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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608756/effects-of-omalizumab-on-rhinovirus-infections-illnesses-and-exacerbations-of-asthma
#1
Ann Esquivel, William W Busse, Agustin Calatroni, Alkis G Togias, Kristine G Grindle, Yury A Bochkov, Rebecca S Gruchalla, Meyer Kattan, Carolyn M Kercsmar, G Khurana Hershey, Haejin Kim, Petra Lebeau, Andrew H Liu, Stanley J Szefler, Stephen J Teach, Joseph B West, Jeremy Wildfire, Jacqueline A Pongracic, James E Gern
RATIONALE: Allergic inflammation has been linked to increased susceptibility to viral illnesses, but it is unclear whether this association is causal. OBJECTIVE: To test whether omalizumab treatment to reduce IgE would shorten the frequency and duration of rhinovirus illnesses in children with allergic asthma. METHODS: The Preventative Omalizumab or Step-up Therapy for Severe Fall Exacerbations (PROSE) was a study of children with allergic asthma (6-17 years, n=478) from low-income census tracts in 8 U...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583359/narrative-and-natural-history-in-the-eighteenth-century
#2
Mary Terrall
In the eighteenth century, natural histories of animals incorporated narratives about animal behaviour and narratives of discovery and experimentation. Naturalists used first-person accounts to link the stories of their scientific investigations to the stories of the animal lives they were studying. Understanding nature depended on narratives that shifted back and forth in any given text between animal and human, and between individual cases and generalizations about species. This paper explores the uses of narrative through examples from the work of René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur and Abraham Trembley...
April 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558859/acute-memory-and-psychotomimetic-effects-of-cannabis-and-tobacco-both-joint-and-individually-a-placebo-controlled-trial
#3
C Hindocha, T P Freeman, J X Xia, N D C Shaban, H V Curran
BACKGROUND: Cannabis and tobacco have contrasting cognitive effects. Smoking cannabis with tobacco is prevalent in many countries and although this may well influence cognitive and mental health outcomes, the possibility has rarely been investigated in human experimental psychopharmacological research. METHOD: The individual and interactive effects of cannabis and tobacco were evaluated in 24 non-dependent cannabis and tobacco smokers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 2 (cannabis, placebo) × 2 (tobacco, placebo) crossover design...
May 31, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542033/utility-of-prose-device-in-the-management-of-complex-oculoplastic-pathology
#4
Stacy M Scofield-Kaplan, Kristen E Dunbar, Ashley A Campbell, Michael Kazim
PURPOSE: To describe the use of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) device in the management of complex oculoplastic pathology. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of individuals over 18 years of age who were referred and successfully fit with the PROSE scleral device between January 1995 and June 2015. RESULTS: Nine cases were identified that had complex oculoplastic disease and severe corneal surface disease...
May 24, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510740/propofol-based-anaesthesia-versus-sevoflurane-based-anaesthesia-for-living-donor-kidney-transplantation-results-of-the-vapor-1-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
G J Nieuwenhuijs-Moeke, V B Nieuwenhuijs, M A J Seelen, S P Berger, M C van den Heuvel, J G M Burgerhof, P J Ottens, R J Ploeg, H G D Leuvenink, M M R F Struys
Background: Kidney transplantation is associated with harmful processes affecting the viability of the graft. One of these processes is associated with the phenomenon of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Anaesthetic conditioning is a widely described strategy to attenuate ischaemia-reperfusion injury. We therefore conducted the Volatile Anaesthetic Protection of Renal Transplants-1 trial, a pilot project evaluating the influence of two anaesthetic regimens, propofol- vs sevoflurane-based anaesthesia, on biochemical and clinical outcomes in living donor kidney transplantation...
