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Evolutionary biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053173/the-williams-legacy-a-critical-reappraisal-of-his-nine-predictions-about-the-evolution-of-senescence
#1
Jean-Michel Gaillard, Jean-François Lemaître
Williams' evolutionary theory of senescence based on antagonistic pleiotropy has become a landmark in evolutionary biology, and more recently in biogerontology and evolutionary medicine. In his original article, Williams launched a set of nine 'testable deductions' from his theory. Although some of these predictions have been repeatedly discussed, most have been overlooked and no systematic evaluation of the whole set of Williams' original predictions has been performed. For the sixtieth anniversary of the publication of the Williams' paper, we provide an updated evaluation of all these predictions...
October 20, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052943/towards-a-capability-approach-to-child-growth-a-theoretical-framework
#2
Hinke Haisma, Sepideh Yousefzadeh, Pieter Boele Van Hensbroek
Child malnutrition is an important cause of under-5 mortality and morbidity around the globe. Despite the partial success of (inter)national efforts to reduce child mortality, under-5 mortality rates continue to be high. The multidimensional approaches of the Sustainable Development Goals may suggest new directions for rethinking strategies for reducing child mortality and malnutrition. We propose a theoretical framework for developing a "capability" approach to child growth. The current child growth monitoring practices are based on 2 assumptions: (a) that anthropometric and motor development measures are the appropriate indicators; and (b) that child growth can be assessed using a single universal standard that is applicable around the world...
October 20, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052539/engineering-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-gut-bacteria
#3
Brian P Landry, Jeffrey J Tabor
Genetically engineered bacteria have the potential to diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases linked to the gastrointestinal tract, or gut. Such engineered microbes will be less expensive and invasive than current diagnostics and more effective and safe than current therapeutics. Recent advances in synthetic biology have dramatically improved the reliability with which bacteria can be engineered with the sensors, genetic circuits, and output (actuator) genes necessary for diagnostic and therapeutic functions...
October 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052279/combining-protein-sequence-structure-and-dynamics-a-novel-approach-for-functional-evolution-analysis-of-pas-domain-superfamily
#4
Zheng Dong, Hongyu Zhou, Peng Tao
OBJECTIVES: PAS domains are widespread in archaea, bacteria and eukaryota, and play important roles in various functions. In this study, we aim to explore functional evolutionary relationship among proteins in the PAS domain superfamily in view of the sequence-structure-dynamics-function relationship. METHODS: We collected protein sequences and crystal structures data from RCSB Protein Data Bank of the PAS domain superfamily belonging to three biological functions (nucleotide binding, photoreceptor activity and transferase activity)...
October 20, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052182/profiling-developmentally-and-environmentally-controlled-chromatin-reprogramming
#5
Clara Bourbousse, Moussa Benhamed, Fredy Barneche
Dynamic reshuffling of the chromatin landscape is a recurrent theme orchestrated in many, if not all, plant developmental transitions and adaptive responses. Spatiotemporal variations of the chromatin properties on regulatory genes and on structural genomic elements trigger the establishment of distinct transcriptional contexts, which in some instances can epigenetically be inherited. Studies on plant cell plasticity during the differentiation of stem cells, including gametogenesis, or the specialization of vegetative cells in various organs, as well as the investigation of allele-specific gene regulation have long been impaired by technical challenges in generating specific chromatin profiles in complex or hardly accessible cell populations...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051394/evolution-on-rugged-adaptive-landscapes
#6
Uri Obolski, Yoav Ram, Lilach Hadany
Adaptive landscapes represent a mapping between genotype and fitness. Rugged adaptive landscapes contain two or more adaptive peaks: allele combinations with higher fitness than any of their neighbors on the genetic space. How would a population evolve on such rugged landscapes? Evolutionary biologists have struggled with this question since it was first introduced in the 1930's by Sewall Wright. Discoveries in the fields of genetics and biochemistry inspired various mathematical models of adaptive landscapes...
October 20, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050554/natural-variation-and-genetics-of-photoperiodism-in-wyeomyia-smithii
#7
William E Bradshaw, Christina M Holzapfel
Seasonal change in the temperate and polar regions of Earth determines how the world looks around us and, in fact, how we live our day-to-day lives. For biological organisms, seasonal change typically involves complex physiological and metabolic reorganization, the majority of which is regulated by photoperiodism. Photoperiodism is the ability of animals and plants to use day length or night length, resulting in life-historical transformations, including seasonal development, migration, reproduction, and dormancy...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048547/perspectives-on-integrating-genetic-and-physical-explanations-of-evolution-and-development-an-introduction-to-the-symposium
#8
Alan C Love, Thomas A Stewart, Gunter P Wagner, Stuart A Newman
In the 20th century, genetic explanatory approaches became dominant in both developmental and evolutionary biological research. By contrast, physical approaches, which appeal to properties such as mechanical forces, were largely relegated to the margins, despite important advances in modeling. Recently, there have been renewed attempts to find balanced viewpoints that integrate both biological physics and molecular genetics into explanations of developmental and evolutionary phenomena. Here we introduce the 2017 SICB symposium "Physical and Genetic Mechanisms for Evolutionary Novelty" that was dedicated to exploring empirical cases where both biological physics and developmental genetic considerations are crucial...
