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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227444/novel-3d-coaxial-flow-focusing-nozzle-device-for-the-production-of-monodispersed-collagen-microspheres
#1
Sravani Jaligama, Po-Jung Huang, Jun Kameoka, Sravani Jaligama, Po-Jung Huang, Jun Kameoka, Jun Kameoka, Sravani Jaligama, Po-Jung Huang
We have developed a 3D coaxial flow-focusing nozzle device for the mass production of monodispersed collagen microspheres and chemically crosslinked them using EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). The size of the microspheres was varied between 200 μm and 600 μm by adjusting the ratio of the flow rates of the dispersed and continuous phases. MDA231-GFP cells were attached to the surface of these particles and their viability was investigated. Because they are comprised of a natural biomaterial, these collagen microspheres will have numerous applications, including bone regeneration scaffolds for tissue engineering and analyses of cancer cell interactions in a 3D environment...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226780/modeling-of-coupled-differential-equations-for-cellular-chemical-signaling-pathways-implications-for-assay-protocols-utilized-in-cellular-engineering
#2
George D O'Clock, George D O'Clock, George D O'Clock
Cellular engineering involves modification and control of cell properties, and requires an understanding of fundamentals and mechanisms of action for cellular derived product development. One of the keys to success in cellular engineering involves the quality and validity of results obtained from cell chemical signaling pathway assays. The accuracy of the assay data cannot be verified or assured if the effect of positive feedback, nonlinearities, and interrelationships between cell chemical signaling pathway elements are not understood, modeled, and simulated...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225067/generation-of-gross-chromosomal-rearrangements-by-a-single-engineered-dna-double-strand-break
#3
Zhijun Qiu, Zhenhua Zhang, Anna Roschke, Tamas Varga, Peter D Aplan
Gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs), including translocations, inversions amplifications, and deletions, can be causal events leading to malignant transformation. GCRs are thought to be triggered by DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), which in turn can be spontaneous or induced by external agents (eg. cytotoxic chemotherapy, ionizing radiation). It has been shown that induction of DNA DSBs at two defined loci can produce stable balanced chromosomal translocations, however, a single engineered DNA DSB could not...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224125/how-do-mesenchymal-stem-cells-influence-or-are-influenced-by-microenvironment-through-extracellular-vesicles-communication
#4
REVIEW
Gabriel Dostert, Benjamin Mesure, Patrick Menu, Émilie Velot
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in cell therapy and tissue engineering thanks to their self-renewal, their multipotency, and their immunomodulatory properties that make them an attractive tool for regenerative medicine. A large part of MSCs positive effects is due to their secretion products which participate in creating a favorable microenvironment and closely relate these cells to other cell types. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) belong to cellular secretions. They are produced by cells continuously or after stimulation (e...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223460/mechanism-of-h2s-oxidation-by-the-dissimilatory-perchlorate-reducing-microorganism-azospira-suillum-ps
#5
Misha G Mehta-Kolte, Dana Loutey, Ouwei Wang, Matthew D Youngblut, Christopher G Hubbard, Kelly M Wetmore, Mark E Conrad, John D Coates
The genetic and biochemical basis of perchlorate-dependent H2S oxidation (PSOX) was investigated in the dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing microorganism (DPRM) Azospira suillum PS (PS). Previously, it was shown that all known DPRMs innately oxidize H2S, producing elemental sulfur (S(o)). Although the process involving PSOX is thermodynamically favorable (ΔG°' = -206 kJ ⋅ mol(-1) H2S), the underlying biochemical and genetic mechanisms are currently unknown. Interestingly, H2S is preferentially utilized over physiological electron donors such as lactate or acetate although no growth benefit is obtained from the metabolism...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223408/inducing-circular-rna-formation-using-the-crispr-endoribonuclease-csy4
#6
Erin K Borchardt, Rita M Meganck, Heather A Vincent, Christopher B Ball, Silvia B V Ramos, Nathaniel J Moorman, William F Marzluff, Aravind Asokan
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are highly stable, covalently closed RNAs that are regulated in a spatiotemporal manner and whose functions are largely unknown. These molecules have the potential to be incorporated into engineered systems with broad technological implications. Here we describe a switch for inducing backsplicing of an engineered circRNA that relies on the CRISPR endoribonuclease, Csy4, as an activator of circularization. The endoribonuclease activity and 3' end-stabilizing properties of Csy4 are particularly suited for this task...
February 21, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222903/modified-mrna-vaccines-protect-against-zika-virus-infection
#7
Justin M Richner, Sunny Himansu, Kimberly A Dowd, Scott L Butler, Vanessa Salazar, Julie M Fox, Justin G Julander, William W Tang, Sujan Shresta, Theodore C Pierson, Giuseppe Ciaramella, Michael S Diamond
The emergence of ZIKV infection has prompted a global effort to develop safe and effective vaccines. We engineered a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) encapsulated modified mRNA vaccine encoding wild-type or variant ZIKV structural genes and tested immunogenicity and protection in mice. Two doses of modified mRNA LNPs encoding prM-E genes that produced virus-like particles resulted in high neutralizing antibody titers (∼1/100,000) that protected against ZIKV infection and conferred sterilizing immunity. To offset a theoretical concern of ZIKV vaccines inducing antibodies that cross-react with the related dengue virus (DENV), we designed modified prM-E RNA encoding mutations destroying the conserved fusion-loop epitope in the E protein...