May 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429529/impaired-left-atrial-function-predicts-inappropriate-shocks-in-primary-prevention-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-candidates
#6
Susumu Tao, Hiroshi Ashikaga, Luisa A Ciuffo, Kihei Yoneyama, Joao A C Lima, Terry F Frank, Robert G Weiss, Gordon F Tomaselli, Katherine C Wu
INTRODUCTION: Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks, commonly caused by atrial fibrillation (AF), are associated with an increased mortality. Because impaired left atrial (LA) function predicts development of AF, we hypothesized that impaired LA function predicts inappropriate shocks beyond a history of AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively analyzed the association between LA function and incident inappropriate shocks in primary prevention ICD candidates...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388657/clinical-decision-tool-for-crt-p-vs-crt-d-implantation-findings-from-prose-icd
#7
Victor Nauffal, Yiyi Zhang, Tanyanan Tanawuttiwat, Elena Blasco-Colmenares, John Rickard, Joseph E Marine, Barbara Butcher, Sanaz Norgard, Timm-Michael Dickfeld, Kenneth A Ellenbogen, Eliseo Guallar, Gordon F Tomaselli, Alan Cheng
BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices reduce mortality through pacing-induced cardiac resynchronization and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy for ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). Whether certain factors can predict if patients will benefit more from implantation of CRT pacemakers (CRT-P) or CRT defibrillators (CRT-D) remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We followed 305 primary prevention CRT-D recipients for the two primary outcomes of HF hospitalization and ICD therapy for VAs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373557/quantitative-criticism-of-literary-relationships
#8
Joseph P Dexter, Theodore Katz, Nilesh Tripuraneni, Tathagata Dasgupta, Ajay Kannan, James A Brofos, Jorge A Bonilla Lopez, Lea A Schroeder, Adriana Casarez, Maxim Rabinovich, Ayelet Haimson Lushkov, Pramit Chaudhuri
Authors often convey meaning by referring to or imitating prior works of literature, a process that creates complex networks of literary relationships ("intertextuality") and contributes to cultural evolution. In this paper, we use techniques from stylometry and machine learning to address subjective literary critical questions about Latin literature, a corpus marked by an extraordinary concentration of intertextuality. Our work, which we term "quantitative criticism," focuses on case studies involving two influential Roman authors, the playwright Seneca and the historian Livy...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366677/change-in-vault-during-scleral-lens-trials-assessed-with-anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography
#9
Varsha M Rathi, Preeji S Mandathara, Srikanth Dumpati, Virender S Sangwan
PURPOSE: To assess the change in vault during scleral lens fitting with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). METHODS: This study comprised of patients who had AS-OCT performed after 1h and 4h of scleral lens wear (PROSE, prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem, Boston Foundation for Sight, Needham Heights, MA, USA). Vault was measured on AS-OCT as the distance between the front surface of the cornea in the center and the back surface of the scleral lens...
March 30, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295635/quality-of-life-and-handling-experience-with-the-prose-device-an-indian-scenario
#10
Pradipta Bhattacharya, Rajeswari Mahadevan
BACKGROUND: PROSE (prosthetic replacement of ocular surface ecosystem) device is a custom-designed, corneal vaulting scleral contact lens, which is used in the treatment of irregular corneal conditions to improve vision and comfort. The present study aimed at assessing the success of the PROSE device in an Indian scenario in terms of change in quality of life and to understand the handling issues related to the device use. METHODS: Thirty-two subjects with various irregular corneal conditions meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the study...
