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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691119/ex-situ-liver-perfusion-organ-preservation-into-the-future
#1
REVIEW
Mariusz Bral, Boris Gala-Lopez, David L Bigam, Darren H Freed, A M James Shapiro
In recent years, remarkable progress has occurred in the development of technologies to support ex situ liver perfusion. Building upon extensive preclinical studies in large animal models, pilot and randomized clinical trials have been initiated, and preliminary outcomes suggest more optimal protection of both standard and extended criteria liver grafts. There currently exists an incredible opportunity and need to further refine this technology, determine appropriate viability measures to predict usable liver grafts, and to explore potent protective additive strategies to further optimize the quality of extended criteria organs...
April 5, 2018: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690616/synthesis-of-a-1-2-dithienylethene-containing-donor-acceptor-polymer-via-palladium-catalyzed-direct-arylation-polymerization-darp
#2
Masayuki Wakioka, Natsumi Yamashita, Hiroki Mori, Yasushi Nishihara, Fumiyuki Ozawa
This paper reports the synthesis of D-A polymers containing 1,2-dithienylethene (DTE) units via palladium-catalyzed direct arylation polymerization (DArP). The reaction of dibromoisoindigo ( 1 - Br ) and DTE ( 2 - H ), in the presence of Pd₂(dba)₃·CHCl₃ (0.5 mol%), P(2-MeOC₆H₄)₃ ( L1 ) (2 mol%), pivalic acid (1 equiv) as catalyst precursors, and Cs₂CO₃ (3 equiv) as a base affords poly( 1 - alt - 2 ) with a high molecular weight ( M n up to 44,900). Although, it has been known that monomers, with plural C⁻H bonds, tend to form insoluble materials via direct arylation at undesirable C⁻H positions; the reaction of 1 - Br and 2 - H cleanly proceeds without insolubilization...
April 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689452/role-of-the-hspa9-hsc20-chaperone-pair-in-promoting-directional-human-iron-sulfur-cluster-exchange-involving-monothiol-glutaredoxin-5
#3
Joshua A Olive, J A Cowan
Iron‑sulfur clusters are essential cofactors found across all domains of life. Their assembly and transfer are accomplished by highly conserved protein complexes and partners. In eukaryotes a [2Fe-2S] cluster is first assembled in the mitochondria on the iron‑sulfur cluster scaffold protein ISCU in tandem with iron, sulfide, and electron donors. Current models suggest that a chaperone pair interacts with a cluster-bound ISCU to facilitate cluster transfer to a monothiol glutaredoxin. In humans this protein is glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5) and the cluster can then be exchanged with a variety of target apo proteins...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689436/simultaneous-cr-vi-bio-reduction-and-methane-production-by-anaerobic-granular-sludge
#4
Qian Hu, Jiaji Sun, Dezhi Sun, Lan Tian, Yanan Ji, Bin Qiu
Wastewater containing toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) were treated with well-organized anaerobic granular sludge in this study. Results showed that the anaerobic granular sludge rapidly removed Cr(VI), and 2000 µg·L-1 Cr(VI) was completely eliminated within 6 min, which was much faster than the reported duration of removal by reported artificial materials. Sucrose added as a carbon source acted as an initial electron donor to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III). This process was considered as the main mechanism of Cr(VI) removal...
April 16, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689125/directed-solutions-to-address-differences-in-access-to-liver-transplantation
#5
Fei Ye, Quanhu Sheng, Irene D Feurer, Zhiguo Zhao, Run Fan, Jing Teng, Jie Ping, Scott A Rega, Douglas W Hanto, Yu Shyr, Seth J Karp
The United Network for Organ Sharing recently altered current liver allocation with the goal of decreasing Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) variance at transplant. Concerns over these and further planned revisions to policy include predicted decrease in total transplants, increased flying and logistical complexity, adverse impact on areas with poor quality health care, and minimal effect on high MELD Donor Service Areas (DSAs). To address these issues, we describe general approaches to equalize critical transplant metrics among regions and determine how they alter MELD variance at transplant and organ supply to underserved communities...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689119/extended-criteria-donors-in-lung-transplantation-in-switzerland-an-evaluation-of-two-adapted-lung-donor-scores
#6
Andreas Elmer, Matthias Birrer, Julius Weiss, John-David Aubert, Christian Benden, Ilhan Inci, Thorsten Krüger, Paola M Soccal, Franz F Immer
AIM: Various scoring systems aim to assess the quality of organs donated for transplantation on the basis of patient characteristics, clinical examination and laboratory results. How well such scoring systems reflect the practice in lung transplantation in Switzerland has never been studied. Therefore, we evaluated two scoring systems for their ability to predict whether or not donor lungs are accepted by the two Swiss lung transplant centres. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed patient data of adult deceased organ donors in Switzerland between 1 July 2007 and 30 June 2014...
