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Adrian P Brady
The job of the diagnostic radiologist is two-fold: identifying and interpreting the information available from diagnostic imaging studies and communicating that interpretation meaningfully to the referring clinician. However skilled our interpretive abilities, our patients are not well served if we fail to convey our conclusions effectively. Despite the central importance of communication skills to the work of radiologists, trainees rarely receive significant formal training in reporting skills, and much of the training given simply reflects the trainer's personal preferences...
March 14, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Bethany Ober Mannon
The field of narrative medicine holds that personal narratives about illness have the potential to give illness meaning and to create order out of disparate facets of experience, thereby aiding a patient's treatment and resisting universalizing medical discourse. Two narratives of bipolar disorder, Kay Redfield Jamison's prose memoir An Unquiet Mind (1995) and Ellen Forney's graphic memoir Marbles (2012) challenge these ideas. These writers demonstrate that one result of bipolar disorder is a rupture to their sense of identity, making straightforward and verbal forms of narrative impossible...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Humanities
Brennan R Payne, Kara D Federmeier
The current study reports the effects of accumulating contextual constraints on neural indices of lexico-semantic processing (i.e., effects of word frequency and orthographic neighborhood) as a function of normal aging. Event-related brain potentials were measured from a sample of older adults as they read sentences that were semantically congruent, provided only syntactic constraints (syntactic prose), or were random word strings. A linear mixed-effects modeling approach was used to probe the effects of accumulating contextual constraints on N400 responses to individual words...
February 17, 2018: Brain Research
(no author information available yet)
Structured reporting is emerging as a key element of optimising radiology's contribution to patient outcomes and ensuring the value of radiologists' work. It is being developed and supported by many national and international radiology societies, based on the recognised need to use uniform language and structure to accurately describe radiology findings. Standardisation of report structures ensures that all relevant areas are addressed. Standardisation of terminology prevents ambiguity in reports and facilitates comparability of reports...
February 19, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Michael T Compton, Anya Lunden, Sean D Cleary, Luca Pauselli, Yazeed Alolayan, Brooke Halpern, Beth Broussard, Anthony Crisafio, Leslie Capulong, Pierfrancesco Maria Balducci, Francesco Bernardini, Michael A Covington
OBJECTIVE: Acoustic phonetic methods are useful in examining some symptoms of schizophrenia; we used such methods to understand the underpinnings of aprosody. We hypothesized that, compared to controls and patients without clinically rated aprosody, patients with aprosody would exhibit reduced variability in: pitch (F0), jaw/mouth opening and tongue height (formant F1), tongue front/back position and/or lip rounding (formant F2), and intensity/loudness. METHODS: Audiorecorded speech was obtained from 98 patients (including 25 with clinically rated aprosody and 29 without) and 102 unaffected controls using five tasks: one describing a drawing, two based on spontaneous speech elicited through a question (Tasks 2 and 3), and two based on reading prose excerpts (Tasks 4 and 5)...
February 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Andres Parra, Bryan M Roth, Taylor M Nguyen, Li Wang, Stephen C Pflugfelder, Zaina Al-Mohtaseb
PURPOSE: To describe changes in visual acuity in patients fit with the Prosthetic Replacement of Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) with irregular corneas compared to those with ocular surface disease, as well as describe patient demographics and fitting indications for PROSE at an academic medical center. METHODS: A retrospective chart review from 2010 to 2016 on a total of 825 eyes from 493 patients fitted with a PROSE lens, and grouped by etiology, either irregular cornea/dystrophy or ocular surface disease and associated sub-etiologies...
February 6, 2018: Ocular Surface
Sayan Basu, Swapna S Shanbhag, Arjun Gokani, Richa Kedar, Chirag Bahuguna, Virender S Sangwan
PURPOSE: To describe the long-term ocular and visual morbidity in children with chronic sequelae of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and visual outcomes of various management strategies. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative case series. METHODS: This study included 568 eyes of 284 children with SJS who presented between 1990 and 2015. Affected eyes either received conservative therapy (n=440) or definitive management (n=128) including lid margin mucous membrane grafting (MMG), prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) contact lenses, allogeneic limbal transplantation or keratoprosthesis using an algorithmic approach based on the severity of dryness and cause and extent of corneal damage...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Francesco Grossi, Carlo Genova, Erika Rijavec, Giulia Barletta, Federica Biello, Maria Giovanna Dal Bello, Krista Meyer, Joanna Roder, Heinrich Roder, Julia Grigorieva
OBJECTIVES: VeriStrat® is a blood-based test that utilizes matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI ToF) mass spectrometry to assign a binary classification of VeriStrat Good or VeriStrat Poor that is associated with treatment outcomes in cancer patients. A number of other studies have shown an association between VeriStrat status and clinical outcomes in second and subsequent lines of therapy. The prognostic properties of VeriStrat were demonstrated in the placebo arms of two randomized studies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): TOPICAL and BR...
