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Evolutionary biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654641/biological-effects-of-the-hypomagnetic-field-an-analytical-review-of-experiments-and-theories
#1
Vladimir N Binhi, Frank S Prato
During interplanetary flights in the near future, a human organism will be exposed to prolonged periods of a hypomagnetic field that is 10,000 times weaker than that of Earth's. Attenuation of the geomagnetic field occurs in buildings with steel walls and in buildings with steel reinforcement. It cannot be ruled out also that a zero magnetic field might be interesting in biomedical studies and therapy. Further research in the area of hypomagnetic field effects, as shown in this article, is capable of shedding light on a fundamental problem in biophysics-the problem of primary magnetoreception...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653578/potato-virus-y-pvy-isolates-from-physalis-peruviana-are-unable-to-systemically-infect-potato-or-pepper-and-form-a-distinct-new-lineage-within-the-pvy-c-strain-group
#2
Kelsie Green, Mohamad Chikh-Ali, Randall Hamasaki, Michael J Melzer, Alexander Karasev
Poha, or Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) is a plant species cultivated in Hawaii for fresh fruit production. In 2015, an outbreak of virus symptoms occurred on poha farms in the South Kohala District of the island of Hawaii. The plants displayed mosaic, stunting, leaf deformation, and produced poor fruit. Initial testing found the problem associated with Potato virus Y (PVY) infection. Six individual PVY isolates, named Poha1 to Poha6, were collected from field-grown poha plants and subjected to biological and molecular characterization...
June 27, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651535/molecular-phylogeny-reveals-food-plasticity-in-the-evolution-of-true-ladybird-beetles-coleoptera-coccinellidae-coccinellini
#3
Hermes E Escalona, Andreas Zwick, Hao-Sen Li, Jiahui Li, Xingmin Wang, Hong Pang, Diana Hartley, Lars S Jermiin, Oldřich Nedvěd, Bernhard Misof, Oliver Niehuis, Adam Ślipiński, Wioletta Tomaszewska
BACKGROUND: The tribe Coccinellini is a group of relatively large ladybird beetles that exhibits remarkable morphological and biological diversity. Many species are aphidophagous, feeding as larvae and adults on aphids, but some species also feed on other hemipterous insects (i.e., heteropterans, psyllids, whiteflies), beetle and moth larvae, pollen, fungal spores, and even plant tissue. Several species are biological control agents or widespread invasive species (e.g., Harmonia axyridis (Pallas))...
June 26, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651436/beyond-the-beaten-path-improving-natural-products-bioprospecting-using-an-eco-evolutionary-framework-the-case-of-the-octocorals
#4
Jean-Baptiste Ledoux, Agostinho Antunes
Marine natural products (NPs) represent an impressive source of novel bioactive molecules with major biotechnological applications. Nevertheless, the usual chemical and applied perspective leading most of bioprospecting projects come along with various limitations blurring our understanding of the extensive marine chemical diversity. Here, we propose several guidelines: (i) to optimize bioprospecting and (ii) to refine our knowledge on marine chemical ecology focusing on octocorals, one of the most promising sources of marine NPs...
June 26, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649989/an-l-threonine-transaldolase-is-required-for-l-threo-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-amino-acid-assembly-during-obafluorin-biosynthesis
#5
Thomas A Scott, Daniel Heine, Zhiwei Qin, Barrie Wilkinson
β-Lactone natural products occur infrequently in nature but possess a variety of potent and valuable biological activities. They are commonly derived from β-hydroxy-α-amino acids, which are themselves valuable chiral building blocks for chemical synthesis and precursors to numerous important medicines. However, despite a number of excellent synthetic methods for their asymmetric synthesis, few effective enzymatic tools exist for their preparation. Here we report cloning of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the β-lactone antibiotic obafluorin and delineate its biosynthetic pathway...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649635/gravireceptors-in-eukaryotes-a-comparison-of-case-studies-on-the-cellular-level
#6
Donat-P Häder, Markus Braun, Daniela Grimm, Ruth Hemmersbach
We have selected five evolutionary very different biological systems ranging from unicellular protists via algae and higher plants to human cells showing responses to the gravity vector of the Earth in order to compare their graviperception mechanisms. All these systems use a mass, which may either by a heavy statolith or the whole content of the cell heavier than the surrounding medium to operate on a gravireceptor either by exerting pressure or by pulling on a cytoskeletal element. In many cases the receptor seems to be a mechanosensitive ion channel activated by the gravitational force which allows a gated ion flux across the membrane when activated...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649335/early-events-in-speciation-cryptic-species-of%C3%A2-drosophila-aldrichi
#7
Cynthia Castro Vargas, Maxi Polihronakis Richmond, Mariana Ramirez Loustalot Laclette, Therese Ann Markow
Understanding the earliest events in speciation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Thus identifying species whose populations are beginning to diverge can provide useful systems to study the process of speciation. Drosophila aldrichi, a cactophilic fruit fly species with a broad distribution in North America, has long been assumed to be a single species owing to its morphological uniformity. While previous reports either of genetic divergence or reproductive isolation among different D. aldrichi strains have hinted at the existence of cryptic species, the evolutionary relationships of this species across its range have not been thoroughly investigated...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648632/purification-characterization-cloning-and-structural-analysis-of-crocodylus-siamensis-ovotransferrin-for-insight-into-functions-of-iron-binding-and-autocleavage
#8
Sukanya Chaipayang, Chomphunuch Songsiriritthigul, Chun-Jung Chen, Philip M Palacios, Brad S Pierce, Nisachon Jangpromma, Sompong Klaynongsruang
Ovotransferrin, the major protein constituent of egg white, is of great interest due to its pivotal role in biological iron transport and storage processes and its spontaneous autocleavage into peptidic fragments with alternative biological properties, such antibacterial and antioxidant activity. However, despite being well-investigated in avian, a detailed elucidation of the structure-function relationship of ovotransferrins in the closely related order of Crocodilia has not been reported to date. In this study, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) confirmed the presence of two spectroscopically distinct ferric iron binding sites in Crocodylus siamensis OTf (cOTf), but implied a five-fold lower quantity of bound iron than in hen OTf (hOTf)...
