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Organ donor

Yawei Xie, Lujun Chen, Rui Liu, Jinping Tian
A bio-electrochemical reactor (BER) operating at different cathode potentials ranging from -300 to -1000 mV (vs standard hydrogen electrode, SHE) was used to reduce adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) in pharmaceutical wastewater. Cathode polarization enriched the electron donor of the biological system. Thus, the AOX removal efficiency in the BER improved from 59.9% to 70.2%, and the AOX removal rate increased from 0.87 to 1.17 mg AOX/h when the cathode potential was reduced from -300 to -1000 mV with the addition of methyl viologen, a known redox mediator...
June 14, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jose Carlos Dayoub, Franco Cortese, Andreja Anžič, Tjaša Grum, João Pedro de Magalhães
Despite the considerable amount of data available on the effect of donor age upon the outcomes of organ transplantation, these still represent an underutilized resource in aging research. In this review, we have compiled relevant studies that analyze the effect of donor age in graft and patient survival following liver, kidney, pancreas, heart, lung and cornea transplantation, with the aim of deriving insights into possible differential aging rates between the different organs. Overall, older donor age is associated with worse outcomes for all the organs studied...
June 20, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Gabriel Loor
Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) implies perfusion and ventilation of a donor lung outside of the human body. The 2 most clinically relevant and commercially available devices currently in clinical trials are XVIVO Perfusion System (XPSTM ) (XPS Perfusion, Goteborg, Sweden) and Organ Care System (OCSTM ) (Transmedics, Andover, MA). Our review focuses on the needs met by EVLP, and the clinical literature on both devices.
June 20, 2018: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Hirak Pahari, Shunji Nagai, Sharon Skorupski, Reena Salgia
Graft versus host disease (GVHD) of the central nervous system (CNS) following solid organ transplantation is a rare but serious complication and has been previously reported after bone marrow transplantation. GVHD after liver transplantation is a rare entity with a high mortality rate. We report the case of a patient who developed GVHD and subsequently had seizures and altered mental status after deceased donor liver transplantation. The diagnosis of GVHD of the CNS was established by Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci analysis of the CSF using PCR technique and gene mapping software...
June 23, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
M Berenguer, K Agarwal, P Burra, M Manns, D Samuel
Antiviral therapy to eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection improves outcomes in patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) for advanced chronic HCV with or without hepatocellular carcinoma. Traditionally, antiviral therapy focused on the use of interferon (IFN)-based regimens, with antiviral treatment initiated in the post-transplant period once recurrent HCV disease with fibrosis in the allograft was identified. The use of IFN-based therapy was limited in pre-transplant patients with advanced liver disease...
June 23, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Sheng Bi, Zhongliang Ouyang, Shoieb Shaik, Dawen Li
In organic bulk heterojunction solar cells (OSCs) donor-acceptor vertical composition profile is one of the crucial factors that affect power-conversion efficiency (PCE). In this simulation study, five different kinds of donor-acceptor vertical configurations, including sandwich type I and type II, charge transport favorable, charge transport unfavorable, and uniform vertical distribution, have been investigated for both regular and inverted OSC structures. OSCs with uniform and charge transport favorable vertical composition profiles demonstrate the highest efficiencies...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sean Agbor-Enoh, Joshua L Chan, Avneesh Singh, Ilker Tunc, Sasha Gorham, Jun Zhu, Mehdi Pirooznia, Philip C Corcoran, Marvin L Thomas, Billeta G T Lewis, Moon Kyoo Jang, David L Ayares, Keith A Horvath, Muhammad M Mohiuddin, Hannah Valantine
BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a biomarker of tissue injury in a range of conditions including organ transplantation. However, the lack of model systems to study cfDNA and its relevance to tissue injury has limited the advancements in this field. We hypothesized that the predictable course of acute humoral xenograft rejection (AHXR) in organ transplants from genetically engineered donors provides an ideal system for assessing circulating cfDNA as a marker of tissue injury...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Lethy Krishnan Jagadamma, Liam McCarron, Alan Andrew Wiles, Victoria Savikhin, Muhammad Sajjad, Mahdieh Yazdani, Vincent M Rotello, Michael F Toney, Graeme Cooke, Ifor David William Samuel
Additives play an important role in modifying the morphology and phase separation of donor and acceptor molecules in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Here we report triptycene (TPC) as a small molecule additive for supramolecular control of phase separation and concomitant improvement of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PTB7 donor and fullerene acceptor based BHJ polymer solar cells. An overall 60% improvement in PCE is observed for both PTB7:PC61BM and PTB7:PC71BM blends. The improved PV performance can be attributed to three factors: (a) TPC induced supramolecular interactions with donor:acceptor components in the blends to realise a nanoscale phase separated morphology (b) an increase in the charge transfer (CT) state energy that lowers the driving force for electron transfer from donor to acceptor molecules; and (c) an increase in the charge carrier mobility...