December 13, 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Michael P Ryan, Reagan N Costello-White
We demonstrate an expanded procedure for assessing drug-label comprehension. Innovations include a pretest of drug preconceptions, verbal ability and label attentiveness measures, a label-scanning task, a free-recall test, category-clustering measures, and preconception-change scores. In total, 55 female and 39 male undergraduates read a facsimile Drug Facts Label for aspirin, a Cohesive-Prose Label, or a Scrambled-Prose Label. The Drug Facts Label outperformed the Scrambled-Prose Label, but not the Cohesive-Prose Label, in scanning effectiveness...
July 2017: Health Psychology Open
Angelika Behrens, Anton Kreuzmayr, Hendrik Manner, Herbert Koop, Albrecht Lorenz, Claus Schaefer, Mathais Plauth, Jens-Uwe Jetschmann, Christian von Tirpitz, Marcus Ewald, Michael Sackmann, Wanja Renner, Martin Krüger, Dieter Schwab, Werner Hoffmann, Olaf Engelke, Oliver Pech, Frank Kullmann, Sonja Pampuch, Berthold Lenfers, Uwe Weickert, Dieter Schilling, Stephan Boehm, Susanne Beckebaum, Vito Cicinnati, Joachim F Erckenbrecht, Franz Ludwig Dumoulin, Claus Benz, Thomas Rabenstein, Georg Haltern, Martin Balsliemke, Christian de Mas, Gerhard Kleber, Christian Pehl, Christoph Vogt, Ralf Kiesslich, Wolfgang Fischbach, Irmtraut Koop, Jens Kuehne, Matthias Breidert, Nils Lennart Sass, Andrea May, Christian Friedrich, Ronni Veitt, Rainer Porschen, Mark Ellrichmann, Alexander Arlt, Wolfgang Schmitt, Markus Dollhopf, Werner Schmidbaur, Axel Dignass, Volker Schmitz, J Labenz, Gernot Kaiser, Alexander Krannich, Nico Barteska, Christian Ell
OBJECTIVES: Sedation has been established for GI endoscopic procedures in most countries, but it is also associated with an added risk of complications. Reported complication rates are variable due to different study methodologies and often limited sample size. DESIGNS: Acute sedation-associated complications were prospectively recorded in an electronic endoscopy documentation in 39 study centres between December 2011 and August 2014 (median inclusion period 24 months)...
January 3, 2018: Gut
Peter G Bittar, Megan Casady, Maria A Selim, Neil S Prose
There are few reports of chemotherapy-induced eccrine squamous syringometaplasia in children. We report the first case of an infant developing this condition after treatment with busulfan, fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin in preparation for bone marrow transplantation. Twenty-eight days after transplantation, the infant developed faintly erythematous papules and plaques on the bilateral axillae, inguinal folds, and sites of adhesives. Punch biopsy revealed eccrine glands with dyskeratotic cells and focal squamous metaplasia consistent with chemotherapy-induced eccrine squamous syringometaplasia...
January 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
Davide Maria Cammisuli, Marco Timpano Sportiello
BACKGROUND: Frontal/executive dysfunction commonly occurs in Parkinso's disease - Mild Cognitive Impairment (PD-MCI patients). However, to date, the number of studies comparing PD-MCI and MCI patients of other etiologies are too small. The present study aims at clarifying the attention/working memory and executive dysfunction of PD-MCI patients in comparison to amnestic MCI multiple domain patients with first extended then abbreviated structural brain changes suggesting preclinical Alzheimer's Disease...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
Nahid Shahabadi, Ali Ashraf Asadian, Mryam Mahdavi
In this study, an attempt has been made to study the interaction of a Zn(II) complex containing an antibiotic drug, ciprofloxacin, with calf thymus DNA using spectroscopic methods. It was found that Zn(II) complex could bind with DNA via intercalation mode as evidenced by: hyperchromism in UV-Vis spectrum; these spectral characteristics suggest that the Zn(II) complex interacts with DNA most likely through a mode that involves a stacking interaction between the aromatic chromophore and the base pairs of DNA...
