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C Mokrysz, T P Freeman, S Korkki, K Griffiths, H V Curran
Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16-17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24-28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, 'stoned', 'want to have cannabis')...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Eric C Prichard, Stephen D Christman
Past research using handedness as a proxy for functional access to the right hemisphere demonstrates that individuals who are mixed/inconsistently handed outperform strong/consistently handed individuals when performing episodic recall tasks. However, research has generally been restricted to stimuli presented in a list format. In the present paper, we present two studies in which participants were presented with paragraph-level material and then asked to recall material from the passages. The first study was based on a classic study looking at retroactive interference with prose materials...
November 21, 2016: Memory
Ambar Basu
Narratives of cultural stakeholders in marginalized sex worker spaces often do not find the traction to influence mainstream health discourse. Furthermore, such narratives are framed against the grain of the dominant cultural narrative; they are resistive texts, and they depict enactments of resistance to the normal order. This article, based on 12 weeks of field study in a sex worker community in India, foregrounds how sex workers communicatively frame and enact resistance, and hence formulate insurgent texts, along a continuum-from overt violence to covert negotiation on issues such as condom and alcohol use...
November 8, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Ioannis Zalonis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Zoi Giavri, Elisabeth A Wilde, Sophia Xirou, Michalis Rentzos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, George Velonakis, Panagiotis Toulas, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Loukia Poulou, Georgios Argyropoulos, Athanasios Athanasakos, Thomas Zambelis, Harvey S Levin, Nikolaos Karandreas, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
We aimed to investigate structural changes in vivo in memory-related white matter tracts (i.e., perforant pathway zone [PPZ]; uncinate fasciculus [UF]; fornix) using diffusion tensor tractography and evaluate possible associations with memory performance in nondemented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-two ALS patients and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent a 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3T MR scanner, followed by tractography of PPZ, UF, and fornix and analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (Dr)...
September 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Gloria B Chiu, Christos Theophanous, John A Irvine
PURPOSE: To report a case of persistent epithelial defects in a patient with ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease that required coordinated modulation of systemic immunosuppressive treatment and overnight wear of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (BostonSight PROSE, Needham, MA) devices to achieve ocular surface healing. CASE REPORT: The case of a 38-year-old male patient who presented with a 2-year history of ocular chronic graft-versus-host disease, ocular burning, pain, light sensitivity, and a 3-week history of bilateral corneal epithelial defects is presented...
November 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Gerardo Salvato, Pina Scarpa, Stefano Francione, Roberto Mai, Laura Tassi, Elisa Scarano, Giorgio Lo Russo, Gabriella Bottini
It is largely recognized that the mesial temporal lobe and its substructure support declarative long-term memory (LTM). So far, different theories have been suggested, and the organization of declarative verbal LTM in the brain is still a matter of debate. In the current study, we retrospectively selected 151 right-handed patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with and without hippocampal sclerosis, with a homogeneous (seizure-free) clinical outcome. We analyzed verbal memory performance within a normalized scores context, by means of prose recall and word paired-associate learning tasks...
November 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Mindaugas Mozuraitis, Craig G Chambers, Meredyth Daneman
The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers' attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants' verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Daniel J Levitin, Scott T Grafton
Functional brain imaging has revealed much about the neuroanatomical substrates of higher cognition, including music, language, learning, and memory. The technique lends itself to studying of groups of individuals. In contrast, the nature of expert performance is typically studied through the examination of exceptional individuals using behavioral case studies and retrospective biography. Here, we combined fMRI and the study of an individual who is a world-class expert musician and composer in order to better understand the neural underpinnings of his music perception and cognition, in particular, his mental representations for music...
August 12, 2016: Neurocase
Takashi Kojima, Asato Hasegawa, Tomoaki Nakamura, Naoki Isogai, Takahiro Kataoka, Kazuo Ichikawa
PURPOSE: Aniridic keratopathy is vision-threatening condition in patients with aniridia. The keratopathy occurs due to limbal stem cell deficiency. When conventional treatments fail, surgical treatments such as corneal limbal transplantation or cultivated oral mucosal epithelium transplantation are the alternatives. Here, we report our experience with the management and monitoring of the progress of a case with aniridic keratopathy treated with a scleral lens. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a 30-year-old woman with aniridic keratopathy in both eyes...
October 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Sam Illingworth
The central purpose of science is to explain (Purtill, 1970). However, who is that explanation for, and how is this explanation communicated once it has been deduced? Scientific research is typically communicated via papers in journals, with an abstract presented as a summary of that explanation. However, in many instances they may be written in a manner which is non-communicatory to a lay reader (Halliday & Martin, 2003). This study begins to investigate if poetry could be used as an alternative form of communication, by first assessing if poetic verse is an effective form of communication to other scientists...