June 22, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648617/a-perspective-on-the-structural-and-functional-constraints-for-immune-evasion-insights-from-the-influenza-virus
#9
REVIEW
Nicholas C Wu, Ian A Wilson
Influenza virus evolves rapidly to constantly escape from natural immunity. Most humoral immune responses to influenza virus target the hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA), which is the major antigen on the surface of the virus. The HA is comprised of a globular head domain for receptor binding and a stem domain for membrane fusion. The major antigenic sites of HA are located in the globular head subdomain, which is highly tolerant of amino-acid substitutions and continual addition of glycosylation sites. Nonetheless, the evolution of the receptor-binding site (RBS) and the stem region on HA is severely constrained by their functional roles in engaging the host receptor and in mediating membrane fusion, respectively...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647644/from-quantum-measurement-to-biology-via-retrocausality
#10
REVIEW
Koichiro Matsuno
A reaction cycle in general or a metabolic cycle in particular owes its evolutionary emergence to the covering reaction environment acting as a measurement apparatus of a natural origin. The quantum measurement of the environmental origin underlying the molecular processes observed in the biological realm is operative cohesively between the measuring and the measured. The measuring part comes to pull in a quantum as an indivisible lump available from an arbitrary material body to be measured. The inevitable difference between the impinging quantum upon the receiving end on the part of the environment and the actual quantum pulled into the receiving end comes to effectively be nullified through the retrocausative propagation of the corresponding wave function proceeding backwards in time...
June 21, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647534/molecular-cell-biology-of-complement-membrane-attack
#11
REVIEW
B Paul Morgan, Courtney Boyd, Doryen Bubeck
The membrane attack complex (MAC) is the pore-forming toxin of the complement system, a relatively early evolutionary acquisition that confers upon complement the capacity to directly kill pathogens. The MAC is more than just a bactericidal missile, having the capacity when formed on self-cells to initiate a host of cell activation events that can have profound consequences for tissue homeostasis in the face of infection or injury. Although the capacity of complement to directly kill pathogens has been recognised for over a century, and the pore-forming killing mechanism for at least 50 years, there remains considerable uncertainty regarding precisely how MAC mediates its killing and cell activation activities...
June 21, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647090/natural-product-inspired-compound-collections-evolutionary-principle-chemical-synthesis-phenotypic-screening-and-target-identification
#12
REVIEW
Luca Laraia, Herbert Waldmann
Natural products have been an excellent and abundant source of therapeutics for many decades. To expand on their success, and explore areas of chemical space not covered by biosynthesis, the synthesis of natural product-inspired compound collections has emerged as a viable strategy. Herein we describe the principles behind biology-oriented synthesis and related approaches, the requirements for development of novel chemistry and how phenotypic screens are a very fruitful way to explore the bioactivity of compounds made using these approaches...
March 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645767/assessing-the-potential-of-rad-sequencing-to-resolve-phylogenetic-relationships-within-species-radiations-the-fly-genus-chiastocheta-diptera-anthomyiidae-as-a-case-study
#13
Tomasz Suchan, Anahí Espíndola, Sereina Rutschmann, Brent C Emerson, Kevin Gori, Christophe Dessimoz, Nils Arrigo, Michał Ronikier, Nadir Alvarez
Determining phylogenetic relationships among recently diverged species has long been a challenge in evolutionary biology. Cytoplasmic markers, which have been widely used notably in the context of molecular barcoding, have not always proved successful in resolving such phylogenies, but phylogenies for closely related species have been resolved at a much higher detail in the last couple of years with the advent of next-generation-sequencing technologies and associated techniques of reduced genome representation...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643786/a-unified-model-of-hymenopteran-preadaptations-that-trigger-the-evolutionary-transition-to-eusociality
#14
Andrés E Quiñones, Ido Pen
Explaining the origin of eusociality, with strict division of labour between workers and reproductives, remains one of evolutionary biology's greatest challenges. Specific combinations of genetic, behavioural and demographic traits in Hymenoptera are thought to explain their relatively high frequency of eusociality, but quantitative models integrating such preadaptations are lacking. Here we use mathematical models to show that the joint evolution of helping behaviour and maternal sex ratio adjustment can synergistically trigger both a behavioural change from solitary to eusocial breeding, and a demographic change from a life cycle with two reproductive broods to a life cycle in which an unmated cohort of female workers precedes a final generation of dispersing reproductives...
