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Drug induced hepatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810615/detecting-serum-and-urine-metabolic-profile-changes-of-ccl4-liver-fibrosis-in-rats-at-12-weeks-based-on-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#1
Jiarong Gao, Xiu-Juan Qin, Hui Jiang, Jin-Feng Chen, Ting Wang, Ting Zhang, Shuang-Zhi Xu, Jun-Mei Song
Liver fibrosis is caused by liver injury induced by a number of chronic liver diseases, including schistosome infection, hepatitis infection, metabolic disease, alcoholism and cholestasis. The tissue damage occurring after injury or inflammation of the liver is a reversible lesion; however, liver fibrosis has become a worldwide problem and poses a threat to human health. The development of an effective drug for the prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis is ongoing and uses information from different occurrences of liver fibrosis...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807209/induction-of-autophagy-reduces-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-steatotic-rat-livers
#2
Chunyi Kan, Anding Liu, Haoshu Fang, Olaf Dirsch, Uta Dahmen, Michael Boettcher
BACKGROUND: Steatotic livers are particularly vulnerable to ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). One of the reasons is an underlying impairment of autophagy. Autophagy is regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3b (GSK3b) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) pathways. Both of them are target proteins of a cell-protective drug, lithium chloride. Lithium chloride treatment reduces IRI in many organs including liver. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of lithium chloride treatment on autophagy induction in steatotic rat livers...
August 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805879/downregulation-of-hepatic-multi-drug-resistance-protein-1-mdr1-after-copper-exposure
#3
Sara Reinartz Groba, Sarah Guttmann, Christoph Niemietz, Friedrich Bernick, Vanessa Sauer, Oliver Hachmöller, Uwe Karst, Hans Zischka, Andree Zibert, Hartmut H Schmidt
Copper homeostasis is strictly regulated in mammalian cells. We investigated the adaptation of hepatocytes after long-term copper exposure. Copper-resistant hepatoma HepG2 cell lines lacking ATP7B were generated. Growth, copper accumulation, gene expression, and transport were determined. Hepatocyte-like cells derived from a Wilson disease (WD) patient and the liver of a WD animal model were also studied. The rapidly gained copper resistance was found to be stable, as subculturing of cells in the absence of added copper (weaning) did not restore copper sensitivity...
August 14, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803824/the-clinical-spectrum-of-hepatic-manifestations-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#4
REVIEW
Natalia Kreiniz, Ofrat Beyar Katz, Aaron Polliack, Tamar Tadmor
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in the Western world, characterized by the presence of long-lived circulating leukemic cells in the peripheral blood that may infiltrate all organs, particularly those of the reticulo-endothelial system. Liver enlargement and elevation of liver enzymes related to specific involvement by the underlying disease are well-recognized features in these patients. In CLL, the differential diagnosis of liver disorders is broad and includes liver infiltration by leukemic cells, immunologic manifestations associated with CLL, primary and secondary hepatic malignancies, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, infections, and Richter transformation...
July 23, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801286/-value-of-detection-of-serum-glypican-3-level-in-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-effect-evaluation-of-primary-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Chen-Jie Zhou, Jing Li, Ling Zhou, Ming-Song Li, Bing Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical value of detecting serum glypican-3 in the diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC). METHODS: Using sandwich ELISA, we detected serum glypican-3 levels in 60 patients with PHC, 60 with metastatic liver cancer, 50 with liver cirrhosis, 50 with chronic viral hepatitis, 20 with hepatic cyst, 20 with fatty liver, 20 with hepatic hemangioma and 20 with drug-induced hepatitis as well as in 40 healthy subjects (control)...
August 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797532/assessment-of-in-vitro-antifungal-efficacy-and-in-vivo-toxicity-of-amphotericin-b-loaded-plga-and-plga-peg-blend-nanoparticles
#6
T C Moraes Moreira Carraro, C Altmeyer, N Maissar Khalil, R Mara Mainardes
Amphotericin B (AmB) is widely applied in treatment of systemic fungal infections. However, the emergence of severe adverse effects, such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and hemolytic anemia, can limit its clinical use. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG) blend nanoparticles containing AmB were developed with the aim to decrease AmB toxicity and propose the oral route for AmB delivery. Nanoparticles were characterized by particle size, polydispersity index, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analyses...