2016: F1000Research
Seth Zissette, Melissa H Watt, Neil S Prose, Ntokozo Mntambo, Mosa Moshabela
The needs of South African men with HIV may often be overlooked in the provision of HIV services, leading to care programs that do not adequately serve the unique needs of male patients. Additionally, norms of masculinity guide men's behaviors as they navigate health decision-making and the healthcare systems. The aim of this study is to examine how masculinity influences healthcare access and utilization in South Africa, and to identify opportunities for interventions. The qualitative study took place at one primary health care clinic in a peri-urban township in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
July 2016: Psychology of Men & Masculinity
A Behrens, C Ell
INTRODUCTION: Administering sedation is an established standard in gastrointestinal endoscopy, particularly in situations in which sedation is used to make the examination more comfortable for the patient (e. g., during preventive check-up examinations). It is important to have precise information about the risk of sedation-associated complications. AIMS AND METHODS: The aim of this study was to record the incidence and type of sedation-associated complications in a low-risk group of patients (ASA 1 or 2) undergoing elective diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Alice F Healy, Tessa K Zangara
This study examined a novel task in which participants read aloud passages shown 2 words per line on a computer screen. There were 4 different passages, all of which included unrelated sentences, with each sentence containing 1 test word. The passages differed only in the text type (prose, scrambled) and in the identity of the test word (the, one). The word the is a common function word, whereas one is a less common content word. The test word was repeated in half of the sentences at the end of one line and at the start of the next line...
July 28, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Sophia Z Mian, Joshua S Agranat, Deborah S Jacobs
OBJECTIVES: To report experience with Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) treatment for complications after laser in situ keratomileuisis (LASIK). METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical and manufacturing records. A database of patients who underwent PROSE treatment from 1992 to 2007 was searched to yield all patients with history of LASIK. Primary indication for PROSE treatment and year of LASIK is reported as well as history of contact lens intolerance and pretreatment and posttreatment best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA)...
July 27, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Michael D Gordin
Machine Translation (MT) is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation. The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January 1954 - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator, but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method. Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science...
April 2016: Annals of Science
Hajirah N Saeed, Sahar Kohanim, Hong-Gam Le, James Chodosh, Deborah S Jacobs
PURPOSE: To report the occurrence of corneal ectasia (ECT) in patients with history of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and to make the case for an association between these 2 diagnoses. We also report the impact of prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment on visual acuity (VA) in these patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A manufacturing database of PROSE patients from 2002 to 2014 at Boston Foundation for Sight (BFS), a single-center clinical practice, was reviewed to identify patients with diagnoses of both SJS and ECT...
September 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Bernardo de la Garza, Richard Jackson Harris
The present studies examined the effects of varying degrees of unfamiliar vocabulary within written discourse on individuals' abilities to use linguistic context for the purposes of translation and comprehension (i.e., lexical inferencing). Prose varied in the number of foreign words introduced into each sentence (e.g., 0 through 7 content words per sentence). Furthermore, Krashen's Input Hypothesis and the Evaluation component of the Involvement Load Hypothesis were tested to determine the degree at which non-comprehensible input hinders the ability of a learner to successfully use linguistic context for translation and comprehension...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Lin Wah Goh, Hui Seong Teh, Advincula R Sarmiento
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
June C Lo, Kelly A Bennion, Michael W L Chee
As chronic sleep restriction is a widespread problem among adolescents, the present study investigated the effects of a 1-week sleep restriction (SR) versus control period on the consolidation of long-term memory for prose passages. We also determined whether the benefit of prioritization on memory is modulated by adequate sleep occurring during consolidation. Fifty-six healthy adolescents (25 male, aged 15-19 years) were instructed to remember a prose passage in which half of the content was highlighted (prioritized), and were told that they would receive an additional bonus for remembering highlighted content...
June 13, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
Yiyi Zhang, Eliseo Guallar, Elena Blasco-Colmenares, Amy C Harms, Rob J Vreeken, Thomas Hankemeier, Gordon F Tomaselli, Alan Cheng
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with systolic heart failure are at risk of ventricular arrhythmias and all-cause mortality. Little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying these events. We sought to better understand if oxylipins, a diverse class of lipid metabolites derived from the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, were associated with these outcomes in recipients of primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). METHODS: Among 479 individuals from the PROSE-ICD study, baseline serum were analyzed and quantitatively profiled for 35 known biologically relevant oxylipin metabolites...
2016: PloS One
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