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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768179/intestinal-epithelial-wnt-signaling-mediates-acetylcholine-triggered-host-defense-against-infection
#1
Sid Ahmed Labed, Khursheed A Wani, Sakthimala Jagadeesan, Abdul Hakkim, Mehran Najibi, Javier Elbio Irazoqui
Regulated antimicrobial peptide expression in the intestinal epithelium is key to defense against infection and to microbiota homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate such expression is necessary for understanding immune homeostasis and inflammatory disease and for developing safe and effective therapies. We used Caenorhabditis elegans in a preclinical approach to discover mechanisms of antimicrobial gene expression control in the intestinal epithelium. We found an unexpected role for the cholinergic nervous system...
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768168/a-worm-s-gut-feelings-neuronal-muscarinic-and-epithelial-canonical-wnt-pathways-promote-antimicrobial-defense
#2
Romana R Gerner, Manuela Raffatellu
Molecular mechanisms connecting the gut-brain axis to immunity remain elusive. In this issue of Immunity, Labed et al. (2018) demonstrate that two evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanisms, the neuronal muscarinic and the epithelial Wnt pathways, together induce antimicrobial peptide expression that protects Caenorhabditis elegans against intestinal infection.
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673481/cell-autonomous-regulation-of-dendrite-self-avoidance-by-the-wnt-secretory-factor-mig-14-wntless
#3
Chien-Po Liao, Hsun Li, Hsiu-Hsiang Lee, Cheng-Ting Chien, Chun-Liang Pan
Self-avoidance allows sister dendrites from the same neuron to form non-redundant coverage of the sensory territory and is important for neural circuitry functions. Here, we report an unexpected, cell-autonomous role of the Wnt-secretory factor MIG-14/Wntless in mediating dendrite self-avoidance in the C. elegans multidendritic PVD neurons. Similar findings in Drosophila suggest that this novel function of Wntless is conserved. The mig-14 mutant shows defects in dendrite self-avoidance, and ectopic MIG-14 expression triggers dendrite repulsion...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652050/long-term-c-elegans-immobilization-enables-high-resolution-developmental-studies-in-vivo
#4
Simon Berger, Evelyn Lattmann, Tinri Aegerter-Wilmsen, Michael Hengartner, Alex Hajnal, Andrew deMello, Xavier Casadevall I Solvas
Live-imaging of C. elegans is essential for the study of conserved cellular pathways (e.g. EGFR/Wnt signaling) and morphogenesis in vivo. However, the usefulness of live imaging as a research tool has been severely limited by the need to immobilize worms prior to and during imaging. Conventionally, immobilization is achieved by employing both physical and chemical interventions. These are known to significantly affect many physiological processes, and thus limit our understanding of dynamic developmental processes...
April 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590193/automated-c-elegans-embryo-alignments-reveal-brain-neuropil-position-invariance-despite-lax-cell-body-placement
#5
Peter Insley, Shai Shaham
The Caenorhabditis elegans cell lineage is nearly invariant. Whether this stereotyped cell-division pattern promotes reproducibility in cell shapes/positions is not generally known, as manual spatiotemporal cell-shape/position alignments are labor-intensive, and fully-automated methods are not described. Here, we report automated algorithms for spatiotemporal alignments of C. elegans embryos from pre-morphogenesis to motor-activity initiation. We use sparsely-labeled green-fluorescent nuclei and a pan-nuclear red-fluorescent reporter to register consecutive imaging time points and compare embryos...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504896/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-mechanisms-of-geroprotective-effects-of-fucoxanthin-in-drosophila
#6
Alexey Moskalev, Mikhail Shaposhnikov, Nadezhda Zemskaya, Alexey Belyi, Eugenia Dobrovolskaya, Anna Patova, Zulfiya Guvatova, Elena Lukyanova, Anastasiya Snezhkina, Anna Kudryavtseva
BACKGROUND: We have previously showed that the carotenoid fucoxanthin can increase the lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the geroprotective effect of fucoxanthin have not been studied so far. RESULTS: Here, we studied the effects of fucoxanthin on the Drosophila aging process at the molecular and the whole organism levels. At the organismal level, fucoxanthin increased the median lifespan and had a positive effect on fecundity, fertility, intestinal barrier function, and nighttime sleep...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463707/robo-and-ror-function-in-a-common-receptor-complex-to-regulate-wnt-mediated-neurite-outgrowth-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Jiaming Wang, Mei Ding
Growing axons are exposed to various guidance cues en route to their targets, but the mechanisms that govern the response of growth cones to combinations of signals remain largely elusive. Here, we found that the sole Robo receptor, SAX-3, in Caenorhabditis elegans functions as a coreceptor for Wnt/CWN-2 molecules. SAX-3 binds to Wnt/CWN-2 and facilitates the membrane recruitment of CWN-2. SAX-3 forms a complex with the Ror/CAM-1 receptor and its downstream effector Dsh/DSH-1, promoting signal transduction from Wnt to Dsh...