February 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222737/dynamic-genome-scale-metabolic-modeling-of-the-yeast-pichia-pastoris
#8
Francisco Saitua, Paulina Torres, José Ricardo Pérez-Correa, Eduardo Agosin
BACKGROUND: Pichia pastoris shows physiological advantages in producing recombinant proteins, compared to other commonly used cell factories. This yeast is mostly grown in dynamic cultivation systems, where the cell's environment is continuously changing and many variables influence process productivity. In this context, a model capable of explaining and predicting cell behavior for the rational design of bioprocesses is highly desirable. Currently, there are five genome-scale metabolic reconstructions of P...
February 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222675/identification-and-characterization-of-an-efficient-acyl-coa-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-1-dgat1-gene-from-the-microalga-chlorella-ellipsoidea
#9
Xuejie Guo, Chengming Fan, Yuhong Chen, Jingqiao Wang, Weibo Yin, Richard R C Wang, Zanmin Hu
BACKGROUND: Oil in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) is quantitatively the most important storage form of energy for eukaryotic cells. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is considered the rate-limiting enzyme for TAG accumulation. Chlorella, a unicellular eukaryotic green alga, has attracted much attention as a potential feedstock for renewable energy production. However, the function of DGAT1 in Chlorella has not been reported. RESULTS: A full-length cDNA encoding a putative diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1, EC 2...
February 21, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221758/synthesis-and-fabrication-of-collagen-coated-ostholamide-electrospun-nanofiber-scaffold-for-wound-healing
#10
Subramani Kandhasamy, Sathiamurthi Perumal, Balaraman Madhan, Narayanan Umamaheswari, Javaid Ahmad Banday, Paramasivan Thirumalai Perumal, Vichangal Pridiuldi Santhanakrishnan
A novel scaffold for effective wound healing treatment was developed utilizing natural product bearing collagen based biocompatible electro-spun nanofibres. Initially, ostholamide (OSA) was synthesized from osthole (a natural coumarin), characterized by 1H, 13C, DEPT-135 NMR, ESI-MS and FT-IR spectroscopy analysis. OSA was incorporated into Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and Gelatin (GEL), which serve as templates for electro-spun nanofibers. The coating of OSA-PHB-GEL nanofibers with collagen resulted in PHB-GEL-OSA-COL nanofibrous scaffold which mimics extra cellular matrix and serves as an effective biomaterial for tissue engineering applications, especially for wound healing...
February 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220969/heterojunction-photocatalysts
#11
REVIEW
Jingxiang Low, Jiaguo Yu, Mietek Jaroniec, Swelm Wageh, Ahmed A Al-Ghamdi
Semiconductor-based photocatalysis attracts wide attention because of its ability to directly utilize solar energy for production of solar fuels, such as hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels and for degradation of various pollutants. However, the efficiency of photocatalytic reactions remains low due to the fast electron-hole recombination and low light utilization. Therefore, enormous efforts have been undertaken to solve these problems. Particularly, properly engineered heterojunction photocatalysts are shown to be able to possess higher photocatalytic activity because of spatial separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs...
February 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220960/a-comparative-investigation-of-bombyx-mori-silk-fibroin-hydrogels-generated-by-chemical-and-enzymatic-crosslinking
#12
Traian V Chirila, Shuko Suzuki, Chloé Papolla
Fibroin, the major proteinaceous component of the silk fiber produced by larvae of the domesticated silk moth (Bombyx mori), has been widely investigated as a biomaterial for potential applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Following sol-gel transition, silk fibroin solutions can generate hydrogels that present certain advantages when employed as biomaterials, especially if they are crosslinked. The subject of this study was the self-crosslinking of silk fibroin through a process induced by the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, a method only recently proposed and scarcely reported...
February 21, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220353/exploitation-of-genus-rhodosporidium-for-microbial-lipid-production
#13
REVIEW
Jingyang Xu, Dehua Liu
Oleaginous microorganisms are receiving significant attention worldwide for their utility in biodiesel production and the potentiality to produce some specialty-type lipids. There is an increasing interest in isolation/adaption of robust microbe strains and design of innovative fermentation processes to make microbial lipid production a more efficient and economically feasible bio-process. Currently, the genus Rhodosporidium has been considered an important candidate, for the reason that several strains belonging to this genus have shown excellent capabilities of lipid accumulation, broad adaptabilities to various substrates, and co-production of some carotenoids...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220186/efficient-gene-targeting-in-non-homologous-end-joining-deficient-lipomyces-starkeyi-strains
#14
Yoshifumi Oguro, Harutake Yamazaki, Satoshi Ara, Yosuke Shida, Wataru Ogasawara, Masamichi Takagi, Hiroaki Takaku
Microbial lipids are sustainable feedstock for the production of oleochemicals and biodiesel. Oleaginous yeasts have recently been proposed as alternative lipid producers to plants and animals to promote sustainability in the chemical and fuel industries. The oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi has great industrial potential as an excellent lipid producer. However, improvement of its lipid productivity is essential for the cost-effective production of oleochemicals and fuels. Genetic and metabolic engineering of L...