October 17, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048199/polyamine-based-thiols-in-trypanosomatids-evolution-protein-structural-adaptations-and-biological-functions
#9
Bruno Manta, Mariana Bonilla, Lucía Fiestas, Mattia Sturlese, Gustavo Salinas, Massimo Bellanda, Marcelo A Comini
<b>Significance.</b> Major pathogenic enterobacteria and protozoan parasites from the phylum Euglenozoa, such as Trypanosomatids, are endowed with glutathione-spermidine derivatives that play important roles in signaling, metal and thiol-redox homeostasis. For some Euglenozoa lineages, the glutathione-spermidine conjugates represent the main redox co-substrates around which entire new redox systems have evolved. Several proteins underwent molecular adaptations to synthesize and utilize the new polyamine-based thiols...
October 19, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047226/babies-in-boxes-and-the-missing-links-on-safe-sleep-human-evolution-and-cultural-revolution
#10
REVIEW
Melissa Bartick, Cecília Tomori, Helen L Ball
Concerns about bedsharing as a risk for sudden infant death syndrome and other forms of sleep-associated infant death have gained prominence as a public health issue. Cardboard "baby boxes" are increasingly promoted to prevent infant death through separate sleep, despite no proof of efficacy. However, baby boxes disrupt "breastsleeping" (breastfeeding with co-sleeping) and may undermine breastfeeding. Recommendations enforcing separate sleep are based on 20th century Euro-American social norms for solitary infant sleep and scheduled feedings via bottles of cow's milk-based formula, in contrast to breastsleeping, an evolutionary adaptation facilitating the survival of mammalian infants for millennia...
October 18, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046573/sex-specific-evolution-during-the-diversification-of-live-bearing-fishes
#11
Zachary W Culumber, Michael Tobler
Natural selection is often assumed to drive parallel functional diversification of the sexes. But males and females exhibit fundamental differences in their biology, and it remains largely unknown how sex differences affect macroevolutionary patterns. On microevolutionary scales, we understand how natural and sexual selection interact to give rise to sex-specific evolution during phenotypic diversification and speciation. Here we show that ignoring sex-specific patterns of functional trait evolution misrepresents the macroevolutionary adaptive landscape and evolutionary rates for 112 species of live-bearing fishes (Poeciliidae)...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045848/single-molecule-sequencing-reveals-the-chromosome-scale-genomic-architecture-of-the-nematode-model-organism-pristionchus-pacificus
#12
Christian Rödelsperger, Jan M Meyer, Neel Prabh, Christa Lanz, Felix Bemm, Ralf J Sommer
The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is an established model for integrative evolutionary biology and comparative studies with Caenorhabditis elegans. While an existing genome draft facilitated the identification of several genes controlling various developmental processes, its high degree of fragmentation complicated virtually all genomic analyses. Here, we present a de novo genome assembly from single-molecule, long-read sequencing data consisting of 135 P. pacificus contigs. When combined with a genetic linkage map, 99% of the assembly could be ordered and oriented into six chromosomes...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045833/intestinal-fork-head-regulates-nutrient-absorption-and-promotes-longevity
#13
Ekin Bolukbasi, Mobina Khericha, Jennifer C Regan, Dobril K Ivanov, Jennifer Adcott, Miranda C Dyson, Tobias Nespital, Janet M Thornton, Nazif Alic, Linda Partridge
Reduced activity of nutrient-sensing signaling networks can extend organismal lifespan, yet the underlying biology remains unclear. We show that the anti-aging effects of rapamycin and reduced intestinal insulin/insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS) require the Drosophila FoxA transcription factor homolog Fork Head (FKH). Intestinal FKH induction extends lifespan, highlighting a role for the gut. FKH binds to and is phosphorylated by AKT and Target of Rapamycin. Gut-specific FKH upregulation improves gut barrier function in aged flies...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045396/indirect-effects-drive-coevolution-in-mutualistic-networks
#14
Paulo R Guimarães, Mathias M Pires, Pedro Jordano, Jordi Bascompte, John N Thompson
Ecological interactions have been acknowledged to play a key role in shaping biodiversity. Yet a major challenge for evolutionary biology is to understand the role of ecological interactions in shaping trait evolution when progressing from pairs of interacting species to multispecies interaction networks. Here we introduce an approach that integrates coevolutionary dynamics and network structure. Our results show that non-interacting species can be as important as directly interacting species in shaping coevolution within mutualistic assemblages...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045384/disorder-in-convergent-floral-nanostructures-enhances-signalling-to-bees