March 12, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290764/twelve-week-exercise-influences-memory-complaint-but-not-memory-performance-in-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-study
#11
Enzo Iuliano, Giovanni Fiorilli, Giovanna Aquino, Alfonso Di Costanzo, Giuseppe Calcagno, Alessandra di Cagno
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different types of exercise on memory performance and memory complaint after 12-week intervention. Eighty community-dwelling volunteers, aged 66.96 ± 11.73 years, were randomly divided into four groups: resistance, cardiovascular, postural and control groups (20 participants for each group). All participants were tested for their cognitive functions before and after their respective 12-weeks intervention using Rey memory words test, Prose memory test, and Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287057/verbal-learning-and-memory-enhancement-strategies-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-controlled-investigation
#12
Matthew M Kurtz, Christi L Trask, Rachel Rosengard, Simone Hyman, Lisa Kremen, Shyle Mehta, Rachel Olfson, Sam Rispaud, Sofia Zaidman, Jimmy Choi
OBJECTIVES: Verbal episodic memory is a key domain of impairment in people with schizophrenia with close ties to a variety of aspects of functioning and therapeutic treatment response. A randomized, blinded trial of two mnemonic strategies for verbal episodic memory deficits for people with schizophrenia was conducted. METHODS: Sixty-one people with schizophrenia were assigned to one of three experimental conditions: training in a mnemonic strategy that included both visualization and narrative structure (Story Method), a condition in which participants were trained to visualize words interacting with one another (Imagery), or a non-trained control condition in which participants received equivalent exposure to training word lists and other verbal memory assessments administered in the other two conditions, but without provision of any compensatory mnemonic strategy...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275704/language-play-facilitates-language-learning-optimizing-the-input-for-gender-like-category-induction
#13
Johanna Bebout, Eva Belke
Gender induction has been claimed to be virtually impossible unless nouns provide reliable semantic or phonological gender-relevant cues. However, learners might exploit syntactic cues, such as definite articles, to infer the gender of gender-unmarked nouns. In children's poems and songs, such syntactic cues are presented in a highly structured fashion. We assessed gender-like category induction in an artificial language that provided exclusively syntactic cues for its gender-like subclasses. We trained participants with structured or unstructured input presented in a prose, a rhyming, a melodic, or a rhyming and melodic fashion...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238748/can-we-predict-fall-asthma-exacerbations-validation-of-the-seasonal-asthma-exacerbation-index
#14
Heather E Hoch, Agustin Calatroni, Joseph B West, Andrew H Liu, Peter J Gergen, Rebecca S Gruchalla, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Carolyn M Kercsmar, Haejin Kim, Carin I Lamm, Melanie M Makhija, Herman E Mitchell, Stephen J Teach, Jeremy J Wildfire, William W Busse, Stanley J Szefler
BACKGROUND: A Seasonal Asthma Exacerbation Predictive Index (saEPI) was previously reported based on 2 prior National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Inner City Asthma Consortium trials. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to validate the saEPI in a separate trial designed to prevent fall exacerbations with omalizumab therapy. METHODS: The saEPI and its components were analyzed to characterize those who had an asthma exacerbation during the Preventative Omalizumab or Step-Up Therapy for Fall Exacerbations (PROSE) study...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174552/measuring-mindreading-a-review-of-behavioral-approaches-to-testing-cognitive-and-affective-mental-state-attribution-in-neurologically-typical-adults
#15
REVIEW
Rose Turner, Fatima M Felisberti
Mindreading refers to the ability to attribute mental states, including thoughts, intentions and emotions, to oneself and others, and is essential for navigating the social world. Empirical mindreading research has predominantly featured children, groups with autism spectrum disorder and clinical samples, and many standard tasks suffer ceiling effects with neurologically typical (NT) adults. We first outline a case for studying mindreading in NT adults and proceed to review tests of emotion perception, cognitive and affective mentalizing, and multidimensional tasks combining these facets...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130995/investigating-the-separate-and-interactive-associations-of-trauma-and-depression-on-neurocognition-in-urban-dwelling-adults
#16
Aimee James Karstens, Leah H Rubin, Stewart A Shankman, Olusola Ajilore, David J Libon, Anand Kumar, Melissa Lamar
BACKGROUND: Trauma and depression have each been associated with neurocognitive alterations, but their combined effect on neurocognition is unclear. We investigated the separate and interactive associations of trauma and depression on neurocognition in a sample of ethnically diverse urban dwellers, and explored the impact of age on these effects. METHODS: 284 adults aged 30-89 were divided into groups based on their current depression and trauma history. Individuals meeting DSM-IV criteria for depression were considered Depressed (D+) and individuals rated through diagnostic interview as having trauma history were considered positive for Trauma (T+)...
