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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332157/acanthamoeba-keratitis-in-porto-alegre-southern-brazil-28-cases-and-risk-factors
#1
Denise Leal Dos Santos, Sergio Kwitko, Diane Ruschel Marinho, Bruno Schneider de Araújo, Claudete Inês Locatelli, Marilise Brittes Rott
The increasing use of contact lenses worldwide has led to an increase in cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis, which are often associated with inappropriate cleaning of contact lenses and lens cases. This study aimed to retrospectively review 28 cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis in Porto Alegre (southern Brazil) and identify the risk factors and clinical outcomes of affected patients. Most patients had higher education (66.6%), all were users of contact lenses, mostly women (67.9%). Most patients were soft contact lens wearers (66...
January 14, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329934/application-of-our-understanding-of-pathogenesis-of-herpetic-stromal-keratitis-for-novel-therapy
#2
Naveen K Rajasagi, Barry T Rouse
HSV-1 ocular infection can cause herpes stromal keratitis (SK), an immunopathological lesion. Frequent recurrences can lead to progressive corneal scaring which can result in vision impairment if left untreated. Currently, the acute and epithelial forms of SK are usually controlled using anti-viral drugs. However, chronic forms of SK which are inflammatory in nature, require the addition of a topical corticosteroid to the anti-viral treatment regimen. In this review, we highlight the essential events involved in SK pathogenesis which can be targeted for improved therapy...
January 9, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327237/regional-age-and-respiratory-secretion-specific-prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-associated-with-asthma-exacerbation-a-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Xue-Yan Zheng, Yan-Jun Xu, Wei-Jie Guan, Li-Feng Lin
Despite increased understanding of how viral infection is involved in asthma exacerbations, it is less clear which viruses are involved and to what extent they contribute to asthma exacerbations. Here, we sought to determine the prevalence of different respiratory viruses during asthma exacerbations. Systematic computerized searches of the literature up to June 2017 without language limitation were performed. The primary focus was on the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including AdV (adenovirus), BoV (bocavirus), CoV (coronavirus), CMV (cytomegalovirus), EnV (enterovirus), HSV (herpes simplex virus), IfV (influenza virus), MpV (metapneumovirus), PiV (parainfluenzavirus), RV (rhinovirus) and RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) during asthma exacerbations...
January 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327136/signal-detection-for-recently-approved-products-adapting-and-evaluating-self-controlled-case-series-method-using-a-us-claims-and-uk-electronic-medical-records-database
#4
Xiaofeng Zhou, Ian J Douglas, Rongjun Shen, Andrew Bate
INTRODUCTION: The Self-Controlled Case Series (SCCS) method has been widely used for hypothesis testing, but there is limited evidence of its performance for safety signal detection. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate SCCS for signal detection on recently approved products. METHODS: A retrospective study covered the period after three recently marketed drugs were launched through to 31 December 2010 using The Health Improvement Network, a UK primary care database, and Optum, a US claims database...
January 11, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326371/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-presenting-as-stroke-and-meningoencephalitis-with-aortic-and-subclavian-aneurysms-without-pulmonary-involvement
#5
Pournamy Sarathchandran, Abubaker Al Madani, Ayman M Alboudi, Jihad Inshasi
A 39-year-old Philipino man presented with acute onset fever and headache. Neurological examination was normal except for neck stiffness. There was no history of chest pain, cough or breathlessness. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed a mild increase in protein with normal sugar and lymphocytic pleocytosis. CSF PCR for herpes simplex and varicella zoster virus was negative. He developed acute right haemiplegia a week after hospitalisation. MRI showed acute infarct in the left centrum semiovale. His angiogram showed aneurysm in the left subclavian artery and aortic arch...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325336/-dose-response-relationship-of-ropivacaine-for-epidural-block-in-early-herpes-zoster-guided-by-ct
#6
K Y Xie, J B Ma, Q Xu, B Huang, M Yao, H D Ni, J J Deng, G D Chen
Objective: To determine the dose-response relationship of ropivacaine for epidural block in early herpes zoster by CT guided. Methods: From January 2015 to February 2017, according to the principle of completely random digital table, 80 patients with early herpes zoster who were prepared for epidural block were divided into 4 groups(each group 20 patients): in group A the concentration of ropivacaine was 0.08%, in group B was 0.10%, in group C was 0.12% and in group D was 0.14%.Under CT guidance, epidural puncture was performed in the relevant section, mixing liquid 5...
December 26, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322764/rapid-veterinary-diagnosis-of-bovine-reproductive-infectious-diseases-from-semen-using-paper-origami-dna-microfluidics
#7
Zhugen Yang, Gaolian Xu, Julien Reboud, Syed Atif Ali, Gurpreet Kaur, John McGiven, Nongthombam Boby, Praveen Gupta, Pallab Chaudhuri, Jonathan Mark Cooper
The health and well-being of cattle is a significant concern for global agricultural output. In dairy production within low and middle income countries (LMICs), there is a significant biosensing challenge in detecting sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens during animal husbandry, due in part to difficulties associated with the limited infrastructure for veterinary medicine. Here we demonstrate low-cost, multiplexed and sample-to-answer paper-origami tests for the detection of three bovine infectious reproductive diseases in semen samples, collected at a test site in rural India...