#15
Edwige Moyroud, Tobias Wenzel, Rox Middleton, Paula J Rudall, Hannah Banks, Alison Reed, Greg Mellers, Patrick Killoran, M Murphy Westwood, Ullrich Steiner, Silvia Vignolini, Beverley J Glover
Diverse forms of nanoscale architecture generate structural colour and perform signalling functions within and between species. Structural colour is the result of the interference of light from approximately regular periodic structures; some structural disorder is, however, inevitable in biological organisms. Is this disorder functional and subject to evolutionary selection, or is it simply an unavoidable outcome of biological developmental processes? Here we show that disordered nanostructures enable flowers to produce visual signals that are salient to bees...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045133/the-product-of-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-mcc-operon-is-a-peptide-cytidine-antibiotic-activated-inside-producing-cells-by-the-tldd-e-protease
#16
Darya Tsibulskaya, Olga Mokina, Alexey Kulikovsky, Julia Piskunova, Konstantin Severinov, Marina Serebryakova, Svetlana Dubiley
Microcin C is a heptapeptide-adenylate antibiotic produced by some strains of Escherichia coli. Its peptide part is responsible for facilitated transport inside sensitive cells where it is proteolysed with release of a toxic warhead - a non-hydrolysable aspartamidyl-adenylate, which inhibits aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. Recently, a microcin C homolog from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens containing a longer peptide part modified with carboxymethyl-cytosine instead of adenosine was described but no biological activity of this compound was revealed...
October 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044796/social-traits-social-networks-and-evolutionary-biology
#17
David N Fisher, Andrew G McAdam
The social environment is both an important agent of selection for most organisms, and an emergent property of their interactions. As an aggregation of interactions among members of a population, the social environment is a product of many sets of relationships, and so can be represented as a network or matrix. Social network analysis in animals has focused on why these networks possess the structure they do, and whether individuals' network traits, representing some aspect of their social phenotype, relate to their fitness...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044159/global-identification-classification-and-expression-analysis-of-mapkkk-genes-functional-characterization-of-mdraf5-reveals-evolution-and-drought-responsive-profile-in-apple
#18
Meihong Sun, Yang Xu, Jinguang Huang, Zesheng Jiang, Huairui Shu, Huasen Wang, Shizhong Zhang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are pivotal components of Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, which play a significant role in many biological processes. Although genome-wide analysis of MAPKKKs has been conducted in many species, extant results in apple are scarce. In this study, a total of 72 putative MdMAPKKKs in Raf-like group, 11 in ZIK-like group and 37 in MEEK were identified in apple firstly. Predicted MdMAPKKKs were located in 17 chromosomes with diverse densities, and there was a high-level of conservation in and among the evolutionary groups...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043109/multigene-phylogeny-of-the-scyphozoan-jellyfish-family-pelagiidae-reveals-that-the-common-u-s-atlantic-sea-nettle-comprises-two-distinct-species-chrysaora-quinquecirrha-and-c-chesapeakei
#19
Keith M Bayha, Allen G Collins, Patrick M Gaffney
BACKGROUND: Species of the scyphozoan family Pelagiidae (e.g., Pelagia noctiluca, Chrysaora quinquecirrha) are well-known for impacting fisheries, aquaculture, and tourism, especially for the painful sting they can inflict on swimmers. However, historical taxonomic uncertainty at the genus (e.g., new genus Mawia) and species levels hinders progress in studying their biology and evolutionary adaptations that make them nuisance species, as well as ability to understand and/or mitigate their ecological and economic impacts...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043025/diversity-and-distribution-of-genetic-variation-in-gammarids-comparing-patterns-between-invasive-and-non-invasive-species
#20
Miguel Baltazar-Soares, Filipa Paiva, Yiyong Chen, Aibin Zhan, Elizabeta Briski
Biological invasions are worldwide phenomena that have reached alarming levels among aquatic species. There are key challenges to understand the factors behind invasion propensity of non-native populations in invasion biology. Interestingly, interpretations cannot be expanded to higher taxonomic levels due to the fact that in the same genus, there are species that are notorious invaders and those that never spread outside their native range. Such variation in invasion propensity offers the possibility to explore, at fine-scale taxonomic level, the existence of specific characteristics that might predict the variability in invasion success...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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