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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351064/the-early-tech-development-course-experiential-commercialization-education-for-the-medical-academician
#1
Jonathan Servoss, Connie Chang, Jonathan Fay, Kevin Ward
PROBLEM: Research produced by medical academicians holds promise for developing into biomedical innovations in therapeutics, devices, diagnostics, and health care information technology; however, the road to biomedical innovation is fraught with risk, including the challenge of moving from basic research insight onto a viable commercialization path. Compounding this challenge is the growing demand on medical academicians to be more productive in their clinical, teaching, and research duties within a resource-constrained environment...
April 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350472/development-of-a-cho-based-cell-free-platform-for-synthesis-of-active-monoclonal-antibodies
#2
Rey W Martin, Natalia I Majewska, Cindy X Chen, Thomas E Albanetti, Rod Brian Jimenez, Albert E Schmelzer, Michael C Jewett, Varnika Roy
Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are routinely optimized to stably express monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) at high titers. At the early stages of lead isolation and optimization, hundreds of sequences for the target protein of interest are screened. Typically, cell-based transient expression technology platforms are used for expression screening, but these can be time- and resource-intensive. Here, we have developed a cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) platform utilizing a commercially available CHO extract for the rapid in vitro synthesis of active, aglycosylated mAbs...
March 28, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346435/aav9-mediated-engineering-of-autotransplanted-kidney-of-non-human-primates
#3
S Tomasoni, P Trionfini, N Azzollini, L Zentilin, M Giacca, S Aiello, L Longaretti, E Cozzi, N Baldan, G Remuzzi, A Benigni
Ex vivo gene transfer to the graft before transplantation is an attractive option for circumventing systemic side effects of chronic anti-rejection therapy. Gene delivery of the immunomodulatory protein CTLA4-Ig prevented chronic kidney rejection in a rat model of allotransplantation without the need for systemic immunosuppression. Here, we generated AAV2 and AAV9 vectors encoding for LEA29Y, an optimized version of CTLA4-Ig. Both LEA29Y vectors were equally efficient for reducing T-cell proliferation in vitro...
March 27, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346394/engineered-resistant-starch-ers-diet-shapes-colon-microbiota-profile-in-parallel-with-the-retardation-of-tumor-growth-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-pancreatic-cancer-models
#4
Concetta Panebianco, Kaarel Adamberg, Signe Adamberg, Chiara Saracino, Madis Jaagura, Kaia Kolk, Anna Grazia Di Chio, Paolo Graziano, Raivo Vilu, Valerio Pazienza
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. We have previously demonstrated that short-term fasting cycles have the potential to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy against PC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an engineered resistant-starch (ERS) mimicking diet on the growth of cancer cell lines in vitro, on the composition of fecal microbiota, and on tumor growth in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model...