June 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tatiana Soboleva, Hector J Esquer, Stacey N Anderson, Lisa M Berreau, Abby D Benninghoff
While interactions between carbon monoxide (CO) and mitochondria have been previously studied, the methods used to deliver CO (gas or CO-releasing metal carbonyl compounds) lack subcellular targeting and/or controlled delivery. Thus, the effective concentration needed to produce changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics is yet to be fully defined. To evaluate the influence of mitochondrial-targeted versus intracellularly-released CO on mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates, we developed and characterized flavonol-based CO donor compounds that differ at their site of release...
June 22, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Xiang Lan, Hua Zhang, Hong-Yu Li, Ke-Fei Chen, Fei Liu, Yong-Gang Wei, Bo Li
Liver transplantation (LT) is one of the most effective treatments for end-stage liver disease caused by related risk factors when liver resection is contraindicated. Additionally, despite the decrease in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) over the past two decades, the absolute number of HBsAg-positive people has increased, leading to an increase in HBV-related liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Consequently, a large demand exists for LT. While the wait time for patients on the donor list is, to some degree, shorter due to the development of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), there is still a shortage of liver grafts...
June 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Russell B Hawkins, Kristina Go, Steven L Raymond, Alexander Ayzengart, Jeffrey Friedman
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an epidemic that is closely associated with heart failure. The ultimate treatment for end-stage heart failure is cardiac transplantation. Patients with morbid obesity are often excluded from receiving donor organs. Many transplant centers use body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m2 as a contraindication to listing for heart transplant. Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) were developed as a bridge to transplant for many heart failure patients, but bariatric surgery for LVAD patients has not been well described...
April 19, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
R Stenger, J C Clague, U Morgenstern, T J Clough
Natural denitrification in groundwater systems has been recognised as an ecosystem service that reduces the impact of agriculturally-derived nitrate inputs to surface waters. Identification of this ecosystem service within the landscape would permit spatially differentiated land management and legislation. However, spatial variation in groundwater redox conditions poses a significant challenge to such a concept. To gain understanding of the small-scale mosaic of biogeochemical and hydrological controls on denitrification, we established a well field consisting of 11 multilevel well (MLW) clusters on a hillslope containing relict organic matter buried by volcanic deposits 1...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Min Tian, Sapanbir S Thind, Jesse S Dondapati, Xinyong Li, Aicheng Chen
In the present work, we report on a facile UV treatment approach for enhancing the electrocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanotubes. The TiO2 nanotubes were prepared using an anodization oxidation method by applying a voltage of 40 V for 8 h in a DMSO + 2% HF solution, and further treated under UV light irradiation. Compared with Pt and untreated TiO2 nanotubes, the UV treated electrode exhibited a superior electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of 4-chlorophenol (4-ClPh). The effects of current density and temperature on the electrochemical oxidation of the 4-ClPh were also systematically investigated...
June 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Bohdan Pomahac, Muayyad Alhefzi, Ericka M Bueno, Sue V McDiarmid, L Scott Levin
Living donation has become a medically and ethically accepted practice in solid organ transplantation. Published proceedings from the international kidney transplant community and from the Ethics Committee of The Transplantation Society (TTS) articulated the general principles as well as specific recommendations for living donation, which remain the backbone of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) requirements and policies.Meanwhile, there have been major advancements in another revolutionary field of transplant medicine: vascularized composite allotransplantation, or VCA...
June 14, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Martin Wepler, Tamara Merz, Ulrich Wachter, Josef Vogt, Enrico Calzia, Angelika Scheuerle, Peter Möller, Michael Gröger, Sandra Kress, Marina Fink, Britta Lukaschewski, Grégoire Rumm, Bettina Stahl, Michael Georgieff, Markus Huber-Lang, Roberta Torregrossa, Matthew Whiteman, Oscar McCook, Peter Radermacher, Clair Hartmann
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) accounts for 30-40% of trauma-induced mortality, which is due to multi-organ-failure subsequent to systemic hyper-inflammation, triggered by hypoxemia and tissue ischemia. The slow-releasing, mitochondria-targeted H2S donor AP39 exerted beneficial effects in several models of I/R-injury and acute inflammation. Therefore, we tested the effects of AP39-treatment in a murine model of combined blunt chest trauma (TxT) and HS with subsequent resuscitation. METHODS: After blast wave-induced TxT or sham procedure, anesthetized and instrumented mice underwent 1 hour of hemorrhage followed by 4 hours of resuscitation comprising an i...