March 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442317/zic-genes-in-nematodes-a-role-in-nervous-system-development-and-wnt-signaling
#8
Guillaume Bordet, Vincent Bertrand
Transcription factors of the Zic family play important roles during animal development, and their misregulation has been implicated in several human diseases. Zic proteins are present in nematodes, and their function has been mostly studied in the model organism C. elegans. C. elegans possesses only one Zic family member, REF-2. Functional studies have shown that this factor plays a key role during the development of the nervous system, epidermis, and excretory system. In addition, they have revealed that the C...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348204/tumor-suppressor-apc-is-an-attenuator-of-spindle-pulling-forces-during-c-elegans-asymmetric-cell-division
#9
Kenji Sugioka, Lars-Eric Fielmich, Kota Mizumoto, Bruce Bowerman, Sander van den Heuvel, Akatsuki Kimura, Hitoshi Sawa
The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor has dual functions in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and accurate chromosome segregation and is frequently mutated in colorectal cancers. Although APC contributes to proper cell division, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Caenorhabditis elegans APR-1/APC is an attenuator of the pulling forces acting on the mitotic spindle. During asymmetric cell division of the C. elegans zygote, a LIN-5/NuMA protein complex localizes dynein to the cell cortex to generate pulling forces on astral microtubules that position the mitotic spindle...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348144/a-crispr-tagging-based-screen-reveals-localized-players-in-wnt-directed-asymmetric-cell-division
#10
Jennifer K Heppert, Ariel M Pani, Allyson M Roberts, Daniel J Dickinson, Bob Goldstein
Oriented cell divisions are critical to establish and maintain cell fates and tissue organization. Diverse extracellular and intracellular cues have been shown to provide spatial information for mitotic spindle positioning; however, the molecular mechanisms by which extracellular signals communicate with cells to direct mitotic spindle positioning are largely unknown. In animal cells, oriented cell divisions are often achieved by the localization of force-generating motor protein complexes to discrete cortical domains...
March 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196797/sorting-nexin-3-mutation-impairs-development-and-neuronal-function-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
Neide Vieira, Carlos Bessa, Ana J Rodrigues, Paulo Marques, Fung-Yi Chan, Ana Xavier de Carvalho, Margarida Correia-Neves, Nuno Sousa
The sorting nexins family of proteins (SNXs) plays pleiotropic functions in protein trafficking and intracellular signaling and has been associated with several disorders, namely Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. Despite the growing association of SNXs with neurodegeneration, not much is known about their function in the nervous system. The aim of this work was to use the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that encodes in its genome eight SNXs orthologs, to dissect the role of distinct SNXs, particularly in the nervous system...
December 1, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108019/stochastic-loss-and-gain-of-symmetric-divisions-in-the-c-elegans-epidermis-perturbs-robustness-of-stem-cell-number
#12
Dimitris Katsanos, Sneha L Koneru, Lamia Mestek Boukhibar, Nicola Gritti, Ritobrata Ghose, Peter J Appleford, Maria Doitsidou, Alison Woollard, Jeroen S van Zon, Richard J Poole, Michalis Barkoulas
Biological systems are subject to inherent stochasticity. Nevertheless, development is remarkably robust, ensuring the consistency of key phenotypic traits such as correct cell numbers in a certain tissue. It is currently unclear which genes modulate phenotypic variability, what their relationship is to core components of developmental gene networks, and what is the developmental basis of variable phenotypes. Here, we start addressing these questions using the robust number of Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal stem cells, known as seam cells, as a readout...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092889/a-statistically-oriented-asymmetric-localization-soal-model-for-neuronal-outgrowth-patterning-by-caenorhabditis-elegans-unc-5-unc5-and-unc-40-dcc-netrin-receptors
#13
Gerard Limerick, Xia Tang, Won Suk Lee, Ahmed Mohamed, Aseel Al-Aamiri, William G Wadsworth
Neurons extend processes that vary in number, length, and direction of "outgrowth". Extracellular cues help determine outgrowth patterns. In Caenorhabditis elegans , neurons respond to the extracellular UNC-6 (netrin) cue via UNC-40 (DCC) and UNC-5 (UNC5) receptors. Previously, we presented evidence that UNC-40 asymmetric localization at the plasma membrane is self-organizing, and that UNC-40 can localize and mediate outgrowth at randomly selected sites. Here, we provide further evidence for a statistically-oriented asymmetric localization (SOAL) model in which UNC-5 receptor activity affects patterns of axon outgrowth by regulating UNC-40 asymmetric localization...
January 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993416/regulation-of-axon-guidance-by-the-wnt-receptor-ror-cam-1-in-the-pvt-guidepost-cell-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Jason Chien, Ranjan Devkota, Nebeyu Yosef, Catarina Mörck
The Caenorhabditis elegans ventral nerve cord (VNC) consists of two asymmetric bundles of neurons and axons that are separated by the midline. How the axons are guided to stay on the correct sides of the midline remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that the conserved Wnt signaling pathway along with the Netrin and Robo pathways constitute a combinatorial code for midline guidance of PVP and PVQ axons that extend into the VNC. Combined loss of the Wnts CWN-1, CWN-2, and EGL-20 or loss of the Wnt receptor CAM-1 caused >70% of PVP and PVQ axons to inappropriately cross over from the left side to the right side...