March 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345676/bioconversion-of-stilbenes-in-genetically-engineered-root-and-cell-cultures-of-tobacco
#5
Diego Hidalgo, Ascensión Martínez-Márquez, Elisabeth Moyano, Roque Bru-Martínez, Purificación Corchete, Javier Palazon
It is currently possible to transfer a biosynthetic pathway from a plant to another organism. This system has been exploited to transfer the metabolic richness of certain plant species to other plants or even to more simple metabolic organisms such as yeast or bacteria for the production of high added value plant compounds. Another application is to bioconvert substrates into scarcer or biologically more interesting compounds, such as piceatannol and pterostilbene. These two resveratrol-derived stilbenes, which have very promising pharmacological activities, are found in plants only in small amounts...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345004/homology-directed-recombination-for-enhanced-engineering-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cells
#6
Malika Hale, Baeckseung Lee, Yuchi Honaker, Wai-Hang Leung, Alexandra E Grier, Holly M Jacobs, Karen Sommer, Jaya Sahni, Shaun W Jackson, Andrew M Scharenberg, Alexander Astrakhan, David J Rawlings
Gene editing by homology-directed recombination (HDR) can be used to couple delivery of a therapeutic gene cassette with targeted genomic modifications to generate engineered human T cells with clinically useful profiles. Here, we explore the functionality of therapeutic cassettes delivered by these means and test the flexibility of this approach to clinically relevant alleles. Because CCR5-negative T cells are resistant to HIV-1 infection, CCR5-negative anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells could be used to treat patients with HIV-associated B cell malignancies...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344902/isolation-and-characterization-of-human-articular-chondrocytes-from-surgical-waste-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-tka
#7
Jakob Naranda, Lidija Gradišnik, Mario Gorenjak, Matjaž Vogrin, Uroš Maver
BACKGROUND: Cartilage tissue engineering is a fast-evolving field of biomedical engineering, in which the chondrocytes represent the most commonly used cell type. Since research in tissue engineering always consumes a lot of cells, simple and cheap isolation methods could form a powerful basis to boost such studies and enable their faster progress to the clinics. Isolated chondrocytes can be used for autologous chondrocyte implantation in cartilage repair, and are the base for valuable models to investigate cartilage phenotype preservation, as well as enable studies of molecular features, nature and scales of cellular responses to alterations in the cartilage tissue...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344156/enhancing-fructooligosaccharides-production-by-genetic-improvement-of-the-industrial-fungus-aspergillus-niger-atcc-20611
#8
Jing Zhang, Caixia Liu, Yijia Xie, Ning Li, Zhanguo Ning, Na Du, Xirong Huang, Yaohua Zhong
Aspergillus niger ATCC20611 is one of the most potent filamentous fungi used commercially for production of fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are prospective components of functional food by stimulating probiotic bacteria in the human gut. However, current strategies for improving FOS yield still rely on production process development. The genetic engineering approach hasn't been applied in industrial strains to increase FOS production level. Here, an optimized polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast transformation system was established in A...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343701/toll-like-receptor-8-agonist-nanoparticles-mimic-immunomodulating-effects-of-the-live-bcg-vaccine-and-enhance-neonatal-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#9
David J Dowling, Evan A Scott, Annette Scheid, Ilana Bergelson, Sweta Joshi, Carlo Pietrasanta, Spencer Brightman, Guzman Sanchez-Schmitz, Simon D Van Haren, Jana Ninković, Dina Kats, Cristiana Guiducci, Alexandre de Titta, Daniel K Bonner, Sachiko Hirosue, Melody A Swartz, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Ofer Levy
BACKGROUND: Newborns display distinct immune responses, leaving them vulnerable to infections and impairing immunization. Targeting newborn dendritic cells (DCs), which integrate vaccine signals into adaptive immune responses, might enable development of age-specific vaccine formulations to overcome suboptimal immunization. OBJECTIVE: Small-molecule imidazoquinoline Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8 agonists robustly activate newborn DCs but can result in reactogenicity when delivered in soluble form...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343058/butyric-acid-production-from-lignocellulosic-biomass-hydrolysates-by-engineered-clostridium-tyrobutyricum-overexpressing-xylose-catabolism-genes-for-glucose-and-xylose-co-utilization
#10
Hongxin Fu, Shang-Tian Yang, Minqi Wang, Jufang Wang, I-Ching Tang
Clostridium tyrobutyricum can utilize glucose and xylose as carbon source for butyric acid production. However, xylose catabolism is inhibited by glucose, hampering butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates containing both glucose and xylose. In this study, an engineered strain of C. tyrobutyricum Ct-pTBA overexpressing heterologous xylose catabolism genes (xylT, xylA, and xylB) was investigated for co-utilizing glucose and xylose present in hydrolysates of plant biomass, including soybean hull, corn fiber, wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse...
