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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239302/parent-grief-1-13-months-after-death-in-neonatal-and-pediatric-intensive-care-units
#1
JoAnne M Youngblut, Dorothy Brooten, Joy Glaze, Teresita Promise, Changwon Yoo
OBJECTIVE: Describe changes in mothers' and fathers' grief from 1 to 13 months after infant/child neonatal/pediatric intensive care unit death and identify factors related to their grief. METHODS: Mothers (n = 130) and fathers (n = 52) of 140 children (newborn-18 years) completed the Hogan Grief Reaction Checklist at 1, 3, 6, and 13 months post-death. RESULTS: Grief decreased from 3 to 13 months for mothers and from 3 to 6 months for fathers...
2017: Journal of Loss & Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238835/hypoxia-regulates-microrna-expression-in-the-human-carotid-body
#2
Souren Mkrtchian, Kian Leong Lee, Jessica Kåhlin, Anette Ebberyd, Lorenz Poellinger, Malin Jonsson Fagerlund, Lars I Eriksson
The carotid body (CB) is the key sensing organ for physiological oxygen levels in the body. Under conditions of low oxygen (hypoxia), the CB plays crucial roles in signaling to the cardiorespiratory center in the medulla oblongata for the restoration of oxygen homeostasis. How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human CB remains poorly understood. While limited information on transcriptional regulation in animal CBs is available, the identity and impact of important post-transcriptional regulators such as non-coding RNAs, and in particular miRNAs are not known...
February 23, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238547/hallmarks-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-stem-cell-derived-human-neurons-transplanted-into-mouse-brain
#3
Ira Espuny-Camacho, Amaia M Arranz, Mark Fiers, An Snellinx, Kunie Ando, Sebastian Munck, Jerome Bonnefont, Laurie Lambot, Nikky Corthout, Lorna Omodho, Elke Vanden Eynden, Enrico Radaelli, Ina Tesseur, Selina Wray, Andreas Ebneth, John Hardy, Karelle Leroy, Jean-Pierre Brion, Pierre Vanderhaeghen, Bart De Strooper
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) provide a unique entry to study species-specific aspects of human disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, in vitro culture of neurons deprives them of their natural environment. Here we transplanted human PSC-derived cortical neuronal precursors into the brain of a murine AD model. Human neurons differentiate and integrate into the brain, express 3R/4R Tau splice forms, show abnormal phosphorylation and conformational Tau changes, and undergo neurodegeneration...
February 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238202/brain-abnormalities-in-fucosidosis-transplantation-or-supportive-therapy
#4
Minyan Jiang, Sha Liu, Hua Jiang, Yunting Lin, Yongxian Shao, Hao Hu, Xiaoyuan Zhao, Hongsheng Liu, Yonglan Huang, Li Liu
Fucosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused by α-fucosidase deficiency, which leads to progressive neurological deterioration and death. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the best curative therapy if performed during the early stages of disease. We report two fucosidosis patients with brain abnormalities and the challenge faced in their management. The first patient received supportive therapy and the second one firstly underwent unrelated donor umbilical cord blood transplantation. After a period of follow-up, we found neurological symptoms were worsening day by day on patient1...
February 25, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237716/clostridium-perfringens-epsilon-toxin-induces-permanent-neuronal-degeneration-and-behavioral-changes
#5
Winston E Morris, Jorge Goldstein, Leandro M Redondo, Adriana Cangelosi, Patricia Geoghegan, Marcela Brocco, Fabián C Loidl, Mariano E Fernandez-Miyakawa
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), the most potent toxin produced by this bacteria, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of enterotoxaemia in ruminants, causing brain edema and encephalomalacia. Studies of animals suffering from ETX intoxication describe severe neurological disorders that are thought to be the result of vasogenic brain edemas and indirect neuronal toxicity, killing oligodendrocytes but not astrocytes, microglia, or neurons in vitro. In this study, by means of intravenous and intracerebroventricular delivery of sub-lethal concentrations of ETX, the histological and ultrastructural changes of the brain were studied in rats and mice...
February 22, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237400/individualized-early-death-and-long-term-survival-prediction-after-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-two-externally-validated-nomograms
#6
Jaap D Zindler, Arthur Jochems, Frank J Lagerwaard, Rosemarijne Beumer, Esther G C Troost, Daniëlle B P Eekers, Inge Compter, Peter-Paul van der Toorn, Marion Essers, Bing Oei, Coen W Hurkmans, Anna M E Bruynzeel, Geert Bosmans, Ans Swinnen, Ralph T H Leijenaar, Philippe Lambin
INTRODUCTION: Commonly used clinical models for survival prediction after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases (BMs) are limited by the lack of individual risk scores and disproportionate prognostic groups. In this study, two nomograms were developed to overcome these limitations. METHODS: 495 patients with BMs of NSCLC treated with SRS for a limited number of BMs in four Dutch radiation oncology centers were identified and divided in a training cohort (n=214, patients treated in one hospital) and an external validation cohort n=281, patients treated in three other hospitals)...
