer N Berry, J Michael McIntosh, Rachael L Neve, Ryan M Drenan
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), prototype members of the cys-loop ligand gated ion channel family, are key mediators of cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Despite their importance, technical gaps exist in our ability to dissect the function of individual subunits in the brain. To overcome these barriers, we designed CRISPR/Cas9 small guide RNA sequences (sgRNAs) for production of loss-of-function alleles in mouse nAChR genes. These sgRNAs were validated in vitro via deep sequencing...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779181/tailoring-acyclovir-prodrugs-with-enhanced-antiviral-activity-rational-design-synthesis-human-plasma-stability-and-in-vitro-evaluation
#2
Radoslav L Chayrov, Evgenios K Stylos, Maria V Chatziathanasiadou, Kiril N Chuchkov, Aleksandra I Tencheva, Androniki D Kostagianni, Tsenka S Milkova, Assia L Angelova, Angel S Galabov, Stoyan A Shishkov, Daniel G Todorov, Andreas G Tzakos, Ivanka G Stankova
Bile acid prodrugs have served as a viable strategy for refining the pharmaceutical profile of parent drugs through utilizing bile acid transporters. A series of three ester prodrugs of the antiherpetic drug acyclovir (ACV) with the bile acids cholic, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic were synthesized and evaluated along with valacyclovir for their in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2). The in vitro antiviral activity of the three bile acid prodrugs was also evaluated against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)...
May 19, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778173/human-viral-pathogens-are-pervasive-in-wastewater-treatment-center-aerosols
#3
Evelyne Brisebois, Marc Veillette, Vanessa Dion-Dupont, Jacques Lavoie, Jacques Corbeil, Alexander Culley, Caroline Duchaine
Wastewater treatment center (WTC) workers may be vulnerable to diseases caused by viruses, such as the common cold, influenza and gastro-intestinal infections. Although there is a substantial body of literature characterizing the microbial community found in wastewater, only a few studies have characterized the viral component of WTC aerosols, despite the fact that most diseases affecting WTC workers are of viral origin and that some of these viruses are transmitted through the air. In this study, we evaluated in four WTCs the presence of 11 viral pathogens of particular concern in this milieu and used a metagenomic approach to characterize the total viral community in the air of one of those WTCs...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777854/dissolving-polymeric-microneedle-arrays-for-enhanced-site-specific-acyclovir-delivery
#4
Boonnada Pamornpathomkul, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat, Ismaiel A Tekko, Lalitkumar Vora, Helen O McCarthy, Ryan F Donnelly
Acyclovir is widely indicated for the treatment of herpes labialis (cold sores), typically caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). However, topical acyclovir has poor efficacy, due to its low skin permeability. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the ability of dissolving polymeric microneedle (MN) arrays to improve the local delivery of acyclovir. Acyclovir-loaded dissolving MN arrays (0.49 cm2 ) were formulated from aqueous blends of Gantrez® S-97 with 361 needles per array (589 ± 9...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775724/biological-activities-and-phytocompounds-of-northwest-algeria-ajuga-iva-l-extracts-partial-identification-of-the-antibacterial-fraction
#5
Saida Medjeldi, Lamjed Bouslama, Amina Benabdalla, Rim Essid, Soumaya Haou, Salem Elkahoui
The use of synthetic food additive and the appearance of antibiotic resistance are at the basis of important human health problems. The substitution of synthetic compounds with new natural substances extracted from plants or microorganisms is therefore the ideal solution to this scourge. The objective of this work was to evaluate the phyto-constituents (polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins), and to test the biological activities (antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral) of the Ajuga iva (L) aerial part extracts...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774053/postherpes-simplex-encephalitis-a-case-series-of-viral-triggered-autoimmunity-synaptic-autoantibodies-and-response-to-therapy
#6
Harry Alexopoulos, Sofia Akrivou, Sotiria Mastroyanni, Maria Antonopoulou, Argirios Dinopoulos, Melpo Giorgi, Kostas Konstantinou, Evangelos Kouremenos, Maria Lariou, Dimitrios Naoumis, Efterpi Pavlidou, Evaggelos Pavlou, Konstantinos Voudris, Panayotis Vlachoyiannopoulos, Marinos C Dalakas
Background: Recent evidence suggests that patients with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis may relapse because of autoimmunity against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). We present a case series of post-HSV relapsing encephalopathy associated with antibodies to central nervous system (CNS) synaptic antigens. Patient/Methods: Sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from five patients with HSV encephalitis who relapsed after antiviral therapy were tested for anti-NMDAR, gamma-aminobutyric acid b receptor (GABAbR), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), Leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1), anti -contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) and dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DDPX) antibodies using cell-based assays...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773792/mxb-is-an-interferon-induced-restriction-factor-of-human-herpesviruses
#7
Michel Crameri, Michael Bauer, Nicole Caduff, Raphael Walker, Fiona Steiner, Francesca D Franzoso, Cornelia Gujer, Karin Boucke, Talissa Kucera, Andrea Zbinden, Christian Münz, Cornel Fraefel, Urs F Greber, Jovan Pavlovic
The type I interferon (IFN) system plays an important role in controlling herpesvirus infections, but it is unclear which IFN-mediated effectors interfere with herpesvirus replication. Here we report that human myxovirus resistance protein B (MxB, also designated Mx2) is a potent human herpesvirus restriction factor in the context of IFN. We demonstrate that ectopic MxB expression restricts a range of herpesviruses from the Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae, including herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771216/mindfulness-based-cognitive-hypnotherapy-and-skin-disorders
#8
Philip D Shenefelt
Mindfulness-based cognitive hypnotherapy integrates mindfulness, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and hypnotherapy to improve physical, emotional, mental, and/or spiritual aspects of skin disorders. Meditation, including mindfulness meditation, and hypnosis both utilize trance phenomena to help produce focalization and specific improvements in skin disorders through psycho-neuro-endocrine-immunologic mechanisms. Hypnosis, cognitive hypnotherapy, focused meditation, and mindfulness meditation are discussed with respect to improving various skin disorders including acne, acne excoriée, alopecia areata, atopic dermatitis, congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, dyshidrotic dermatitis, erythema nodosum, erythromelalgia, furuncles, glossodynia, herpes simplex, hyperhidrosis, ichthyosis vulgaris, lichen planus, neurodermatitis, nummular dermatitis, postherpetic neuralgia, prurigo nodularis, pruritus, psoriasis, rosacea, trichotillomania, urticaria, verruca vulgaris, and vitiligo...