January 11, 2018: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322275/outcome-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-pcr-analysis-in-100-suspected-cases-of-infectious-uveitis
#8
Ranju Kharel Sitaula, M K Janani, H N Madhavan, Jyotirmay Biswas
BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis is an important tool in the diagnosis of infectious uveitis. A retrospective, interventional study of PCR analysis of ocular fluid in suspected infectious uveitis cases between January 2014 to July 2016 was done. Nested, real-time and broad range PCR was performed for detection of the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, herpes virus family, Chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, fungus, eubacterium and propionibacterium acne. RESULTS: Total of 100 cases included, mean age was 39...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321311/herpes-simplex-virus-1-mutant-with-point-mutations-in-ul39-is-impaired-for-acute-viral-replication-in-mice-establishment-of-latency-and-explant-induced-reactivation
#9
Heba H Mostafa, Thornton W Thompson, Adam J Konen, Steve D Haenchen, Joshua G Hilliard, Stuart J Macdonald, Lynda A Morrison, David J Davido
In the process of generating HSV-1 mutants in the viral regulatory gene encoding infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), we isolated a viral mutant, termed KOS-NA, that was severely impaired for acute replication in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia (TG) of mice, defective in establishing a latent infection, and reactivated poorly from explanted TG. To identify the secondary mutation(s) responsible for the impaired phenotypes of this mutant, we sequenced the KOS-NA genome and noted that it contained two nonsynonymous mutations in UL39, which encodes the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, ICP6...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317823/european-perspective-on-the-management-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-clinical-utility-of-tofacitinib
#10
REVIEW
Paweł Kawalec, Katarzyna Śladowska, Iwona Malinowska-Lipień, Tomasz Brzostek, Maria Kózka
Xeljanz® (tofacitinib) is an oral small-molecule inhibitor that reversibly inhibits Janus-activated kinase (JAK)-dependent cytokine signaling, thus reducing inflammation. As a result of these mechanisms, effects on the immune system such as a moderate decrease in the total lymphocyte count, a dose-dependent decrease in natural killer (NK) cell count, and an increase in B-cell count have been observed. Therefore, tofacitinib provides an innovative approach to modulating the immune and inflammatory responses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which is especially important in individuals who do not respond to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors or show a loss of response over time...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317068/etiological-mechanism-of-iridocorneal-endothelial-ice-syndrome-may-involve-infection-of-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-and-integration-of-viral-genes-into-human-genome
#11
Fei Li, Yaoming Liu, Yi Sun, Xiulan Zhang
Iridocorneal (ICE) syndrome is a rare ocular disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of corneal endothelial cells, progressive obstruction of irido-corneal angle and atrophy of iris. ICE syndrome progressed slowly, but can cause serious complications such as secondary glaucoma in late stage. Because the etiology of ICE syndrome is not clear, there is still no effective treatment in clinical practice. Previous studies have detected herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA inside patient's aqueous humor. However, no further explanation for HSV-related etiology of ICE syndrome was established...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316913/influence-of-demographic-changes-on-the-impact-of-vaccination-against-varicella-and-herpes-zoster-in-germany-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#12
Johannes Horn, Oliver Damm, Wolfgang Greiner, Hartmut Hengel, Mirjam E Kretzschmar, Anette Siedler, Bernhard Ultsch, Felix Weidemann, Ole Wichmann, André Karch, Rafael T Mikolajczyk
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that reduced exposure to varicella might lead to an increased risk for herpes zoster (HZ). Reduction of exposure to varicella is a consequence of varicella vaccination but also of demographic changes. We analyzed how the combination of vaccination programs and demographic dynamics will affect the epidemiology of varicella and HZ in Germany over the next 50 years. METHODS: We used a deterministic dynamic compartmental model to assess the impact of different varicella and HZ vaccination strategies on varicella and HZ epidemiology in three demographic scenarios, namely the projected population for Germany, the projected population additionally accounting for increased immigration as observed in 2015/2016, and a stationary population...