August 7, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796242/the-triterpenoid-cddo-imidazolide-ameliorates-mouse-liver-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-activating-the-nrf2-ho-1-pathway-enhanced-autophagy
#7
Dongwei Xu, Lili Chen, Xiaosong Chen, Yankai Wen, Chang Yu, Jufang Yao, Hailong Wu, Xin Wang, Qiang Xia, Xiaoni Kong
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated induction of antioxidants has been implicated to have protective roles in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in many animal models. However, the in vivo effects of CDDO-imidazole (CDDO-Im) (1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl] imidazole), a Nrf2 activator, in hepatic I/R injury is lacking and its exact molecular mechanisms are still not very clear. The goals of this study were to determine whether CDDO-Im can prevent liver injury induced by I/R in the mouse, and to elucidate the molecular target of drug action...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793897/aqueous-extract-of-phragmitis-rhizoma-ameliorates-myelotoxicity-of-docetaxel-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Jinhee Kim, You Jin Lee, Young Ah Kim, Eun-Sang Cho, Eunna Huh, Ok-Sun Bang, No Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: A variety of anticancer chemotherapeutics induce adverse side effects including myelotoxicity. Dried roots of Phragmites communis Trinius, Phragmitis rhizoma, have been clinically used in traditional folk medicine to relieve various symptoms like fever. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Phragmitis rhizoma (EPR) against docetaxel-induced myelotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The in vitro myelo-protective effect of EPR was evaluated using the colony forming unit (CFU) assay with hematopoietic progenitor cells...
August 9, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792168/indian-adolescent-living-with-hiv-aids-current-clinical-scenario
#9
Kavita S Joshi, Bhushan D Bhaware, Amar R Pazare
INTRODUCTION: Statistics suggest that, HIV has now largely become the disease of young patients. Hence, the adolescent HIV/AIDS needs to be handled and managed separately from adult HIV. Relatively fewer Indian data exist to characterize the associations in adolescents and young adults infected with HIV disease. The present study explores the current challenges in the management of HIV infected adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at evaluating, relationship between CD4 count and duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART), effects of ART on body mass index and the adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs in adolescent HIV positive patients...
July 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782468/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-model-for-therapy-personalization-of-pediatric-patients-disease-modeling-and-drug-adverse-effects-prevention
#10
Elena Genova, Marco Pelin, Katsunori Sasaki, Yue Fengming, Gaetana Lanzi, Stefania Masneri, Alessandro Ventura, Gabriele Stocco, Giuliana Decorti
Understanding the biological and molecular processes underlying human pathologies is fundamental in order to develop innovative approaches to treat or prevent them. Among the technologies that could provide innovative disease models, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is one of the most promising. Indeed, one application of iPSCs technology is personalized disease modeling. These cells, obtained by reprogramming patients' cells collected from accessible tissues, have the unique capability to differentiate, under an adequate stimulus, into any human cell type...
August 4, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782153/n-acetylcysteine-and-prednisolone-treatment-improved-serum-biochemistries-in-suspected-flupirtine-cases-of-severe-idiosyncratic-liver-injury
#11
Jürgen Borlak, Florian van Bömmel, Thomas Berg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The analgesic flupirtine has been linked to cases of severe idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (sFILI). We therefore examined whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glucocorticoid therapy is effective in the management of sFILI. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study efficacy of NAC-infusion and oral prednisolone treatments on liver-function-tests (LFTs) and clinical outcome of 21 sFILI cases was evaluated by comparing it to an external cohort of 30 sFILI cases not receiving the antidote...
August 7, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780747/niclosamide-piperazine-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-diabetic-symptoms-in-mice
#12
Jingjing Guo, Hanlin Tao, Amer Alasadi, Qingrong Huang, Shengkan Jin
PURPOSE: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have become the major public health challenges globally. Mitochondrial uncoupling, which reduces intracellular lipid loads and corrects the underlying cause of insulin resistance, has emerged as a promising anti-obese and anti-diabetic intervention. Niclosamide is an anthelmintic drug approved by the US FDA with the mechanism of action that uncouples mitochondria of parasitic worms. Recently, niclosamide ethanolamine salt (NEN) was found to be a safe and effective hepatic mitochondrial uncoupler for the prevention and treatment of obesity and T2D in mouse models...
August 5, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777337/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-inducer-tunicamycin-alters-hepatic-energy-homeostasis-in-mice
#13
Bin Feng, Xiaohua Huang, Dandan Jiang, Lun Hua, Yong Zhuo, De Wu
Disorders of hepatic energy metabolism, which can be regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, lead to metabolic diseases such as hepatic steatosis and hypoglycemia. Tunicamycin, a pharmacological ER stress inducer, is used to develop an anti-cancer drug. However, the effects of tunicamycin on hepatic energy metabolism have not been well elucidated. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with tunicamycin or vehicle. Twenty-four hours later, hepatic triglyceride and glycogen content and serum lipids profiles were analyzed, as well as the expression of lipogenic and gluconeogenic genes...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774273/thrombotic-microangiopathy-associated-with-valproic-acid-toxicity
#14
Sean A Hebert, Timothy P Bohan, Christian L Erikson, Rita D Swinford
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a serious, sometimes life-threatening disorder marked by the presence of endothelial injury and microvascular thrombi. Drug-induced thrombotic microangiopathy (DI-TMA) is one specific TMA syndrome that occurs following drug exposure via drug-dependent antibodies or direct tissue toxicity. Common examples include calcineurin inhibitors Tacrolimus and Cyclosporine and antineoplastics Gemcitabine and Mitomycin. Valproic acid has not been implicated in DI-TMA...
