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Drug induced hepatitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938469/taming-the-flames-targeting-white-adipose-tissue-browning-in-hypermetabolic-conditions
#1
Abdikarim Abdullahi, Marc G Jeschke
In this era of increased obesity and diabetes prevalence, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target to induce weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity in this population. The browning process entails a shift in the WAT from primarily storing excess energy to the dissipation of energy as heat. However, this idealistic view of WAT browning being the saviour of the metabolic syndrome has been criticized by studies in burns and cancer patients that have shown browning to be detrimental rather than being beneficial...
August 30, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937306/biocompatibility-assessment-of-functionalized-magnetic-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-in-human-heparg-cells
#2
Cédric Pisani, Estelle Rascol, Christophe Dorandeu, Clarence Charnay, Yannick Guari, Joël Chopineau, Jean-Marie Devoisselle, Odette Prat
Magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (M-MSNs) are a promising class of nanoparticles for drug delivery. However, a deep understanding of the toxicological mechanisms of action of these nanocarriers is essential, especially in the liver. The potential toxicity on HepaRG cells of pristine, pegylated (PEG), and lipid (DMPC) M-MSNs were compared. Based on MTT assay and real-time cell impedance, none of these NPs presented an extensive toxicity on hepatic cells. However, we observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that the DMPC and pristine M-MSNs were greatly internalized...
September 22, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935193/celastrol-inhibits-hepatitis-c-virus-replication-by-upregulating-heme-oxygenase-1-via-the-jnk-mapk-nrf2-pathway-in-human-hepatoma-cells
#3
Chin-Kai Tseng, Sung-Po Hsu, Chun-Kuang Lin, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Jin-Ching Lee, Kung-Chia Young
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Celastrol, a quinone methide triterpene isolated from the root extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii, can greatly induce the gene expression activity of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) to achieve disease prevention and control. HO-1 induction was recently shown to result in anti-HCV activity by inducing type I interferon and inhibiting hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-HCV activity of celastrol and characterize its mechanism of inhibition...
September 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934207/evaluation-of-the-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-relationship-of-praziquantel-in-the-schistosoma-mansoni-mouse-model
#4
Nada Abla, Jennifer Keiser, Mireille Vargas, Natalie Reimers, Helmut Haas, Thomas Spangenberg
After more than 40 years of use, Praziquantel (PZQ) still remains the drug of choice for the treatment of intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis. Its anti-parasitic activity resides primarily in the (R)-enantiomer. Hitherto neither the molecular target nor the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship have been fully elucidated. Here we investigated the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of PZQ in the Schistosoma mansoni mouse model to determine the key factors that drive its efficacy. Dose-response studies with racemic PZQ with or without addition of an irreversible pan-cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), were performed...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932118/fabrication-optimization-and-characterization-of-umbelliferone-%C3%AE-d-galactopyranoside-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-in-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#5
Vikas Kumar, Prakash Chandra Bhatt, Mahfoozur Rahman, Gaurav Kaithwas, Hani Choudhry, Fahad A Al-Abbasi, Firoz Anwar, Amita Verma
Umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside (UFG), isolated from plants, exhibits promising inhibitory action on numerous diseases. The present research was initiated to develop a suitable delivery system for UFG with an intention to enhance its therapeutic efficacy against diethyl nitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Wistar rats. UFG-loaded polymeric nanoparticles prepared by sonication were scrutinized for average size, drug loading capacity, zeta potential, and drug release potency in animals...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930961/impact-of-a-novel-phosphoinositol-3-kinase-inhibitor-in-preventing-mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-accumulation-results-from-the-biochronicity-project
#6
George Edward Black, Kyle K Sokol, Donald M Moe, Jon D Simmons, David Muscat, Victor Pastukh, Gina Capley, Olena Gorodnya, Mykhaylo Ruchko, Mark B Roth, Mark Gillespie, Matthew J Martin
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925161/-protective-effects-of-liuwei-wuling-tablet-on-acute-alcoholic-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#7
Ping Yin, He-Rong Cui, Cong-En Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Ya-Kun Meng, Lan-Zhi He, Hui-Min Liu, Xiu-Xiu Sang, Jia-Bo Wang, Zhao-Fang Bai, Xiao-He Xiao
The protective action and the relevant mechanism of Liuwei Wuling tablet on acute alcoholic hepatic injury in mice were investigated. All the C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into 7 groups including blank, model, bifendate (150 mg•kg⁻¹, positive control) and experimental groups consisted of extremely low dose (0.1 g•kg⁻¹), low (0.5 g•kg⁻¹), upper (4 g•kg⁻¹) and high dose (8 g•kg⁻¹) of Liuwei Wuling tablet groups. The acute liver injury model was induced by modified method that the model, positive control and experimental groups were orally administrated 56% alcohol (6 g•kg⁻¹) twice at 12 hour intervals on the fifth day after drugs administration...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918031/anti-adenoviral-artificial-micrornas-expressed-from-aav9-vectors-inhibit-human-adenovirus-infection-in-immunosuppressed-syrian-hamsters