March 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342964/establishing-a-novel-biosynthetic-pathway-for-the-production-of-3-4-dihydroxybutyric-acid-from-xylose-in-escherichia-coli
#11
Jia Wang, Xiaolin Shen, Rachit Jain, Jian Wang, Qipeng Yuan, Yajun Yan
3-Hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (3HBL) is an attractive building block owing to its broad applications in pharmaceutical industry. Currently, 3HBL is commercially produced by chemical routes using petro-derived carbohydrates, which involves hazardous materials and harsh processing conditions. Only one biosynthetic pathway has been reported for synthesis of 3HBL and its hydrolyzed form 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid (3,4-DHBA) using glucose and glycolic acid as the substrates and coenzyme A as the activator, which involves multiple steps (>10 steps) and suffers from low productivity and yield...
March 23, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342590/a-life-cycle-assessment-of-distributed-energy-production-from-organic-waste-two-case-studies-in-europe
#12
Sara Evangelisti, Roland Clift, Carla Tagliaferri, Paola Lettieri
By means of the life cycle assessment methodology, the purpose of this study is to assess the environmental impact when biomethane from organic waste produced at residential level is used to supply energy to a group of dwellings in the distributed generation paradigm. Three different Combined Heat and Power systems, such as fuel cells, Stirling engine and micro gas turbine, installed at household level are assessed in two different settings: one in Northern Europe (UK) and one in Southern Europe (Italy). Different operating strategies are investigated for each technology...
March 22, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341547/evaluation-and-rational-design-of-guide-rnas-for-efficient-crispr-cas9-mediated-mutagenesis-in-ciona
#13
Shashank Gandhi, Maximilian Haeussler, Florian Razy-Krajka, Lionel Christiaen, Alberto Stolfi
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has emerged as an important tool for various genome engineering applications. A current obstacle to high throughput applications of CRISPR/Cas9 is the imprecise prediction of highly active single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). We previously implemented the CRISPR/Cas9 system to induce tissue-specific mutations in the tunicate Ciona. In the present study, we designed and tested 83 single guide RNA (sgRNA) vectors targeting 23 genes expressed in the cardiopharyngeal progenitors and surrounding tissues of Ciona embryo...
March 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340840/short-term-results-of-heartmate-3-ventricular-assist-device-implantation-for-end-stage-heart-failure
#14
P Ozturk, S Ertugay, C Sahutoglu, C Engin, S Nalbantgil, T Yagdi, M Ozbaran
OBJECTIVE: To report our initial experience with Heartmate 3 ventricular assist device (HM3) in cases with end-stage heart failure (ESHF). METHODS: Charts of 8 ESHF patients who underwent HM3 implantation in our clinic from January to June 2016 (group 1) and 16 patients who underwent HM2 implantation during 2015 (group 2) were reviewed retrospectively. Demographics as well as pre- and early postoperative medical data were noted and statistically analyzed between the 2 groups...
April 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340838/anesthetic-management-for-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation-through-left-thoracotomy-evaluation-of-on-pump-versus-off-pump
#15
C Sahutoglu, E Turksal, U Bilic, S Kocabas, F Zekiye Askar, P Ozturk, S Ertugay, C Engin, T Yagdi, M Ozbaran
BACKGROUND: Ventricular assist devices (VADs) are alternative approaches to medical treatment in patients with acute or chronic heart failure. The goal of this study was to compare an anesthetic approach in patients undergoing implantation of a VAD with (on-pump) or without (off-pump) cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) through left thoracotomy. METHODS: A total of 32 patients were divided into 2 groups: on-pump (group 1) and off-pump (group 2). A standard anesthesia protocol was used in all patients...