December 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852096/a-multi-trap-microfluidic-chip-enabling-longitudinal-studies-of-nerve-regeneration-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Sertan Kutal Gokce, Evan Marley Hegarty, Sudip Mondal, Peisen Zhao, Navid Ghorashian, Massimo A Hilliard, Adela Ben-Yakar
Several sophisticated microfluidic devices have recently been proposed for femtosecond laser axotomy in the nematode C. elegans for immobilization of the animals for surgery to overcome time-consuming and labor-intensive manual processes. However, nerve regeneration studies require long-term recovery of the animals and multiple imaging sessions to observe the regeneration capabilities of their axons post-injury. Here we present a simple, multi-trap device, consisting of a single PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) layer, which can immobilize up to 20 animals at the favorable orientation for optical access needed for precise laser surgery and high-resolution imaging...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694018/the-enu-3-protein-family-members-function-in-the-wnt-pathway-parallel-to-unc-6-netrin-to-promote-motor-neuron-axon-outgrowth-in-c-elegans
#16
Roxana Oriana Florica, Victoria Hipolito, Stephen Bautista, Homa Anvari, Chloe Rapp, Suzan El-Rass, Alimohammad Asgharian, Costin N Antonescu, Marie T Killeen
The axons of the DA and DB classes of motor neurons fail to reach the dorsal cord in the absence of the guidance cue UNC-6/Netrin or its receptor UNC-5 in C. elegans. However, the axonal processes usually exit their cell bodies in the ventral cord in the absence of both molecules. Strains lacking functional versions of UNC-6 or UNC-5 have a low level of DA and DB motor neuron axon outgrowth defects. We found that mutations in the genes for all six of the ENU-3 proteins function to enhance the outgrowth defects of the DA and DB axons in strains lacking either UNC-6 or UNC-5...
October 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674811/a-phenotype-based-rnai-screening-for-ras-erk-mapk-signaling-associated-stem-cell-regulators-in-c-elegans
#17
Myon-Hee Lee, Dong Suk Yoon
Stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to generate differentiated cell types. A regulatory network that controls this balance is critical for stem cell homeostasis and normal animal development. Particularly, Ras-ERK/MAPK signaling pathway is critical for stem cell self-renewal and differentiation in mammals, including humans. Aberrant regulation of Ras-ERK/MAPK signaling pathway results in either stem cell or overproliferation. Therefore, the identification of Ras-ERK/MAPK signaling pathway-associated regulators is critical to understand the mechanism of stem cell (possibly cancer stem cell) control...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673184/toxicogenomics-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-the-nematode-c-elegans
#18
Laura Gonzalez-Moragas, Si-Ming Yu, Núria Benseny-Cases, Stephen Stürzenbaum, Anna Roig, Anna Laromaine
We present a mechanistic study of the effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) in Caenorhabditis elegans combining a genome-wide analysis with the investigation of specific molecular markers frequently linked to nanotoxicity. The effects of two different coatings were explored: citrate, an anionic stabilizer, and bovine serum albumin, as a pre-formed protein corona. The transcriptomic study identified differentially expressed genes following an exposure to SPIONs. The expression of genes involved in oxidative stress, metal detoxification response, endocytosis, intestinal integrity and iron homeostasis was quantitatively evaluated...
June 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576860/coordination-of-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycans-with-wnt-signaling-to-control-cellular-migrations-and-positioning-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Kristian Saied-Santiago, Robert A Townley, John D Attonito, Dayse S da Cunha, Carlos A Díaz-Balzac, Eillen Tecle, Hannes E Bülow
Heparan sulfates (HS) are linear polysaccharides with complex modification patterns, which are covalently bound via conserved attachment sites to core proteins to form heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). HSPGs regulate many aspects of the development and function of the nervous system, including cell migration, morphology, and network connectivity. HSPGs function as cofactors for multiple signaling pathways, including the Wnt-signaling molecules and their Frizzled receptors. To investigate the functional interactions among the HSPG and Wnt networks, we conducted genetic analyses of each, and also between these networks using five cellular migrations in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans We find that HSPG core proteins act genetically in a combinatorial fashion dependent on the cellular contexts...
August 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515212/regulation-of-wnt-signaling-at-the-neuromuscular-junction-by-the-immunoglobulin-superfamily-protein-rig-3-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Pratima Pandey, Ashwani Bhardwaj, Kavita Babu
Perturbations in synaptic function could affect the normal behavior of an animal, making it important to understand the regulatory mechanisms of synaptic signaling. Previous work has shown that in Caenorhabditis elegans an immunoglobulin superfamily protein, RIG-3, functions in presynaptic neurons to maintain normal acetylcholine receptor levels at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In this study, we elucidate the molecular and functional mechanism of RIG-3. We demonstrate by genetic and BiFC (Bi-molecular Fluorescence Complementation) assays that presynaptic RIG-3 functions by directly interacting with the immunoglobulin domain of the nonconventional Wnt receptor, ROR receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), CAM-1, which functions in postsynaptic body-wall muscles...
July 2017: Genetics
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