July 2018: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769345/the-major-tegument-protein-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-vp8-interacts-with-dna-damage-response-proteins-and-induces-apoptosis
#9
Sharmin Afroz, Ravendra Garg, Michel Fodje, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
VP8, the UL47 gene product in bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1), is a major tegument protein, essential for virus replication in vivo The major DNA damage response protein, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), phosphorylates Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS1) and structural maintenance of chromosome-1 (SMC1) proteins during the DNA damage response. VP8 was found to interact with ATM and NBS1 during transfection and BoHV-1 infection. However, VP8 did not interfere with phosphorylation of ATM in transfected or BoHV-1-infected cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769337/entry-of-herpes-simplex-virus-1-into-epidermis-and-dermal-fibroblasts-is-independent-of-the-scavenger-receptor-marco
#10
Katharina Thier, Maureen Möckel, Katja Palitzsch, Katinka Döhner, Beate Sodeik, Dagmar Knebel-Mörsdorf
To enter host cells, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) initially attaches to cell surface glycosaminoglycans followed by requisite binding to one of several cellular receptors leading to viral internalization. Although virus-receptor interactions have been studied in various cell lines, the contributions of individual receptors to uptake into target tissues such as mucosa, skin or cornea are not well understood. We demonstrated that nectin-1 acts as major receptor for HSV-1 entry into murine epidermis, while HVEM can serve as alternative receptor...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768176/the-chaperone-unc93b1-regulates-toll-like-receptor-stability-independently-of-endosomal-tlr-transport
#11
Karin Pelka, Damien Bertheloot, Elisa Reimer, Kshiti Phulphagar, Susanne V Schmidt, Anette Christ, Rainer Stahl, Nicki Watson, Kensuke Miyake, Nir Hacohen, Albert Haas, Melanie M Brinkmann, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Felix Meissner, Eicke Latz
Unc-93 homolog B1 (UNC93B1) is a key regulator of nucleic acid (NA)-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Loss of NA-sensing TLR responses in UNC93B1-deficient patients facilitates Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis. UNC93B1 is thought to guide NA-sensing TLRs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to their respective endosomal signaling compartments and to guide the flagellin receptor TLR5 to the cell surface, raising the question of how UNC93B1 mediates differential TLR trafficking. Here, we report that UNC93B1 regulates a step upstream of the differential TLR trafficking process...
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767504/motion-based-immunological-detection-of-zika-virus-using-pt-nanomotors-and-a-cellphone
#12
Mohamed Shehata Draz, Nivethitha Kota Lakshminaraasimulu, Sanchana Krishnakumar, Dheerendranath Battalapalli, Anish Vasan, Manoj Kumar Kanakasabapathy, Aparna Sreeram, Shantanu Kallakuri, Prudhvi Thirumalaraju, Yudong Li, Stephane Hua, Xu G Yu, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Hadi Shafiee
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emerging pandemic threat to humans that can be fatal in newborns. Advances in digital health systems and nanoparticles can facilitate the development of sensitive and portable detection technologies for timely management of emerging viral infections. Here we report a nanomotor-based bead-motion cellphone (NBC) system for the immunological detection of ZIKV. The presence of virus in a testing sample results in the accumulation of platinum (Pt)-nanomotors on the surface of beads, causing their motion in H2 O2 solution...
