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Organ donor

Martin I Montenovo, Ryan N Hansen, André A S Dick, Jorge Reyes
OBJECTIVES: Individuals older than 60 years represent a large proportion of the organs available for orthotopic liver transplant. However, the use of organs from older donors remains controversial. We hypothesized that the use of older donors would not affect patient and graft survival due to significant improvements in donor-recipient management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis using the United Network for Organ Sharing database from February 2002 through December 2012, including non-HCV-infected adults (18 and older) who underwent primary orthotopic liver transplant...
October 14, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Shadi Shafaghi, Azizollah Abbasi Dezfuli, Zahra Ansari Aval, Kambiz Sheikhy, Behrooz Farzanegan, Esmaeil Mortaz, Habib Emami, Clemens Aigner, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini-Baharanchi, Katayoun Najafizadeh
OBJECTIVES: Although the number of lung transplants is limited because of general shortage of organ donors, ex vivo lung perfusion is a novel method with 2 main benefits, including better evaluation of lung potential and recovery of injured lungs. The main aim of this study was to establish and operationalize ex vivo lung perfusion as the first experience in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective operational research study on 5 cases, including 1 pig from Vienna Medical University and 4 patients from Masih Daneshvari Hospital...
October 14, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Mingming Wang, Wei Zhan
The grand scale, ultimate efficiency, and sustainability of natural photosynthesis have inspired generations of researchers in biomimetic light energy utilization. As an essential and ubiquitous component in all photosynthetic machinery, lipids and their assemblies have long been recognized as powerful molecular scaffolds in building artificial photosynthetic systems. Model lipid bilayers, such as black lipid membranes and liposomes (vesicles), have been extensively used to host natural as well as synthetic photo- and redox-active species, thereby enabling key photosynthetic processes, such as energy transfer and photoinduced electron transfer, to be examined in well-defined, natural-like membrane settings...
October 19, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Atanu Jana, Masatoshi Ishida, Jung Su Park, Steffen Bähring, Jan O Jeppesen, Jonathan L Sessler
After the epochal discovery of the "organic metal", namely, tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)-7,7,8,8-tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ) dyad in 1973, scientists have made efforts to derivatize TTF for constructing various supramolecular architectures to control the charge-transfer processes by adjusting the donor-acceptor strength of the dyads for numerous applications. The interesting inherent electronic donor properties of TTFs control the overall electrochemical properties of the supramolecular structures, leading to the construction of highly efficient optoelectronic materials, photovoltaic solar cells, organic field-effect transistors, and optical sensors...
October 18, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Laura A Siminoff, Gerard P Alolod, Maureen Wilson-Genderson, Eva Y N Yuen, Heather M Traino
Available literature points to healthcare providers' discomfort with donation after cardiac death (DCD) and their perception of the public's reluctance toward the procedure. Using a national sample, we report on the communication content of actual DCD and donation after brain death (DBD) approaches by organ procurement organization (OPO) requesters and compare family decision makers' (FDMs') experiences of both modalities. We recruited 1,601 FDMs using a validated protocol; 347 (21.7%) were of potential DCD donors...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Hada C Macher, G Suárez-Artacho, Pilar Jiménez-Arriscado, S Álvarez-Gómez, N García-Fernández, Juan M Guerrero, Patrocini Molinero, Elena Trujillo-Arribas, M A Gómez-Bravo, Amalia Rubio
The evaluation of the transplanted liver health by non-invasive approaches may offer an improvement in early clinical intervention. As transplanted organs have genomes that are distinct from the host's genome, the quantification of the specific DNA of the donated liver in the patient serum will allow us to obtain information about its damage. We evaluated the state of transplanted liver health by monitoring the RH gene in serum circulating DNA (cirDNA) from 17 recipient and donor mismatched for this gene. cirDNA RH gene was quantified by RT- PCR before, at the moment of transplantation (day 0) and during the stay at the intensive care unit...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Waleed Alrogy, Dunia Jawdat, Muhannad Alsemari, Abdulrahman Alharbi, Abdullah Alasaad, Ali H Hajeer
Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Ali A Al Bshabshe, Javed Iqbal Wani, Imran Rangreze, Mohammed Ali M Asiry, Haitham Mansour, Alhassan Gaba'n Ahmed, Jabber Madi Assiri
The gap between demand and supply of organs continues. No country has found a concrete solution for tackling this problem. We attempted to evaluate the general information and attitude of university students in their primary basic science stage, when they did not receive special education regarding brain death and organ donation in Saudi Arabia. Since they were from different cities with different cultures and values, we believe that we could assess the educational needs of future doctors and paramedical staff, to help them gain enough competence for solving the concerns of the population at large...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Yanling Wei, Jun Yang, Jun Wang, Yang Yang, Juan Huang, Hao Gong, Hongli Cui, Dongfeng Chen
BACKGROUND: The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of gut-derived infections, making it a potential therapeutic target against multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) after sepsis. However, the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in treating this disease has been rarely investigated. METHODS: Two male patients, a 65-year-old and an 84-year-old, were initially diagnosed with cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebral infarction, respectively, after admission...