#8
Katrin Schaar, Anja Geisler, Milena Kraus, Sandra Pinkert, Markian Pryshliak, Jacqueline F Spencer, Ann E Tollefson, Baoling Ying, Jens Kurreck, William S Wold, Robert Klopfleisch, Karoly Toth, Henry Fechner
Infections of immunocompromised patients with human adenoviruses (hAd) can develop into life-threatening conditions, whereas drugs with anti-adenoviral efficiency are not clinically approved and have limited efficacy. Small double-stranded RNAs that induce RNAi represent a new class of promising anti-adenoviral therapeutics. However, as yet, their efficiency to treat hAd5 infections has only been investigated in vitro. In this study, we analyzed artificial microRNAs (amiRs) delivered by self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) vectors for treatment of hAd5 infections in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911678/averrhoa-bilimbi-fruits-attenuate-hyperglycemia-mediated-oxidative-stress-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#9
Surya B Kurup, S Mini
Hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress plays a major role in the development of diabetic complications. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. (Oxalidaceae) is a medicinal plant with fruits reported to possess antidiabetic activity. This study evaluated the beneficial effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of A. bilimbi fruit (ABAEE) on the antioxidant/oxidant status in diabetes mellitus. Diabetic rats were treated orally with the ethyl acetate fraction of A. bilimbi fruits at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight for 60 days. Serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, hepatic toxicity markers, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation products, and liver histopathology were assayed checked after 60 days of extract treatment...
April 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903847/dengue-hemorrhagic-fever-arare-cause-of-acute-liver-failure
#10
Aisha Nazeer, Ayesha Aslam Rai, Nasir Hassan Luck, Abbas Ali Yousuf Tasneem
Acute liver failure (ALF) is an acute medical emergency which carries high mortality without liver transplantation. Various hepatotropic viruses, drug induced liver injury, auto immune hepatitis, and metabolic liver diseases are the commonly implicated etiologic agents. Liver involvement in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is quite common, but acute liver failure is its rare complication. Neurological complications are also commonly seen in DHF. Ateenage girl presented with high grade fever and subconjunctival hemorrhage, and later developed jaundice due to acute liver failure...
August 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903510/changes-in-liver-steatosis-after-switching-from-efavirenz-to-raltegravir-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Juan Macías, María Mancebo, Dolores Merino, Francisco Téllez, M Luisa Montes-Ramírez, Federico Pulido, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Miguel Raffo, Montserrat Pérez-Pérez, Nicolás Merchante, Manuel Cotarelo, Juan A Pineda
Background: Antiretroviral drugs with a lower potential to induce hepatic steatosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection need to be identified. We compared the effect of switching efavirenz (EFV) to raltegravir (RAL) on hepatic steatosis among HIV-infected patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) receiving EFV plus 2 nucleoside analogues. Methods: HIV-infected patients on EFV plus tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine with NAFLD were randomized 1:1 to switch from EFV to RAL (400 mg twice daily), maintaining nucleoside analogues unchanged, or to continue with EFV plus 2 nucleoside analogues...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903501/sex-differential-responses-of-tumor-promotion-associated-genes-and-dysregulation-of-novel-long-noncoding-rnas-in-constitutive-androstane-receptor-activated-mouse-liver
#12
Nicholas J Lodato, Tisha Melia, Andy Rampersaud, David J Waxman
Xenobiotic agonists of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) induce many hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes, but following prolonged exposure, promote hepatocellular carcinoma, most notably in male mouse liver. Here, we used nuclear RNA-seq to characterize global changes in the mouse liver transcriptome following exposure to the CAR-specific agonist ligand 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP), including changes in novel long noncoding RNAs that may contribute to xenobiotic-induced pathophysiology...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903160/safety-of-systemic-agents-for-the-treatment-of-pediatric-psoriasis
#13
Inge M G J Bronckers, Marieke M B Seyger, Dennis P West, Irene Lara-Corrales, Megha Tollefson, Wynnis L Tom, Marcia Hogeling, Leah Belazarian, Claus Zachariae, Emmanuel Mahé, Elaine Siegfried, Sandra Philipp, Zsuzsanna Szalai, Ruth Ann Vleugels, Kristen Holland, Ruth Murphy, Eulalia Baselga, Kelly Cordoro, Jo Lambert, Alex Alexopoulos, Ulrich Mrowietz, Wietske Kievit, Amy S Paller
Importance: Use of systemic therapies for moderate to severe psoriasis in children is increasing, but comparative data on their use and toxicities are limited. Objective: To assess patterns of use and relative risks of systemic agents for moderate to severe psoriasis in children. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective review was conducted at 20 centers in North America and Europe, and included all consecutive children with moderate to severe psoriasis who used systemic medications or phototherapy for at least 3 months from December 1, 1990, to September 16, 2014...