June 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018269/theory-of-mind-and-its-neuropsychological-and-quality-of-life-correlates-in-the-early-stages-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
Francesca Trojsi, Mattia Siciliano, Antonio Russo, Carla Passaniti, Cinzia Femiano, Teresa Ferrantino, Stefania De Liguoro, Luigi Lavorgna, Maria R Monsurrò, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Gabriella Santangelo
This study aims to explore the potential impairment of Theory of Mind (ToM; i.e., the ability to represent cognitive and affective mental states to both self and others) and the clinical, neuropsychological and Quality of Life (QoL) correlates of these cognitive abnormalities in the early stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a multisystem neurodegenerative disease recently recognized as a part of the same clinical and pathological spectrum of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Twenty-two consecutive, cognitively intact ALS patients, and 15 healthy controls, underwent assessment of executive, verbal comprehension, visuospatial, behavioral, and QoL measures, as well as of the ToM abilities by Emotion Attribution Task (EAT), Advanced Test of ToM (ATT), and Eyes Task (ET)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017787/randomized-phase-iii-trial-of-erlotinib-versus-docetaxel-in-patients-with-advanced-squamous-cell-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-failing-first-line-platinum-based-doublet-chemotherapy-stratified-by%C3%A2-veristrat-good-versus-veristrat-poor-the-european%C3%A2-thoracic-oncology
#18
Solange Peters, Rolf A Stahel, Urania Dafni, Santiago Ponce Aix, Bartomeu Massutí, Oliver Gautschi, Linda Coate, Ana López Martín, Robbert van Heemst, Thierry Berghmans, Peter Meldgaard, Manuel Cobo Dols, Javier Garde Noguera, Alessandra Curioni-Fontecedro, Daniel Rauch, Michael T Mark, Sinead Cuffe, Bonne Biesma, Arjen M J van Henten, Óscar Juan Vidal, Ramón Palmero Sanchez, José Carlos Villa Guzmán, Ricardo Collado Martin, Sergio Peralta, Amelia Insa, Yvonne Summers, István Láng, Anne Horgan, Fortunato Ciardiello, Sander de Hosson, Remge Pieterman, Harry J M Groen, Paul M van den Berg, Christoph C Zielinski, Yojena Chittazhathu Kurian Kuruvilla, Adriana Gasca-Ruchti, Marie Kassapian, Silvia Novello, Valter Torri, Zoi Tsourti, Vanesa Gregorc, Egbert F Smit
INTRODUCTION: Docetaxel and erlotinib are registered second-line treatments for wild-type EGFR NSCLC. Previous studies suggested a predictive value of the VeriStrat test in second-line therapy of NSCLC, classifying patients as either VeriStrat good or VeriStrat poor. EMPHASIS-lung aimed at exploring this predictive effect in patients with squamous cell NSCLC. The trial closed prematurely because of low accrual and results from other trials. Our analysis includes an exploratory combined analysis with results from the PROSE trial...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898071/are-adolescents-more-vulnerable-to-the-harmful-effects-of-cannabis-than-adults-a-placebo-controlled-study-in-human-males
#19
C Mokrysz, T P Freeman, S Korkki, K Griffiths, H V Curran
Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16-17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24-28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, 'stoned', 'want to have cannabis')...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868481/inconsistent-handed-advantage-in-episodic-memory-extends-to-paragraph-level-materials
#20
Eric C Prichard, Stephen D Christman
Past research using handedness as a proxy for functional access to the right hemisphere demonstrates that individuals who are mixed/inconsistently handed outperform strong/consistently handed individuals when performing episodic recall tasks. However, research has generally been restricted to stimuli presented in a list format. In the present paper, we present two studies in which participants were presented with paragraph-level material and then asked to recall material from the passages. The first study was based on a classic study looking at retroactive interference with prose materials...
November 21, 2016: Memory
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