April 24, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688849/cryptococcoma-of-a-transplanted-kidney-in-a-patient-presenting-with-recurrent-urinary-tract-infection-a-case-report
#7
Albert Z Muranda, Ludolf Greeff, Mike M Sathekge, Thabo Lengano, Victor O L Karusseit
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is an important opportunistic infection of organ transplant recipients. It is the third most common fungal infection of transplant patients and occurs especially in kidney recipients. Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous fungus which infects humans by inhalation of spores. C. gattii has more recently been recognised as a pathogen. Infection commonly is disseminated affecting mainly the central nervous system and the lungs. Cryptococcoma, a localised form of the disease, has been described in various organs...
April 23, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687948/hepatitis-c-virus-infected-kidney-wait-list-patients-treat-now-or-treat-later
#8
B A Kiberd, K Doucette, A J Vinson, K K Tennankore
Currently many but not all centers transplant HCV viremic positive (+) donor kidneys into HCV+ recipients. Directed donation of HCV+ organs reduces the wait time to transplantation for HCV+ patients. Direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has the ability to cure HCV in virtually all infected. Some have suggested that treatment of HCV+ wait listed patients be deferred with the hope that earlier transplantation will provide better outcomes than early DAA therapy. However there are not enough organs to guarantee prompt transplantation for the current wait list of infected candidates...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687570/should-we-formulate-an-incentivized-model-facilitating-kidney-donation-from-living-donors-a-focus-on-turkey-s-current-system
#9
Ercan Avci
Kidney transplantation is a lifesaving medical treatment. However, very high demand for kidneys with low kidney donation causes a black market that exploits patients' desperation and donors' vulnerability. The current kidney donation programs fail to produce promising results to avoid illegal and unethical kidney trafficking and commercialism. Even though the primary goal of kidney donation is to increase the number of deceased organ donations, in some countries, like Turkey, due to religious or cultural concerns, it is impossible to supply adequate deceased kidney donations...
April 23, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687010/remaining-physiological-barriers-in-porcine-kidney-xenotransplantation-potential-pathways-behind-proteinuria-as-well-as-factors-related-to-growth-discrepancies-following-pig-to-kidney-xenotransplantation
#10
REVIEW
Jigesh A Shah, Miguel A Lanaspa, Tatsu Tanabe, Hironosuke Watanabe, Richard J Johnson, Kazuhiko Yamada
Considerable shortages in the supply of available organs continue to plague the field of solid organ transplantation. Despite changes in allocation, as well as the utilization of extended criteria and living donors, the number of patients waiting for organs continues to grow at an alarming pace. Xenotransplantation, cross-species solid organ transplantation, offers one potential solution to this dilemma. Previous extensive research dedicated to this field has allowed for resolution of xenograft failure due to acute rejection, leaving new areas of unresolved challenges as barriers to success in large animal models...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686986/blood-and-blood-components-from-similarities-to-differences
#11
REVIEW
Olivier Garraud, Jean-Daniel Tissot
Blood transfusion is made possible because, in most countries and organizations, altruistic individuals voluntarily, anonymously, and generously donate (without compensation) either whole blood or separated components that are then processed and distributed by professionals, prior to being allocated to recipients in need. Being part of modern medicine, blood transfusion uses so-called standard blood components when relative to cellular fractions and fresh plasma. However, as will be discussed in this paper, strictly speaking, such so-called labile blood components are not completely standard...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685925/hla-dq-mismatching-and-kidney-transplant-outcomes
#12
Napat Leeaphorn, Jeremy Ryan A Pena, Natanong Thamcharoen, Eliyahu V Khankin, Martha Pavlakis, Francesca Cardarelli
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent evidence suggests that HLA epitope-mismatching at HLA-DQ loci is associated with the development of anti-DQ donor-specific antibodies and adverse graft outcomes. However, the clinical significance of broad antigen HLA-DQ mismatching for graft outcomes is not well examined. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using the United Network Organ Sharing/the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (UNOS/OPTN) data, patients with primary kidney transplants performed between 2005 and 2014 were included...
April 23, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684746/the-bioenergetics-mechanisms-and-applications-of-sulfate-reducing-bacteria-in-remediation-of-pollutants-in-drainage-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Xin Li, Shi-Ming Lan, Zhong-Ping Zhu, Chang Zhang, Guang-Ming Zeng, Yun-Guo Liu, Wei-Cheng Cao, Biao Song, Hong Yang, Sheng-Fan Wang, Shao-Hua Wu
Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), a group of anaerobic prokaryotes, can use sulfur species as a terminal electron acceptor for the oxidation of organic compounds. They not only have significant ecological functions, but also play an important role in bioremediation of contaminated sites. Although numerous studies on metabolism and applications of SRB have been conducted, they still remain incompletely understood and even controversial. Fully understanding the metabolism of SRB paves the way for allowing the microorganisms to provide more beneficial services in bioremediation...
April 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684652/generosity-and-compliance-recruitment-work-and-the-pathways-to-participation-in-bone-marrow-donation
#14
Kushan Dasgupta
This study examines challenges involved in recruiting bone marrow donors. Data comes from participant observation with a recruitment organization in the United States. Findings reveal that recruiters try to express bone marrow donation with common "gift of life" messaging, which emphasizes a singular event involving generosity. Potential recruits, however, respond by focusing on pain and time commitments. These concerns draw attention to the many stages and requirements involved in bone marrow donation and make issues of compliance salient...