June 20, 2018: Shock
Shang Ding, Zhenjie Ni, Mengxiao Hu, Gege Qiu, Jie Li, Jun Ye, Xiaotao Zhang, Feng Liu, Huanli Dong, Wenping Hu
A new asymmetric furan and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole (TTFDPP) building block for conjugated polymers is designed and used to generate a donor-acceptor semiconducting polymer, poly[3-(furan-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-6-(thieno[3,2-b]thiophen-2-yl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione-alt-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene] (abbreviated to PTTFDPP-TT), consisting of TTFDPP unit copolymerized with thieno[3,2-b]thiophene comonomer (TT), which is further synthesized. Results demonstrate that PTTFDPP-TT-based thin-film transistors in a bottom-gate bottom-contact device configuration exhibit typical hole-transporting property, with weak temperature dependence for charge carrier mobility from room temperature to 200 °C...
June 21, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Suhao Wang, Hengda Sun, Tim Erdmann, Gang Wang, Daniele Fazzi, Uwe Lappan, Yuttapoom Puttisong, Zhihua Chen, Magnus Berggren, Xavier Crispin, Anton Kiriy, Brigitte Voit, Tobin J Marks, Simone Fabiano, Antonio Facchetti
The synthesis of a novel naphthalenediimide (NDI)-bithiazole (Tz2)-based polymer [P(NDI2OD-Tz2)] is reported, and structural, thin-film morphological, as well as charge transport and thermoelectric properties are compared to the parent and widely investigated NDI-bithiophene (T2) polymer [P(NDI2OD-T2)]. Since the steric repulsions in Tz2 are far lower than in T2, P(NDI2OD-Tz2) exhibits a more planar and rigid backbone, enhancing π-π chain stacking and intermolecular interactions. In addition, the electron-deficient nature of Tz2 enhances the polymer electron affinity, thus reducing the polymer donor-acceptor character...
June 6, 2018: Advanced Materials
Rui Lu, Ting Zhang, Daijin Wu, Zhengyi He, Lei Jiang, Minya Zhou, Yong Cheng
Human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) are two superoxide dismutases that scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). Their biological role of eliminating oxidative stress caused by excessive ROS levels in living organisms has been utilized in medical treatment, preventing skin photoaging and food preservation. In this study, we employed two sequences that encode human CuZn-SOD and EC-SOD, along with goat beta-casein 5' and 3' regulatory elements, to construct mammary gland-specific expression vectors...
June 20, 2018: Transgenic Research
Yasuhiro Kanda, Arata Takeuchi, Madoka Ozawa, Yoichi Kurosawa, Toshihiko Kawamura, Dana Bogdanova, Hidekazu Iioka, Eisaku Kondo, Yusuke Kitazawa, Hisashi Ueta, Kenjiro Matsuno, Tatsuo Kinashi, Tomoya Katakai
Allogeneic organ transplants are rejected by the recipient immune system within several days or weeks. However, the rejection process of allogeneic T (allo-T) cells is poorly understood. In this study, using fluorescence-based monitoring and two-photon live imaging in mouse adoptive transfer system, we visualized the fate of allo-T cells in the in vivo environment and showed rapid elimination in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). Although i.v. transferred allo-T cells efficiently entered host SLOs, including lymph nodes and the spleen, ∼70% of the cells had disappeared within 24 h...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Miriam E Peckham, Jeffrey S Anderson, Ulrich A Rassner, Lubdha M Shah, Peter J Hinckley, Adam de Havenon, Seong-Eun Kim, J Scott McNally
BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory arrest can result in a spectrum of hypoxic ischemic brain injury leading to global hypoperfusion and brain death (BD). Because up to 40% of patients with BD are viable organ donors, avoiding delayed diagnosis of this condition is critical. High b-value diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) measures primarily molecular self-diffusion; however, low b-values are sensitive to perfusion. We investigated the feasibility of low b-value DWI in discriminating the global hypoperfusion of BD and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
June 20, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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