June 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643772/cryptic-indole-hydroxylation-by-a-non-canonical-terpenoid-cyclase-parallels-bacterial-xenobiotic-detoxification
#15
Susann Kugel, Martin Baunach, Philipp Baer, Mie Ishida-Ito, Srividhya Sundaram, Zhongli Xu, Michael Groll, Christian Hertweck
Terpenoid natural products comprise a wide range of molecular architectures that typically result from C-C bond formations catalysed by classical type I/II terpene cyclases. However, the molecular diversity of biologically active terpenoids is substantially increased by fully unrelated, non-canonical terpenoid cyclases. Their evolutionary origin has remained enigmatic. Here we report the in vitro reconstitution of an unusual flavin-dependent bacterial indoloterpenoid cyclase, XiaF, together with a designated flavoenzyme-reductase (XiaP) that mediates a key step in xiamycin biosynthesis...
June 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642842/the-tick-microbiome-why-non-pathogenic-microorganisms-matter-in-tick-biology-and-pathogen-transmission
#16
REVIEW
Sarah I Bonnet, Florian Binetruy, Angelica M Hernández-Jarguín, Olivier Duron
Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting humans and other animals worldwide. They do not only carry pathogens however, as a diverse group of commensal and symbiotic microorganisms are also present in ticks. Unlike pathogens, their biology and their effect on ticks remain largely unexplored, and are in fact often neglected. Nonetheless, they can confer multiple detrimental, neutral, or beneficial effects to their tick hosts, and can play various roles in fitness, nutritional adaptation, development, reproduction, defense against environmental stress, and immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641482/insights-into-eukaryotic-evolution-from-transmembrane-domain-lengths
#17
Aditya Mittal, Snigdha Singh
Biological membranes, comprised of proteins anchored by their trans-membrane domains (TMDs) creating a semi-permeable phase with lipid constituents, serve as "checkposts" for not only intracellular trafficking in eukaryotic cells but also for material transactions of all living cells with external environments. Hydropathy (or hydrophobicity) plots of "bitopic" proteins (i.e. having single alpha-helical TMDs) are routinely utilized in biochemistry texts for predicting their TMDs. The number of amino acids (i...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640543/evolutionary-optimized-photonic-network-structure-in-white-beetle-wing-scales
#18
Bodo D Wilts, Xiaoyuan Sheng, Mirko Holler, Ana Diaz, Manuel Guizar-Sicairos, Jörg Raabe, Robert Hoppe, Shu-Hao Liu, Richard Langford, Olimpia D Onelli, Duyu Chen, Salvatore Torquato, Ullrich Steiner, Christian G Schroer, Silvia Vignolini, Alessandro Sepe
Most studies of structural color in nature concern periodic arrays, which through the interference of light create color. The "color" white however relies on the multiple scattering of light within a randomly structured medium, which randomizes the direction and phase of incident light. Opaque white materials therefore must be much thicker than periodic structures. It is known that flying insects create "white" in extremely thin layers. This raises the question, whether evolution has optimized the wing scale morphology for white reflection at a minimum material use...
June 22, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639406/controlling-cyanobacterial-harmful-blooms-in-freshwater-ecosystems
#19
Hans W Paerl
Cyanobacteria's long evolutionary history has enabled them to adapt to geochemical and climatic changes, and more recent human and climatic modifications of aquatic ecosystems, including nutrient over-enrichment, hydrologic modifications, and global warming. Harmful (toxic, hypoxia-generating, food web altering) cyanobacterial bloom (CyanoHAB) genera are controlled by the synergistic effects of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) supplies, light, temperature, water residence/flushing times, and biotic interactions...
June 21, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637850/hierarchical-complexity-and-the-size-limits-of-life
#20
Noel A Heim, Jonathan L Payne, Seth Finnegan, Matthew L Knope, Michał Kowalewski, S Kathleen Lyons, Daniel W McShea, Philip M Novack-Gottshall, Felisa A Smith, Steve C Wang
Over the past 3.8 billion years, the maximum size of life has increased by approximately 18 orders of magnitude. Much of this increase is associated with two major evolutionary innovations: the evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotic cells approximately 1.9 billion years ago (Ga), and multicellular life diversifying from unicellular ancestors approximately 0.6 Ga. However, the quantitative relationship between organismal size and structural complexity remains poorly documented. We assessed this relationship using a comprehensive dataset that includes organismal size and level of biological complexity for 11 172 extant genera...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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