February 23, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236968/regulation-of-embryonic-and-postnatal-development-by-the-csf-1-receptor
#7
Violeta Chitu, E Richard Stanley
Macrophages are found in all tissues and regulate tissue morphogenesis during development through trophic and scavenger functions. The colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) receptor (CSF-1R) is the major regulator of tissue macrophage development and maintenance. In combination with receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), the CSF-1R also regulates the differentiation of the bone-resorbing osteoclast and controls bone remodeling during embryonic and early postnatal development. CSF-1R-regulated macrophages play trophic and remodeling roles in development...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236768/survival-of-patients-with-melanoma-brain-metastasis-treated-with-stereotactic-radiosurgery-and-active-systemic-drug-therapies
#8
Ee Siang Choong, Serigne Lo, Martin Drummond, Gerald B Fogarty, Alexander M Menzies, Alexander Guminski, Brindha Shivalingam, Kathryn Clarke, Georgina V Long, Angela M Hong
INTRODUCTION: With new systemic therapies demonstrating activity in melanoma brain metastasis, most of the previously reported stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) data are superseded. In this study, we report the outcomes (overall survival [OS] and brain control [BC]) and identify factors that associate with such outcomes in the era of modern systemic therapy. METHOD: A total of 108 patients treated with SRS from 2010 to 2015 were included. Systemic treatment use within 6 weeks of SRS was noted...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236716/alzheimer-s-disease-neuropathologic-change-lewy-body-disease-and-vascular-brain-injury-in-clinic-and-community-based-samples
#9
Willa D Brenowitz, C Dirk Keene, Stephen E Hawes, Rebecca A Hubbard, W T Longstreth, Randy L Woltjer, Paul K Crane, Eric B Larson, Walter A Kukull
We examined the relationships between Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change (ADNC), Lewy body disease (LBD), and vascular brain injury (VBI) in 2 large autopsy samples. Because findings may differ between study populations, data came from U.S. Alzheimer's Disease Centers contributing to the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (n = 2742) and from the population-based Adult Changes in Thought study (n = 499). Regardless of study population, over 50% of participants with ADNC had co-occurring LBD or VBI; the majority of whom had a clinical AD dementia diagnosis prior to death...
January 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236206/glutamate-t-cells-and-multiple-sclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Mia Levite
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system, where it induces multiple beneficial and essential effects. Yet, excess glutamate, evident in a kaleidoscope of acute and chronic pathologies, is absolutely catastrophic, since it induces excitotoxicity and massive loss of brain function. Both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of glutamate are mediated by a large family of glutamate receptors (GluRs): the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) and the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), expressed by most/all cells of the nervous system, and also by many non-neural cells in various peripheral organs and tissues...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236042/respiratory-induced-heart-rate-variability-during-slow-mechanical-ventilation-marker-to-exclude-brain-death-patients
#11
Pavel Jurak, Josef Halamek, Vlastimil Vondra, Peter Kruzliak, Vladimir Sramek, Ivan Cundrle, Pavel Leinveber, Mariusz Adamek, Vaclav Zvonicek
BACKGROUND: Respiratory induced heart rate variability (rHRV) was analysed in mechanically ventilated patients during two levels of sedation and brain death. Our aim was to determine whether rHRV can distinguish between different levels of sedation and especially between brain death and sedated patients. METHODS: In this study 30 critically ill and 23 brain death patients were included and four respiratory rates of 15, 12, 8 and 6 breaths per minute, each lasting 5 min were used...
February 24, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235884/is-there-a-place-for-cpr-and-sustained-physiological-support-in-brain-dead-non-donors
#12
Stephen D Brown
This article addresses whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and sustained physiological support should ever be permitted in individuals who are diagnosed as brain dead and who had held previously expressed moral or religious objections to the currently accepted criteria for such a determination. It contrasts how requests for care would normally be treated in cases involving a brain-dead individual with previously expressed wishes to donate and a similarly diagnosed individual with previously expressed beliefs that did not conform to a brain-based conception of death...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235423/spatiotemporal-progression-of-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-inhibition-after-status-epilepticus-suggests-protective-adaptation-against-hippocampal-injury
#13
Tobias Engel, Jaime Martinez-Villarreal, Christine Henke, Eva M Jimenez-Mateos, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Mariana Alves, Yasmina Hernandez-Santana, Gary P Brennan, Aidan Kenny, Aoife Campbell, Jose J Lucas, David C Henshall
BACKGROUND: The ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is the major intracellular pathway leading to the degradation of unwanted and/or misfolded soluble proteins. This includes proteins regulating cellular survival, synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter signaling; processes controlling excitability thresholds that are altered by epileptogenic insults. Dysfunction of the UPS has been reported to occur in a brain region- and cell-specific manner and contribute to disease progression in acute and chronic brain diseases...