February 20, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219735/complete-genome-sequence-of-leuconostoc-garlicum-kccm-43211-producing-exopolysaccharide
#15
Sang Pil Hong, Seung Chul Shin, Woo-Kyung Kang, Young-Wook Chin, Timothy L Turner, Hyun Wook Choi, Kyung Mo Song, Hyo Jin Kim
Leuconostoc garlicum KCCM 43211 isolated from traditional Korean fermented food is an intensive producer of exopolysaccharide (EPS). Here we report the first complete genome sequence of L. garlicum KCCM 43211. The genome sequence displayed that this strain contains genes involved in production of EPS possibly composed of glucose monomers. An uncharacterized EPS from the L. garlicum KCCM 43211 strains was also produced during fermentation in the sucrose medium. The MALDI-TOF results displayed the typical mass spectrometry pattern of dextran...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218912/engineering-fatty-acid-synthases-for-directed-polyketide-production
#16
Jan Gajewski, Floris Buelens, Sascha Serdjukow, Melanie Janßen, Niña Cortina, Helmut Grubmüller, Martin Grininger
In this study, we engineered fatty acid synthases (FAS) for the biosynthesis of short-chain fatty acids and polyketides, guided by a combined in vitro and in silico approach. Along with exploring the synthetic capability of FAS, we aim to build a foundation for efficient protein engineering, with the specific goal of harnessing evolutionarily related megadalton-scale polyketide synthases (PKS) for the tailored production of bioactive natural compounds.
February 20, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218004/synthesis-and-characterization-of-some-abundant-nanoparticles-their-antimicrobial-and-enzyme-inhibition-activity
#17
Shams T Khan, Ajmaluddin Malik, Rizwan Wahab, Omar H Abd-Elkader, Maqusood Ahamed, Javed Ahmad, Javed Musarrat, Maqsood A Siddiqui, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy
Although the antimicrobial activity of the engineered nanoparticles (NPs) is well known, the biochemical mechanisms underlying this activity are not clearly understood. Therefore, four NPs with the highest global production, namely SiO2, TiO2, ZnO, and Ag, were synthesized and characterized. The synthesized SiO2, TiO2, ZnO, and Ag NPs exhibit an average size of 11.12, 13.4, 35, and 50 nm, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized NPs against bacteria and fungi were also determined. NPs-mediated inhibition of two very important enzymes, namely urease and DNA polymerase, is also reported...
February 20, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217911/understanding-of-strain-effect-in-electrochemical-reduction-of-co2-using-pd-nanostructures-as-an-ideal-platform
#18
Hongwen Huang, Huanhuan Jia, Zhao Liu, Pengfei Gao, Jiangtao Zhao, Zhenlin Luo, Jinlong Yang, Jie Zeng
Tuning the surface strain of heterogeneous catalysts represents a powerful strategy to engineer their catalytic properties by altering the electronic structures. However, a clear and systematic understanding of strain effect in electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide is still lacking, which restricts the use of surface strain as a tool to optimize the performance of electrocatalysts. Herein, we demonstrate the strain effect in electrochemical reduction of CO2 by using Pd octahedra and icosahedra with similar sizes as a well-defined platform...
February 20, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217906/production-of-taxadiene-by-engineering-of-mevalonate-pathway-in-escherichia-coli-and-endophytic-fungus-alternaria-alternata-tpf6
#19
Guangkai Bian, Yujie Yuan, Hui Tao, Xiaofei Shi, Xiaofang Zhong, Yichao Han, Shuai Fu, Chengxiang Fang, Zixin Deng, Tiangang Liu
Taxol (paclitaxel) is a diterpenoid compound with significant and extensive applications in the treatment of cancer. The production of Taxol and relevant intermediates by engineered microbes is an attractive alternative to the semichemical synthesis of Taxol. In this study, based on a previously developed platform, we first established taxadiene production in mutant E. coli T2 and T4 by engineering of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. We then developed an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) method and verified the strength of heterologous promoters in Alternaria alternata TPF6...
February 20, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217782/receptor-for-hyaluronan-mediated-motility-rhamm-hmmr-is-a-novel-target-for-promoting-subcutaneous-adipogenesis
#20
S B Bahrami, C Tolg, T Peart, C Symonette, M Veiseh, J U Umoh, D W Holdsworth, J B McCarthy, L G Luyt, M J Bissell, A Yazdani, E A Turley
Hyaluronan, CD44 and the Receptor for Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility (RHAMM, gene name HMMR) regulate stem cell differentiation including mesenchymal progenitor differentiation. Here, we show that CD44 expression is required for subcutaneous adipogenesis, whereas RHAMM expression suppresses this process. We designed RHAMM function blocking peptides to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis as a clinical and tissue engineering tool. Adipogenic RHAMM peptides were identified by screening for their ability to promote adipogenesis in culture assays using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, mouse pre-adipocyte cell lines and primary human subcutaneous pre-adipocytes...
February 20, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
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