September 13, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895915/-autoimmune-like-drug-and-herb-induced-liver-injury-new-insights-into-molecular-pathogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Marcial Sebode, Lisa Schulz, Ansgar W Lohse
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and hepatic injury due to herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) can adapt clinical characteristics of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), such as the appearance of autoantibodies and infiltration of the liver by immune competent cells. To describe these cases of DILI/HDS, the poorly-defined term "autoimmune(-like)" DILI/HDS came up. It is uncertain if these cases represent a subgroup of DILI/HDS with distinct pathomechanistic and prognostic features different from "classical" DILI/HDS...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895871/type-i-interferons-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-canine-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Daniela Klotz, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Ingo Gerhauser
Type I interferons (IFNs) such as IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-ε, IFN-κ, and IFN-ω represent cytokines, which are deeply involved in the regulation and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. They possess strong antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities allowing their use in the therapy of different viral diseases, neoplasms, and immune-mediated disorders, respectively. Initially, treatment strategies were based on nonspecific inducers of type I IFNs, which were soon replaced by different recombinant proteins...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893933/tumour-virus-epidemiology
#16
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, Gloria D Jahnke, Charles S Rabkin
A viral etiology of cancer was first demonstrated in 1911 by Peyton Rous who injected cell-free filtrate from a chicken sarcoma into healthy chickens and found it induced a tumour. Since the discovery over 50 years ago of the Epstein-Barr virus as the cause of Burkitt lymphoma, seven other human viruses or groups of viruses-hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, some human papillomaviruses, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Merkel cell polyomavirus-have been linked to human cancer...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892924/comparison-of-pioglitazone-and-metformin-efficacy-against-glucocorticoid-induced-atherosclerosis-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-insulin-resistant-rats
#17
I M Nagendra Nayak, Koyagura Narendar, Patil Ashok M, M G Jamadar, V Hemanth Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Insulin Resistance is a major cause of Atherosclerosis (AS) and Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). These lipid alterations in blood vessels and liver may progress to cardiovascular abnormalities and cirrhosis respectively. Drugs like pioglitazone (PIO) and metformin (MET) are effective insulin sensitizers used in T2DM. But their efficacy and tolerability needs to be compared in IR associated abnormalities. AIM: To compare the efficacy of PIO and MET in glucocorticoid induced AS, Hepatic Steatosis (HS) and IR in albino rats...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890106/development-of-a-peptide-modified-sirna-nanocomplex-for-hepatic-stellate-cells
#18
Zhen Zhao, Yuanke Li, Akshay Jain, Zhijin Chen, Hao Liu, Wei Jin, Kun Cheng
Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) is overexpressed in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and therefore can be utilized for HSC-specific drug delivery. We recently discovered an IGF2R-specific peptide using a novel biopanning. Here, we adopted biotin-conjugated IGF2R-specific peptide, cholesterol, and vitamin A as the targeting ligands for the neutravidin-based siRNA nanocomplex to deliver PCBP2 siRNA, a potentially antifibrotic agent, to HSCs. Compared to vitamin A and cholesterol, the IGF2R-specific peptide exhibited the highest targeting effect to human LX-2 HSC, rat HSC-T6 cell line, and activated primary rat HSCs...
September 7, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887917/hepatoprotective-effects-of-yulangsan-flavone-against-carbon-tetrachloride-ccl4-induced-hepatic-fibrosis-in-rats
#19
Youjia Guo, Xingmei Liang, Mingyu Meng, Hongxia Chen, Xiaojie Wei, Mingyan Li, Juman Li, Renbin Huang, Jinbin Wei
BACKGROUND: Yulangsan flavone (YLSF) was extracted from the root of Millettia pulchra Kurz var-laxior (Dunn) Z. Wei, which has been widely used for liver disease treatment in the Guangxi province of China. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The study was conducted to demonstrate the hepatoprotective effects of YLSF against CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, meanwhile revealing the potential mechanism. STUDY DESIGN: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups: hepatic fibrosis group and normal control (NC) group...
September 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887915/hepatoprotective-naphthalene-diglucoside-from-neanotis-wightiana-aerial-parts
#20
Niranjan Das, Atanas G Atanasov, Prashanta Kumar Deb, Andrei Mocan, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Ranjib Ghosh, Biswanath Dinda
BACKGROUND: Neanotis wightiana (Wall. ex Wight & Arn) W.H. Lewis has been used in traditional medicine in India for the treatment of liver disorders. In fact, this plant is frequently used by the local people of Tripura for the treatment of liver disorder problems. In previous study on this plant we have isolated a hepatoprotective saponin, neanoside A. PURPOSE: Evaluation of in vivo hepatoprotective effects of isolated compounds from N. wightiana aerial parts on serum hepatic-biomarkers in CCl4- induced hepatotoxicity in rats to validate the traditional use of the plant...
September 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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