November 2, 2017: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
John Harris
This essay brings together work I have done over the past 10 years: on the nature of ethics, on the purpose of ethics, and on its foundations in a way that, I hope, as E.M. Forster put it, connects "the prose and the passion." I deploy lessons learned in this process to identify and face what I believe to be crucial challenges to science and to freedom (as defended by, among others, Cicero, Pete Seeger, Bob Dylan, Thomas Hobbes, John Stuart Mill, and Bertrand Russell). Finally I consider threats to freedom of a different sort, posed by the creation and dissemination of "alternative facts" and by what is sometimes called "super" or "full" artificial intelligence (AI)...
January 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Carolyn E Kloek, Karen W Jeng-Miller, Deborah S Jacobs, Ian F Dunn
Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) treatment is an effective, non-surgical therapeutic option for patients with ocular surface disease related to cranial nerve deficits secondary to skull base tumor resection. This case series describes the impact of PROSE treatment in patients with symptomatic exposure keratopathy or neurotrophic keratitis after skull base tumor surgery. All patients improved symptomatically and functionally with PROSE treatment, and have had sustained improvement for as long as 3 years...
October 28, 2017: World Neurosurgery
Varsha M Rathi, Preeji S Mandathara, Srikanth Dumpati, Virender S Sangwan
BACKGROUND: To report the use of scleral lens (ScCL) to improve vision in patients having keratoconus who had intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) surgery. METHODS: Two eyes of two keratoconus patients fitted with ScCL (PROSE - prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem, USA) after having undergone ICRS surgery are reported as noncomparative interventional case series. The ICRS implanted were INTACs and kerarings. Indications, visual acuity with ScCL, complications and follow-up are reported...
October 24, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Denise Nacif Pimenta, Miriam Struchiner, Simone Monteiro
This article presents Virgínia Schall's professional career, interrupted very early. It highlights her major role in the integration of the fields of Health, Education and Scientific Dissemination in Brazil. The contextualization of her academic and literary production as a researcher at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, demonstrates Virgínia's contribution in strengthening the institution and in the teaching of dozens of researchers and students. With a strong inter- and multidisciplinary approach, she was a pioneer in the field of Health Education, Science Education, and Science Dissemination...
October 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Benjamin M Hampstead, Krishnankutty Sathian, Marom Bikson, Anthony Y Stringer
INTRODUCTION: Memory deficits characterize Alzheimer's dementia and the clinical precursor stage known as mild cognitive impairment. Nonpharmacologic interventions hold promise for enhancing functioning in these patients, potentially delaying functional impairment that denotes transition to dementia. Previous findings revealed that mnemonic strategy training (MST) enhances long-term retention of trained stimuli and is accompanied by increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the lateral frontal and parietal cortices as well as in the hippocampus...
September 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
Alexander Persoskie, Erin Hennessy, Wendy L Nelson
INTRODUCTION: We examined US adults' understanding of a Nutrition Facts panel (NFP), which requires health literacy (ie, prose, document, and quantitative literacy skills), and the association between label understanding and dietary behavior. METHODS: Data were from the Health Information National Trends Survey, a nationally representative survey of health information seeking among US adults (N = 3,185) conducted from September 6, 2013, through December 30, 2013...
September 28, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
S M Wan, X Lu, X G Wang
Yi du (Medicine Reading)was a primer of traditional Chinese medicine. The original author was Wang Ji of the Ming Dynasty, and the book was block-printed and published, after the supplement made by Cheng Yingmao of the Qing Dynasty during the reign of Kangxi Emperor of the Qing Dynasty. The editions of the book preserved in Nanjing Library and China Institute for History of Medicine and Medical Literature of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences was the original version in the reign of Kangxi Emperor. The edition in Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine was the amended version of original version in the reign of Kangxi Emperor...
July 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
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