August 3, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772086/highlights-of-drug-and-herb-induced-liver-injury-in-the-literature-from-2016-how-best-to-translate-new-information-into-clinical-practice
#15
Omar Shahbaz, Sandeep Mahajan, James H Lewis
INTRODUCTION: More than 1500 papers on drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and herb-induced liver injury (HILI) were published in 2016, many of which have the potential to impact clinical practice. AREAS COVERED: Clinical studies and case series that lent themselves to new concepts or directions in diagnosing, preventing, and treating DILI were selected for inclusion. Epidemiology of DILI in large prospective registries was highlighted, including the US DILIN network and Spanish DILI registry...
August 3, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771932/acute-liver-failure-induced-by-idiosyncratic-reaction-to-drugs-challenges-in-diagnosis-and-therapy
#16
Shannan R Tujios, William M Lee
Acute liver failure (ALF) requires urgent attention to identify etiology and determine prognosis, in order to assess likelihood of survival or need for transplantation. Identifying idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (iDILI) may be particularly difficult, but the illness generally follows a subacute course, allowing time to assess outcome and find a liver graft if needed. Not all drugs that cause iDILI lead to ALF; the most common are antibiotics including anti-tuberculous medications, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and herbal and dietary supplements (HDS)...
August 3, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770824/acute-liver-failure-enhances-oral-plasma-exposure-of-zidovudine-in-rats-by-downregulation-of-hepatic-ugt2b7-and-intestinal-p-gp
#17
Fan Wang, Ming-Xing Miao, Bin-Bin Sun, Zhong-Jian Wang, Xian-Ge Tang, Yang Chen, Kai-Jing Zhao, Xiao-Dong Liu, Li Liu
HIV infection is often associated with liver failure, which alters the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. In this study we investigated whether acute liver failure (ALF) altered the pharmacokinetics of the first-line anti-HIV agent zidovudine (AZT), a P-gp/BCRP substrate, in rats. ALF was induced in rats by injecting thioacetamide (TAA, 300 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 2 days. On the second day after the last injection of TAA, the pharmacokinetics of AZT was investigated following both oral (20 mg/kg) and intravenous (10 mg/kg) administration...
August 3, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768431/adefovir-dipivoxil-loaded-proliposomal-powders-with-improved-hepatoprotective-activity-formulation-optimization-pharmacokinetic-and-biodistribution-studies
#18
Ghada A Abdelbary, Maha M Amin, Mohamed Y Zakaria, Sally A El Awdan
The present study aimed to prepare proliposomal formulae for improving the oral bioavailability of Adefovir Dipivoxil (AD), a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor effective against Hepatitis B virus (HBV). The prepared proliposomal formulae were characterized for entrapment efficiency (E.E.%), vesicle size and in-vitro drug release after reconstitution to conventional liposomes. The optimized formula (F9) with a maximum desirability value of 0.858 was selected having E.E.% of 71±3.3% with an average vesicle size of 164...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Liposome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766672/seabuckthorn-berry-polysaccharide-protects-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice-via-anti-oxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-activities
#19
Wei Zhang, Xiaohui Zhang, Kai Zou, Jiming Xie, Shimin Zhao, Jingran Liu, Huan Liu, Jinling Wang, Yuzhen Wang
The berries of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) are traditional medicinal foods that have been used by Tibetans and Mongolians for thousands of years. The polysaccharides are the main components of Seabuckthorn berries, possessing immune stimulating, anti-cancer and anti-fatigue activities. The present study focused on evaluating the protective effects and mechanisms of Seabuckthorn berry polysaccharide (SP) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Mice were orally administrated with 50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) of SP once daily for 14 consecutive days prior to CCl4 challenge...
August 2, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766170/aegle-marmelos-differentially-affects-hepatic-markers-of-glycolysis-insulin-signalling-pathway-hypoxia-and-inflammation-in-hepg2-cells-grown-in-fructose-versus-glucose-rich-environment
#20
H Aggarwal, J Nair, P Sharma, R Sehgal, U Naeem, P Rajora, R Mathur
Fructose consumption is responsible for the onset of insulin resistance (IR), and metabolic syndrome. It possesses no functional utility in body and its detrimental effects on hepatic metabolic milieu are beyond those produced by glucose. The need of the hour is to identify fructose-induced IR as an unique pathological state to be managed differentially. The effect of aqueous leaf extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) on hepatic markers of insulin resistance using HepG2 cells cultured in either fructose or glucose-rich environment is investigated...
August 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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