January 9, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315637/rapid-detection-and-differentiation-of-carp-oedema-virus-and-cyprinid-herpes-virus-3-in-koi-and-common-carp
#13
H Soliman, M El-Matbouli
Carp oedema virus (CEV) and koi herpes virus (KHV) are of major concern to common carp breeders and koi enthusiasts worldwide. The viruses cause diseases that exhibit similar external signs; thus, it is difficult to distinguish between them clinically. In this study, we developed and optimized rapid and accurate single- and multiplex isothermal diagnostic tools, based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), for detection and differentiation of CEV and KHV. The assays were combined with a lateral flow dipstick to enable visual detection of amplification products and simplify post-amplification analysis...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315479/long-term-management-of-moderate-to-severe-atopic-dermatitis-with-dupilumab-and-concomitant-topical-corticosteroids-liberty-ad-chronos-a-critical-appraisal
#14
J Thomson, A G H Wernham, H C Williams
AIM: Blauvelt et al. (The Lancet 2017; 389: 2287-303) aimed to compare the long-term efficacy and safety of dupilumab with medium-potency topical corticosteroids (TCS) versus placebo with TCS in adults with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD). SETTING AND DESIGN: This multicentre randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in hospitals, clinics and academic institutions across 161 sites in 14 countries. STUDY EXPOSURE: Adults with moderate-to-severe AD were randomly assigned (3:1:3) to receive subcutaneous dupilumab 300mg once weekly (qw) plus TCS, dupilumab 300mg every 2 weeks (q2w) plus TCS, or placebo plus TCS until week-52...
January 6, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315221/introduction-of-exogenous-hsv-tk-suicide-gene-increases-safety-of-keratinocyte-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-providing-genetic-emergency-exit-switch
#15
Maciej Sułkowski, Paweł Konieczny, Paula Chlebanowska, Marcin Majka
Since their invention in 2006, induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells remain a great promise for regenerative medicine circumventing the ethical issues linked to Embryonic Stem (ES) cell research. iPS cells can be generated in a patient-specific manner as an unlimited source of various cell types for in vitro drug screening, developmental biology studies and regenerative use. Having the capacity of differentiating into the cells of all three primary germ layers, iPS cells have high potential to form teratoma tumors...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313728/the-potential-of-currently-unavailable-herpes-virus-vaccines
#16
Július Rajcáni, Ferenc Bánáti, Kálmán Szenthe, Susan Szathmary
Despite overwhelming experimental work, there are no licensed vaccines against the most frequent Alphaherpesviruses, namely herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and 2) nor against the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirus. Areas covered: Since the DNAs of both HSVs reside in the regional sensory ganglia in a latent state (i.e. as circularized episomal molecules), a corresponding vaccine might be useful for immunotherapy rather than prevention of primary infection. Here we describe the design of a purified subunit vaccine (a mix of at least 3 glycoproteins) as well as the preparation and efficacy of a recombinant fusion protein consisting of the gD ectodomain from our domestic attenuated HSV1 strain HSZP...
January 9, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313475/impact-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-the-risk-of-herpes-zoster-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-in-tanzania
#17
Kosuke Kawai, Claudia A Hawkins, Ellen Hertzmark, Joel M Francis, David Sando, Aisa N Muya, Nzovu Ulenga, Wafaie W Fawzi
We examined the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) before and after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and risk factors for HZ among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Tanzania. A cohort study was conducted among HIV-positive individuals enrolled in HIV care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to examine the effect of ART on the risk of HZ after adjusting for sociodemographics and time-varying clinical and nutritional factors...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310348/healthcare-utilization-and-costs-among-patients-with-herpes-zoster-and-solid-tumor-malignancy-on-chemotherapy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Jianbin Mao, Jeffrey T McPheeters, Lyn Finelli
Immunosuppressed patients with solid tumor malignancies (STMs) are particularly vulnerable to herpes zoster (HZ). This study estimated the incidence of HZ and evaluated healthcare resource utilization and costs for persons with STM receiving chemotherapy with and without incident HZ.We conducted a retrospective claims study of adults with STM receiving chemotherapy between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2014. Patients were followed from their first chemotherapy date through development of HZ, health plan disenrollment, the study end date, or 24 months...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310062/are-infectious-agents-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-postpartum-psychosis
#19
Lot D de Witte, Gijsje Snijders, Manja Litjens, Astrid M Kamperman, Steven A Kushner, René S Kahn, Veerle Bergink
BACKGROUND: Since postpartum psychosis has been linked to activation of the immune system, it has been hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder. We therefore investigated whether exposure to pathogens that can infect the central nervous system is increased in patients with postpartum psychosis. METHODS: We measured the prevalence and titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Toxoplasma Gondii (TG) in a cohort of patients with postpartum psychosis (n = 81) and compared these to matched postpartum controls...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309905/overall-and-comparative-risk-of-herpes-zoster-with-pharmacotherapy-for-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#20
Nabeel Khan, Dhruvan Patel, Chinmay Trivedi, Yash Shah, Gary Lichtenstein, James Lewis, Yu-Xiao Yang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) might be at increased risk for herpes zoster infection. We sought to quantify the risk of herpes zoster in patients with IBD and evaluate the effects of IBD and IBD medications on the risk of herpes zoster. METHODS: We conducted 2 retrospective studies of populations of Veterans, from January 2000 through June 2016. In study 1, we compared the incidence of herpes zoster among patients with IBD receiving 5-ASA alone vs matched patients without IBD...
January 5, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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