May 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766506/unique-causes-of-esophageal-inflammation-a-histopathologic-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Purva Gopal, Joanna A Gibson, Mikhail Lisvosky, ILKe Nalbantoglu
Gastroenterologists frequently perform endoscopic esophageal mucosal biopsies for pathologic diagnosis in patients experiencing symptoms of esophagitis. The more common causes of esophagitis diagnosed on esophageal mucosal biopsy include reflux esophagitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, and infectious esophagitis caused by Candida albicans, herpes simplex virus, and/or cytomegalovirus. However, there are several causes of esophagitis seen less frequently by pathologists that are very important to recognize. We discuss unique types of esophageal inflammation, including acute bacterial esophagitis, esophageal manifestations of dermatologic diseases, medication-induced esophageal injury, and sloughing esophagitis; and we review their clinical and histopathologic features...
May 16, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766448/cross-sectional-study-on-hospitalizations-related-to-herpes-zoster-in-an-italian-region-2008-2016
#14
Silvia Cocchio, Tatjana Baldovin, Patrizia Furlan, Chiara Bertoncello, Alessandra Buja, Mario Saia, Marco Fonzo, Vincenzo Baldo
INTRODUCTION: To assess the burden of herpes zoster (HZ) by analyzing HZ-related hospital admissions. METHODS: We conducted a population-based descriptive cross-sectional study on all hospitalizations for HZ among the resident population admitted to all public and accredited private hospitals in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy) during the years 2008-2016. HZ hospitalizations were identified from the International Classification of Diseases codes in the hospital discharge records...
May 15, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765544/comparison-of-infectivity-and-spread-between-hsv-1-and-hsv-2-based-oncolytic-viruses-on-tumor-cells-with-different-receptor-expression-profiles
#15
Xinping Fu, Lihua Tao, Pin-Yi Wang, Timothy P Cripe, Xiaoliu Zhang
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the many viruses that have been modified or adapted for oncolytic purposes. There are two serotypes of HSV, HSV-1 and HSV-2. The majority of oncolytic HSVs, including T-VEC which has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use in treating late stage melanoma patients, are derived from HSV-1. Recently, we and others have developed several HSV-2 based oncolytic viruses. During our in vitro characterization of oncolytic viruses developed from both serotypes (Baco-1 from HSV-1 and FusOn-H2 from HSV-2), we noticed there is a subpopulation of cancer cells in which both viruses could infect but only FusOn-H2 could spread from cell to cell on monolayers...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764228/anti-infective-chemoprophylaxis-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#16
Paul J Deziel, Raymund Razonable
Solid organ transplant recipients are at high risk of opportunistic infections due to bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic pathogens. Anti-infective prophylaxis is a time-tested proven strategy for the prevention of these infections after solid organ transplantation. Areas covered: The current recommendations for the prevention of surgical site infections, herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, invasive fungal infections, and selected parasitic diseases are highlighted. Recent peer-reviewed publications on the prevention of infection after solid organ transplantation were reviewed and their significance was discussed in the context of the current recommendations for preventing infectious complications...
May 15, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764161/the-emerging-role-of-oncolytic-virus-therapy-against-cancer
#17
Luke Russell, Kah-Whye Peng
This review discusses current clinical advancements in oncolytic viral therapy, with a focus on the viral platforms approved for clinical use and highlights the benefits each platform provides. Three oncolytic viruses (OVs), an echovirus, an adenovirus, and a herpes simplex-1 virus, have passed governmental regulatory approval in Latvia, China, and the USA and EU. Numerous other recombinant viruses from diverse families are in clinical testing in cancer patients and we highlight the design features of selected examples, including adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, measles virus, retrovirus, reovirus, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762896/vertical-transmission-of-herpes-simplex-virus-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Anil Kumar Bhatta, Uma Keyal, Yeqiang Liu, Emese Gellen
Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and -2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide. HSV infection during pregnancy can result in neonatal herpes infection, which is characterized by lifelong infection with periods of latency and reactivation. HSV can be acquired by an infant during one of three periods: in utero (5 %), peripartum (85 %), or postnatal (10 %). Neonatal HSV is a rare but significant infection that may be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement...
May 15, 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762484/crispr-cas9-mutagenesis-of-ul21-in-multiple-strains-of-herpes-simplex-virus-reveals-differential-requirements-for-pul21-in-viral-replication
#19
Renée L Finnen, Bruce W Banfield
Studies from multiple laboratories using different strains or species of herpes simplex virus (HSV) with deletions in UL21 have yielded conflicting results regarding the necessity of pUL21 in HSV infection. To resolve this discrepancy, we utilized CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis to isolate pUL21 deficient viruses in multiple HSV backgrounds, and performed a side-by-side comparison of the cell-to-cell spread and replication phenotypes of these viruses. These analyses confirmed previous studies implicating the involvement of pUL21 in cell-to-cell spread of HSV...
May 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762300/health-related-quality-of-life-of-young-people-and-adults-with-primary-or-recurrent-episodes-of-genital-herpes-a-mixed-methods-systematic-review-protocol
#20
Clare Bennett, Anne Rebafka, Judith Carrier, Deborah Edwards, Jonathan Jones
The review questions are:The specific objectives are:This mixed methods review seeks to develop an aggregated synthesis of quantitative and qualitative data on the HRQOL implications of genital herpes for the individual in order to derive conclusions and recommendations for clinical practice and policy decision making.
May 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
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