April 12, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684283/charge-transfer-and-collection-in-dilute-organic-donor-acceptor-heterojunction-blends
#15
Kan Ding, Xiao Liu, Stephen R Forrest
Experimental and theoretical approaches are used to understand the role of nanomorphology on exciton dissociation and charge collection at dilute donor-acceptor (D-A) organic heterojunctions. Specifically, two charge transfer (CT) states in D-A mixed HJs comprising nanocrystalline domains of tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) as the donor and C70 as the acceptor are unambiguously related to the nanomorphology of the mixed layer. Alternating DBP:C70 multilayer stacks are used to identify and control the optical properties of the CT states, as well as to simulate the dilute mixed heterojunctions...
April 23, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684002/how-should-social-media-be-used-in-transplantation-a-survey-of-the-american-society-of-transplant-surgeons
#16
Macey L Henderson, Joel T Adler, Sarah E Van Pilsum Rasmussen, Alvin G Thomas, Patrick D Herron, Madeleine M Waldram, Jessica M Ruck, Tanjala S Purnell, Sandra R DiBrito, Courtenay M Holscher, Christine E Haugen, Yewande Alimi, Jonathan M Konel, Ann K Eno, Jacqueline M Garonzik Wang, Elisa J Gordon, Krista L Lentine, Randolph L Schaffer, Andrew M Cameron, Dorry L Segev
BACKGROUND: Social media platforms are increasingly used in surgery and have shown promise as effective tools to promote deceased donation and expand living donor transplantation. There is growing need to understand how social media-driven communication is perceived by providers in the field of transplantation. METHODS: We surveyed 299 members of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons (ASTS) about their use of, attitudes toward, and perceptions of social media and analyzed relationships between responses and participant characteristics...
April 21, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684000/split-liver-transplantation-and-pediatric-waitlist-mortality-in-the-united-states-potential-for-improvement
#17
Emily R Perito, Garrett Roll, Jennifer L Dodge, Sue Rhee, John P Roberts
BACKGROUND: In the United States, 1 in 10 infants and 1 in 20 older children die on the liver transplant waiting list. Increasing split liver transplantation could increase organ availability for these children, without decreasing transplants in adults. METHODS: Using UNOS STAR data, we identified livers transplanted 2010-2015 that could potentially have been used for split transplant, based on strict criteria. Livers not suitable for pediatric patients or allocated to high-risk recipients were excluded...
April 21, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683467/investigations-on-the-charge-transfer-mechanism-at-donor-acceptor-interfaces-in-the-quest-for-descriptors-of-organic-solar-cell-performance
#18
Azusa Muraoka, Mikiya Fujii, Kenji Mishima, Hiroki Matsunaga, Hiroaki Benten, Hideo Ohkita, Shinzaburo Ito, Koichi Yamashita
Herein, we theoretically and experimentally investigated the mechanisms of charge separation processes of organic thin-film solar cells. PTB7, PTB1, and PTBF2 have been chosen as donors and PC71BM has been chosen as an acceptor considering that effective charge generation depends on the difference between the material combinations. Experimental results of transient absorption spectroscopy show that the hot process is a key step for determining external quantum efficiency (EQE) in these systems. From the quantum chemistry calculations, it has been found that EQE tends to increase as the transferred charge, charge transfer distance, and variation of dipole moments between the ground and excited states of the donor/acceptor complexes increase; this indicates that these physical quantities are a good descriptor to assess the donor-acceptor charge transfer quality contributing to the solar cell performance...
April 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683437/re-arterialized-rat-partial-liver-transplantation-with-an-in-vivo-vessel-oriented-70-hepatectomy
#19
Xuehai Chen, Rong Yu, Ziqiang Xu, Yan Zhang, Chengyang Liu, Bicheng Chen, Hao Jin
Split liver transplantation and living liver donor liver transplantation were developed in the clinic to utilize liver organs in a more efficient manner. To better understand the mechanism behind these surgical procedures, a rat partial liver transplantation (PLTx) model was established for relevant surgical studies. Because of the complexity of the rat PLTx model, a protocol with detailed descriptions is required. An article published previously reported a protocol in which ex vivo hepatectomy was used to achieve 50% rat PLTx...
April 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683135/designing-a-socio-normative-intervention-to-reduce-anemia-in-odisha-india-a-formative-research-protocol
#20
Erica Sedlander, Rajiv N Rimal, Sameera A Talegawkar, Hagere Yilma, Wolfgang Munar
Background: More than half of women of reproductive age in India are anemic. Anemia is associated with increased risk of preterm delivery, higher maternal mortality and contributes to fatigue, which affects women's work productivity. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends daily oral iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements during pregnancy and weekly supplements for women of reproductive age. Government programs and global donors have distributed and promoted IFA supplements in India for over four decades...
March 20, 2018: Gates open research
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