February 24, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231603/the-effect-of-birth-order-on-neonatal-morbidity-and-mortality-in-very-preterm-twins
#14
Elad Mei-Dan, Jyotsna Shah, Shoo Lee, Prakesh S Shah, Kellie E Murphy
Objective  This retrospective cohort study examined the effect of birth order on neonatal morbidity and mortality in very preterm twins. Study Design Using 2005 to 2012 data from the Canadian Neonatal Network, very preterm twins born between 24 (0/7) and 32 (6/7) weeks of gestation were included. Odds of morbidity and mortality of second-born cotwins compared with first-born cotwins were examined by matched-pair analysis. Outcomes were neonatal death, severe brain injury (intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3 or 4 or persistent periventricular echogenicity), bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (> stage 2), necrotizing enterocolitis (≥ stage 2), and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230861/ripk3-interactions-with-mlkl-and-camkii-mediate-oligodendrocytes-death-in-the-developing-brain
#15
Yi Qu, Jun Tang, Huiqing Wang, Shiping Li, Fengyan Zhao, Li Zhang, Q Richard Lu, Dezhi Mu
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) death is a key contributor to cerebral white matter injury (WMI) in the developing brain. A previous study by our group indicated that receptor-interacting proteins (RIPs) are crucial in mediating necroptosis in developing neurons. However, whether this mechanism is involved in OPCs death is unclear. We aimed to explore the mechanisms of RIP-mediated oligodendrocytes (OLs) death in the developing brain. Oligodendrocytes necroptosis was induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation plus caspase inhibitor zVAD treatment (OGD/zVAD) in vitro...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230712/updating-evidence-for-using-hypothermia-in-pediatric-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-conventional-and-bayesian-meta-analytic-perspectives
#16
Robert C Tasker, Frederick W Vonberg, Elizabeth D Ulano, Alireza Akhondi-Asl
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical trials of hypothermia management on outcome in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury using conventional and Bayesian meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES: Screening of PubMed and other databases to identify randomized controlled trials of hypothermia for pediatric severe traumatic brain injury published before September 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Four investigators assessed and reviewed randomized controlled trial data...
February 20, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230644/expanding-the-donor-pool-through-intensive-care-to-facilitate-organ-donation-results-of-a-spanish-multicenter-study
#17
Beatriz Domínguez-Gil, Elisabeth Coll, José Elizalde, Jaime E Herrero, Teresa Pont, Brígida Quindós, Bella Marcelo, María A Bodí, Adolfo Martínez, Agustín Nebra, Francisco Guerrero, José M Manciño, Juan Galán, Miguel Lebrón, Eduardo Miñambres, Rafael Matesanz
BACKGROUND: Intensive Care to facilitate Organ Donation (ICOD) may help to increase the donor pool. We describe the Spanish experience with ICOD. METHODS: ACCORD-Spain consisted of an audit of the donation pathway from patients dead as a result of a devastating brain injury (possible donors) in 68 hospitals during 11/1/2014-4/30/2015. We focused on possible donors whose family was interviewed to discuss organ donation once intensive care with a therapeutic purpose was deemed futile and brain death (BD) was a likely outcome...
February 23, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230627/surgical-outcomes-after-trauma-pneumonectomy-revisited
#18
Kazuhide Matsushima, Alberto Aiolfi, Caroline Park, David Rosen, Aaron Strumwasser, Elizabeth Benjamin, Kenji Inaba, Demetrios Demetriades
INTRODUCTION: Trauma pneumonectomy has been historically associated with an exceedingly high morbidity and mortality. The recent advent of standardized reporting and data-collecting measures has facilitated large volume data-analysis on predictors and outcomes of trauma pneumonectomy. The purpose of this study is to describe patient characteristics and outcomes of the patients who underwent trauma pneumonectomy in the modern era and identify clinical factors associated with postoperative mortality...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230291/therapeutic-potentials-of-bdnf-trkb-in-breast-cancer-current-status-and-perspectives
#19
Amir Tajbakhsh, Amin Mokhtari-Zaer, Mehdi Rezaee, Fahimeh Afzaljavan, Mehdi Rivandi, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Gordon A Ferns, Alireza Pasdar, Amir Avan
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor that has been shown to stimulate breast cancer cell growth and metastasis via tyrosine kinase receptors TrkA, TrkB and the p75(NTR) death receptor. The aberrant activation of BDNF/TrkB pathways can modulate several signaling pathways, including Akt/PI3K, Jak/STAT, NF-kB, UPAR/UPA, Wnt/β-catenin and VEGF pathways as well as the ER receptor. Several microRNAs have been identified that are involved in the modulation of BDNF/TrkB pathways...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228749/neuroprotective-role-of-the-pi3-kinase-akt-signaling-pathway-in-zebrafish
#20
Shuang Chen, Yunzhang Liu, Xiaozhi Rong, Yun Li, Jianfeng Zhou, Ling Lu
Neuronal survival and growth in the embryo is controlled partly by trophic factors. For most trophic factors (such as Insulin-like growth factor-1), the ability to regulate cell survival has been attributed to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase cascade. This study presents data illustrating the role of PI3K/Akt in attainment of normal brain size during zebrafish embryogenesis. Blocking PI3K with inhibitor LY294002 caused a significant reduction in brain size (in addition to global growth retardation) during zebrafish embryogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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