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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345737/-meningeal-carcinomatosis-in-breast-cancer-from-diagnosis-to-treatment
#1
REVIEW
C Elm'hadi, Z Es Sbai, M Reda Khmamouche, M Toreis, R Tanz, H Errihani, M Ichou
The appearance of meningeal carcinomatosis in breast cancer is an event that is being reported increasingly more frequently in the literature. It seems to be related with the lengthening of the patients' lives, improved sensitivity to diagnostic imaging and impermeability of the blood-brain barrier to the chemotherapeutic agents. It is an evolutionary form that affirms the metastatic invasion of the subarachnoidal space and is correlated with limited survival. Its diagnosis is difficult, due to the lack of specificity of the clinical signs dominated by headaches, cognitive disorders and possible signs and symptoms of progressive focal lesions...
April 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345193/retention-of-gene-diversity-during-the-spread-of-a-non-native-plant-species
#2
Katrien Vandepitte, Kenny Helsen, Kasper Van Acker, Joachim Mergeay, Olivier Honnay
Spatial expansion, which is a crucial stage in the process to successful biological invasion, is anticipated to profoundly affect the magnitude and spatial distribution of genetic diversity in novel colonized areas. Here we show that, contrasting common expectations, Pyrenean rocket (Sisymbrium austriacum), retained SNP diversity as this introduced plant species descended in the Meuse river basin. Allele frequencies did not mirror between-population distances along the predominant expansion axis. Reconstruction of invasion history based on the genotypes of historical herbarium specimens indicated no influence of additional introductions or multiple points of entry on this non-gradual pattern...
March 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344587/the-chloroplast-genome-of-passiflora-edulis-passifloraceae-assembled-from-long-sequence-reads-structural-organization-and-phylogenomic-studies-in-malpighiales
#3
Luiz A Cauz-Santos, Carla F Munhoz, Nathalie Rodde, Stephane Cauet, Anselmo A Santos, Helen A Penha, Marcelo C Dornelas, Alessandro M Varani, Giancarlo C X Oliveira, Hélène Bergès, Maria Lucia C Vieira
The family Passifloraceae consists of some 700 species classified in around 16 genera. Almost all its members belong to the genus Passiflora. In Brazil, the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is of considerable economic importance, both for juice production and consumption as fresh fruit. The availability of chloroplast genomes (cp genomes) and their sequence comparisons has led to a better understanding of the evolutionary relationships within plant taxa. In this study, we obtained the complete nucleotide sequence of the P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342852/effects-of-sub-culturing-on-genetic-and-physiological-parameters-in-different-beauveria-bassiana-isolates
#4
Naser Eivazian Kary, Zhila Alizadeh
Beauveria bassiana is a fungus which is widely used as a biological insecticide to control a number of economically important insect pests. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of the isolates, understanding the underlying nature of these evolutionary phenomena and finding appropriate and simple screening tools play an important role in developing effective biocontrol agents. Here, we monitored changes of electrophoretic karyotype of small molecules of extrachromosomal DNAs, presumably mitochondrial DNA or plasmids in several individual isolates of B...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340696/comments-on-the-history-of-medical-biological-studies-of-aging-the-birth-of-scientific-gerontology
#5
L Robert, J Labat-Robert
Recent books (Immunity. How Elie Metchnikoff changed the course of modern medicine and Expectations of Life) reviewed the important contribution of Metchnikoff to the emergence of gerontology as a new branch of biomedical sciences. Here, we insist on Metchnikoff's contribution and pivotal role in the emergence of nutrition as a science and its importance for health and longevity. The discovery of phagocytosis by Metchnikoff and of its evolutionary ancestry are at the origin of the emergence of cellular immunity as an independent science besides humoral immunity...
January 2017: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340563/genome-evolutionary-dynamics-followed-by-diversifying-selection-explains-the-complexity-of-the-sesamum-indicum-genome
#6
Jingyin Yu, Linhai Wang, Hui Guo, Boshou Liao, Graham King, Xiurong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication (TD) provide two critical sources of raw genetic material for genome complexity and evolutionary novelty. Little is known about the complexity of the Sesamum indicum genome after it diverged from a common ancestor with the paleodiploid Vitis vinifera and further experienced WGD and TD events. RESULTS: Here, we analyzed the functional divergence of different classes of inter- and intra-genome gene pairs from ancestral events to uncover multiple-layers of evolutionary dynamics acting during the process of forming the modern S...
March 24, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340301/ten-years-of-barcoding-at-the-african-centre-for-dna-barcoding
#7
Simeon Bezeng Bezeng, T Jonathan Davies, Barnabas H Daru, Ronny Mukala Kabongo, Olivier Maurin, Kowiyou Yessoufou, Herman van der Bank, Michelle Van der Bank
The African Centre for DNA Barcoding (ACDB) was established in 2005 as part of a global initiative to accurately and rapidly survey biodiversity using short DNA sequences. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (CO1) was rapidly adopted as the de facto barcode for animals. Following the evaluation of several candidate loci for plants, the Plant Working Group of the Consortium for the Barcoding of Life in 2009 recommended that the two plastid genes, rbcLa and matK, be adopted as core DNA barcodes for terrestrial plants...