October 18, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Johan Christiaan Bester, Jed Adam Gross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Michael C Freed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Tomasz Żuradzki, Katarzyna Marchewka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Douglas MacKay, Alexandra Robinson
Governments must determine the legal procedures by which their residents are registered, or can register, as organ donors. Provided that governments recognize that people have a right to determine what happens to their organs after they die, there are four feasible options to choose from: opt-in, opt-out, mandated active choice, and voluntary active choice. We investigate the ethics of these policies' use of nudges to affect organ donor registration rates. We argue that the use of nudges in this context is morally problematic...
November 2016: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Yifeng Cai, Shoubao Ma, Yuejun Liu, Huanle Gong, Qiao Cheng, Bo Hu, Yan Wu, Xiao Yu, Chen Dong, Kai Sun, Depei Wu, Haiyan Liu
The role of IL-17 and IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells in acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) has been controversial in recent mouse and human studies. We carried out studies in a murine acute GVHD model of fully major histocompatibility complex-mismatched myeloablative bone marrow transplantation. We showed that donor wild-type CD4(+) T cells exacerbated acute GVHD compared with IL-17(-/-) CD4(+) T cells, while IL-17 reduced the severity of acute GVHD. The augmentation of acute GVHD by transferred donor IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells was associated with increased Th1 responses, while IL-17 decreased the percentages of Th1 cells in the GVHD target organs...
October 17, 2016: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
Oscar K Serrano, Scott Kerwin, William D Payne, Timothy L Pruett
BACKGROUND: The HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act allows for transplantation of organs from Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals (HIV+), provided it is performed under a research protocol. The safety assessment of an organ for transplantation is an essential element of the donation process. The risk for HIV associated opportunistic infections increases as circulating CD4+ lymphocytes decrease to <200 cells/μL; however, the numbers of circulating CD4+ cells in the HIV-negative (HIV-) brain dead donor (BDD) is not known...
September 29, 2016: Transplantation
Mark W Lowdell, Amy Thomas
Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) represent the current pinnacle of 'patient-specific medicines' and will change the nature of medicine in the near future. They fall into three categories; somatic cell-therapy products, gene therapy products and cells or tissues for regenerative medicine, which are termed 'tissue engineered' products. The term also incorporates 'combination products' where a human cell or tissue is combined with a medical device. Plainly, many of these new medicines share similarities with conventional haematological stem cell transplant products and donor lymphocyte infusions as well as solid organ grafts and yet ATMPs are regulated as medicines and their development has remained predominantly in academic settings and within specialist centres...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
G Klop, S van Laar-van Schuppen, W F Pellikaan, W H Hendriks, A Bannink, J Dijkstra
The adaptation of dairy cows to methane (CH4)-mitigating feed additives was evaluated using the in vitro gas production (GP) technique. Nine rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were grouped into three blocks and within blocks randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: Control (CON; no feed additive), Agolin Ruminant® (AR; 0.05 g/kg dry matter (DM)) or lauric acid (LA; 30 g/kg DM). Total mixed rations composed of maize silage, grass silage and concentrate were fed in a 40 : 30 : 30 ratio on DM basis...
October 17, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Christoph Priesner, Ruth Esser, Sabine Tischer, Michael Marburger, Krasimira Aleksandrova, Britta Maecker-Kolhoff, Hans-Gert Heuft, Lilia Goudeva, Rainer Blasczyk, Lubomir Arseniev, Ulrike Köhl, Britta Eiz-Vesper, Stephan Klöß
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The infusion of enriched CMV-specific donor T-cells appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of drug-resistant CMV reactivation or de novo infection after both solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Antiviral lymphocytes can be selected from apheresis products using the CliniMACS Cytokine-Capture-System(®) either with the well-established CliniMACS(®) Plus (Plus) device or with its more versatile successor CliniMACS Prodigy(®) (Prodigy)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
John Lunz, Lisa Hinsdale, Casey King, Robin Pastush, Magnolia Buenvenida, Michael Harmon
Since implementation, the new UNOS OPTN kidney allocation system (KAS) has drastically expanded the pool of available kidneys to candidates that may have previously waited extended periods for an organ offer. This is particularly true for highly sensitized patients. The changes to the KAS have had ramifications throughout the transplant process, including for organ procurement organizations (OPO) and local transplant hospital call centers. Here, we will examine the impact of the new KAS on the organ donation process and highlight the necessary interactions between the OPO and transplant centers to best match donor kidneys and highly sensitized recipients...
October 12, 2016: Human Immunology
Lenka Sochorová, Lenka Hanzlíková, Milena Černá, Anna Drgáčová, Alena Fialová, Andrea Švarcová, Tomáš Gramblička, Jana Pulkrabová
Persistent organic pollutants, such as perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are widespread in the environment and most of them are bioaccumulated in wildlife and humans. The present study is the first investigation to reveal the PFAS and BFR levels of serum samples in the adult population of the Czech Republic. Altogether, 300 serum samples from blood donors in four cities were examined. In all samples 19 PFASs and 33 BFRs, including some of their metabolites, were targeted...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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