April 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340002/overexpression-of-the-rice-sumo-e3-ligase-gene-ossiz1-in-cotton-enhances-drought-and-heat-tolerance-and-substantially-improves-fiber-yields-in-the-field-under-reduced-irrigation-and-rainfed-conditions
#16
Neelam Mishra, Li Sun, Xunlu Zhu, Jennifer Smith, Anurag Prakash Srivastava, Xiaojie Yang, Necla Pehlivan, Nardana Esmaeili, Hong Luo, Guoxin Shen, Don Jones, Dick Auld, John Burke, Paxton Payton, Hong Zhang
The Arabidopsis SUMO E3 ligase gene AtSIZ1 plays important roles in plant response to abiotic stresses as loss of function in AtSIZ1 leads to increased sensitivity to drought, heat and salt stresses. Overexpression of the AtSIZ1 rice homolog, OsSIZ1, leads to increased heat and drought tolerance in bentgrass, suggesting that the function of the E3 ligase SIZ1 is highly conserved in plants and it plays a critical role in abiotic stress responses. To test the possibility that the SUMO E3 ligase could be used to engineer drought- and heat-tolerant crops, the rice gene OsSIZ1 was overexpressed in cotton...
March 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338443/fluorescent-labeling-of-collagen-production-by-cells-for-noninvasive-imaging-of-extracellular-matrix-deposition
#17
Katie Bardsley, Ying Yang, Alicia J El Haj
Extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential component of tissues and provides both integrity and biological cues for cells. Collagen is one of the major proteins found within the ECM and therefore is an essential component of all engineered tissues. Therefore, in this article, we present a method for the online real-time monitoring of collagen deposition in three-dimensional engineered constructs. This method revolves around modification of collagen through the addition of azide-L-proline to cell culture media...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337710/high-efficient-n-butanol-production-by-co-culturing-clostridium-acetobutylicum-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-integrated-with-butyrate-fermentative-supernatant-addition
#18
Hongzhen Luo, Qingwei Zeng, Shuo Han, Zhaoyu Wang, Qing Dong, Yanhong Bi, Yuping Zhao
Butanol is not only an important chemical intermediate and solvent in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, but also considered as an advanced biofuel. Although species of the natural host Clostridium have been engineered, butanol titers in the anaerobe seem to be limited by its intolerance to butanol less than 13 g/L. Here we aimed to develop a technology for enhancing butanol production by a co-culture system with butyrate fermentative supernatant addition. First, when adding 4.0 g/L butyrate into the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation broth with single-shot at 24 h, the "acid crash" phenomenon occurred and the ABE fermentation performance deteriorated...
April 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336855/behavior-and-potential-impacts-of-metal-based-engineered-nanoparticles-in-aquatic-environments
#19
REVIEW
Cheng Peng, Wen Zhang, Haiping Gao, Yang Li, Xin Tong, Kungang Li, Xiaoshan Zhu, Yixiang Wang, Yongsheng Chen
The specific properties of metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) have not only led to rapidly increasing applications in various industrial and commercial products, but also caused environmental concerns due to the inevitable release of NPs and their unpredictable biological/ecological impacts. This review discusses the environmental behavior of metal-based NPs with an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms and kinetics. The focus is on knowledge gaps in the interaction of NPs with aquatic organisms, which can influence the fate, transport and toxicity of NPs in the aquatic environment...
January 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336574/switching-head-group-selectivity-in-mammalian-sphingolipid-biosynthesis-by-active-site-engineering-of-sphingomyelin-synthases
#20
Matthijs Kol, Radhakrishnan Panatala, Mirjana Nordmann, Leoni Swart, Leonie Van Suijlekom, Birol Cabukusta, Angelika Hilderink, Tanja Gabrietz, John G M Mina, Pentti Somerharju, Sergei Korneev, Fikadu G Tafesse, Joost C M Holthuis
Sphingomyelin (SM) is a fundamental component of mammalian cell membranes that contributes to mechanical stability, signaling and sorting. Its production involves the transfer of phosphocholine from phosphatidylcholine onto ceramide, a reaction catalyzed by SM synthase SMS1 in the Golgi and SMS2 at the plasma membrane. Mammalian cells also synthesize trace amounts of the SM analog ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE), but the physiological relevance of CPE production is unclear. Previous work revealed that SMS2 is a bifunctional enzyme producing both SM and CPE whereas a closely related enzyme, SMSr/SAMD8, acts as a monofunctional CPE synthase in the ER...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
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