March 24, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340089/how-embryophytic-is-the-biosynthesis-of-phenylpropanoids-and-their-derivatives-in-streptophyte-algae
#8
Jan de Vries, Sophie de Vries, Claudio H Slamovits, Laura E Rose, John M Archibald
The origin of land plants from algae is a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. It is becoming increasingly clear that many characters that were once assumed to be "embryophyte-specific" can in fact be found in their closest algal relatives, the streptophyte algae. One such case is the phenylpropanoid pathway. While biochemical data indicate that streptophyte algae harbor lignin-like components, the phenylpropanoid core pathway, which serves as the backbone of lignin biosynthesis, has been proposed to have arisen at the base of the land plants...
March 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339482/a-genome-wide-identification-and-analysis-of-the-dyw-deaminase-genes-in-the-pentatricopeptide-repeat-gene-family-in-cotton-gossypium-spp
#9
Bingbing Zhang, Guoyuan Liu, Xue Li, Liping Guo, Xuexian Zhang, Tingxiang Qi, Hailin Wang, Huini Tang, Xiuqin Qiao, Jinfa Zhang, Chaozhu Xing, Jianyong Wu
The RNA editing occurring in plant organellar genomes mainly involves the change of cytidine to uridine. This process involves a deamination reaction, with cytidine deaminase as the catalyst. Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins with a C-terminal DYW domain are reportedly associated with cytidine deamination, similar to members of the deaminase superfamily. PPR genes are involved in many cellular functions and biological processes including fertility restoration to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in plants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337898/melanin-of-the-nipple-areola-complex
#10
A Goren, M Kovacevic, T Lotti
Biological pigments or biochromes are ubiquitous in animals, plants, and simpler organisms such as fungi and bacteria. They serve a wide spectrum of functions from photosynthesis, camouflage, mimicry, photo protection from the environment to attracting mates. The human female nipple areola complex (NAC) is a highly-pigmented area. Currently, the prevailing theory as to the evolution of the pigmented human NAC is based on infant recognition of breast feeding latching zone; however, due to the protruding shape of the nipple and surrounding breast, the authors of this letter believe that the evolutionary advantage of the pigmented NAC has a direct physiological function, namely the initiation of involution at the end of the infant lactation period...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336096/multigenerational-effects-of-two-glucocorticoids-prednisolone-and-dexamethasone-on-life-history-parameters-of-crustacean-ceriodaphnia-dubia-cladocera
#11
Navdeep Bal, Anupama Kumar, Jun Du, Dayanthi Nugegoda
Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) such as dexamethasone (DEX) and prednisolone (PDS) have been used since the 1940s to cure inflammatory and auto-immune disorders. Their use has been linked to a host of deleterious effects in aquatic ecosystems such as osteoporosis in vertebrates, developmental impairments in molluscs and reduced fecundity and growth in cladocerans. Apart from these handful of studies, the effects of GCs on aquatic biota are largely unknown. The present study is a first of its kind aiming to assess the multi-generational exposure effects of DEX and PDS on the life history parameters of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334822/posigene-automated-and-easy-to-use-pipeline-for-genome-wide-detection-of-positively-selected-genes
#12
Arne Sahm, Martin Bens, Matthias Platzer, Karol Szafranski
Many comparative genomics studies aim to find the genetic basis of species-specific phenotypic traits. A prevailing strategy is to search genome-wide for genes that evolved under positive selection based on the non-synonymous to synonymous substitution ratio. However, incongruent results largely due to high false positive rates indicate the need for standardization of quality criteria and software tools. Main challenges are the ortholog and isoform assignment, the high sensitivity of the statistical models to alignment errors and the imperative to parallelize large parts of the software...
March 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334603/the-cb1-receptor-as-the-cornerstone-of-exostasis
#13
REVIEW
Pier Vincenzo Piazza, Daniela Cota, Giovanni Marsicano
The type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is the main effector of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in most brain and body functions. In this Perspective, we provide evidence indicating that CB1 receptor functions are key determinants of bodily coordinated exostatic processes. First, we will introduce the concepts of endostasis and exostasis as compensation or accumulation for immediate or future energy needs and discuss how exostasis has been necessary for the survival of species during evolution...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334227/a-phylogenetic-biogeographic-and-taxonomic-study-of-all-extant-species-of-anolis-squamata-iguanidae
#14
Steven Poe, Adrián Nieto-Montes de Oca, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Kevin de Queiroz, Julián A Velasco, Brad Truett, Levi N Gray, Mason J Ryan, Gunther Köhler, Fernando Ayala-Varela, Ian Latella
Anolis lizards (anoles) are textbook study organisms in evolution and ecology. Although several topics in evolutionary biology have been elucidated by the study of anoles, progress in some areas has been hampered by limited phylogenetic information on this group. Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of all 379 extant species of Anolis, with new phylogenetic data for 139 species including new DNA data for 101 species. We use the resulting estimates as a basis for defining anole clade names under the principles of phylogenetic nomenclature and to examine the biogeographic history of anoles...
February 27, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333345/detection-of-pathways-affected-by-positive-selection-in-primate-lineages-ancestral-to-humans
#15
J T Daub, S Moretti, I I Davydov, L Excoffier, M Robinson-Rechavi
Gene set enrichment approaches have been increasingly successful in finding signals of recent polygenic selection in the human genome. In this study, we aim at detecting biological pathways affected by positive selection in more ancient human evolutionary history. Focusing on four branches of the primate tree that lead to modern humans, we tested all available protein coding gene trees of the Primates clade for signals of adaptation in these branches, using the likelihood-based branch site test of positive selection...
February 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333233/contrasting-rates-of-molecular-evolution-and-patterns-of-selection-among-gymnosperms-and-flowering-plants
#16
Amanda R De La Torre, Zhen Li, Yves Van de Peer, Pär K Ingvarsson
The majority of variation in rates of molecular evolution among seed plants remains both unexplored and unexplained. Although some attention has been given to flowering plants, reports of molecular evolutionary rates for their sister plant clade (gymnosperms) are scarce, and to our knowledge differences in molecular evolution among seed plant clades have never been tested in a phylogenetic framework. Angiosperms and gymnosperms differ in a number of features, of which contrasting reproductive biology, life spans, and population sizes are the most prominent...
February 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333215/genetic-diversity-and-the-efficacy-of-purifying-selection-across-plant-and-animal-species
#17
Jun Chen, Sylvain Glémin, Martin Lascoux
A central question in evolutionary biology is why some species have more genetic diversity than others and a no less important question is why selection efficacy varies among species. Although these questions have started to be tackled in animals, they have not been addressed to the same extent in plants. Here, we estimated nucleotide diversity at synonymous, πS, and nonsynonymous sites, πN, and a measure of the efficacy of selection, the ratio πN/πS, in 34 animal and 28 plant species using full genome data...
February 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331186/disentangling-constraints-using-viability-evolution-principles-in-integrative-modeling-of-macromolecular-assemblies
#18
Giorgio Tamò, Andrea Maesani, Sylvain Träger, Matteo T Degiacomi, Dario Floreano, Matteo Dal Peraro
Predicting the structure of large molecular assemblies remains a challenging task in structural biology when using integrative modeling approaches. One of the main issues stems from the treatment of heterogeneous experimental data used to predict the architecture of native complexes. We propose a new method, applied here for the first time to a set of symmetrical complexes, based on evolutionary computation that treats every available experimental input independently, bypassing the need to balance weight components assigned to aggregated fitness functions during optimization...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331089/diversity-distribution-and-evolution-of-tomato-viruses-in-china-uncovered-by-small-rna-sequencing
#19
Chenxi Xu, Xuepeng Sun, Angela Taylor, Chen Jiao, Yimin Xu, Xiaofeng Cai, Xiaoli Wang, Chenhui Ge, Guanghui Pan, Quanxi Wang, Zhangjun Fei, Quanhua Wang
Tomato is a major vegetable crop that has tremendous popularity. However, viral disease is still a major factor limiting tomato production. Here we report the tomato virome identified through sequencing small RNAs of 170 field-grown samples collected in China. A total of 22 viruses were identified including both well-documented and newly detected viruses. The tomato viral community is dominated by a few species, and they exhibit polymorphisms and recombination in the genomes with coldspots and hotspots. Most samples were co-infected by multiple viruses and the majority of identified viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329010/phylogenetic-reconstruction-of-syntermitinae-isoptera-termitidae-based-on-morphological-and-molecular-data
#20
Mauricio M Rocha, Adriana C Morales-Corrêa E Castro, Carolina Cuezzo, Eliana M Cancello
The subfamily Syntermitinae comprises a group of Neotropical termites with 18 genera and 101 species described. It has been considered a natural group, but relationships among the genera within the subfamily remain uncertain, and some genera appear to be non-monophyletic. Here, we provide a comprehensive phylogeny including six Neotropical species of Termitinae as outgroup, 42 Syntermitinae species as ingroup, 92 morphological characters (from external and internal anatomy of soldier and worker castes) and 117 molecular sequences (109 obtained for this study and 8 from GenBank) of 4 gene regions (41 and 22 from Cytochrome Oxidase I and II respectively, 19 from Cytochrome b, and 35 from 16S rDNA)...
2017: PloS One
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