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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674967/no-acute-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-the-sleep-wake-cycle-of-healthy-subjects-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#1
Ila M P Linares, Francisco S Guimaraes, Alan Eckeli, Ana C S Crippa, Antonio W Zuardi, Jose D S Souza, Jaime E Hallak, José A S Crippa
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a component of Cannabis sativa that has a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects in neuropsychiatric and other disorders. However, few studies have investigated the possible interference of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a clinically anxiolytic dose of CBD on the sleep-wake cycle of healthy subjects in a crossover, double-blind design. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were selected and allocated to receive either CBD (300 mg) or placebo in the first night in a double-blind randomized design (one volunteer withdrew from the study)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673270/men-s-mental-health-social-determinants-and-implications-for-services
#2
William Affleck, Victoria Carmichael, Rob Whitley
Numerous scholars have stated that there is a silent crisis in men's mental health. In this article, we aim to provide an overview of core issues in the field of men's mental health, including a discussion of key social determinants as well as implications for mental health services. Firstly, we review the basic epidemiology of mental disorders with a high incidence and prevalence in men, including suicide and substance use disorder. Secondly, we examine controversies around the low reported rates of depression in men, discussing possible measurement and reporting biases...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672868/fetal-cerebral-circulation-as-target-of-maternal-alcohol-consumption
#3
Anna N Bukiya, Alex M Dopico
Alcohol (ethanol) is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances worldwide. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy may result in a wide range of morphological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), with the most severe cases diagnosed as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS and FASD are not readily curable and currently represent the leading preventable causes of birth defect and neurodevelopmental delay in the US. The etiology of FAS/FASD remains poorly understood...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672143/adolescent-age-of-sexual-initiation-and-subsequent-adult-health-outcomes
#4
Marina Epstein, Madeline Furlong, Rick Kosterman, Jennifer A Bailey, Kevin M King, Sara A Vasilenko, Christine M Steeger, Karl G Hill
OBJECTIVES: To examine the mechanisms of the association between age of sexual initiation and adult health. METHODS: Data from the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808), in Seattle, Washington, included outcomes when participants were in their 30s (2005-2014): substance use disorders, depression, poor health, and obesity. Sexual consequence mediators included sexually transmitted infection, adolescent pregnancy, and a high number of sexual partners. We used linear logistic regression to model main effect and mediated associations...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672141/health-care-utilization-and-expenditures-of-homeless-family-members-before-and-after-emergency-housing
#5
Robin E Clark, Linda Weinreb, Julie M Flahive, Robert W Seifert
OBJECTIVES: To describe longitudinal health service utilization and expenditures for homeless family members before and after entering an emergency shelter. METHODS: We linked Massachusetts emergency housing assistance data with Medicaid claims between July 2008 and June 2015, constructing episodes of health care 12 months before and 12 months after families entered a shelter. We modeled emergency department visits, hospital admissions, and expenditures over the 24-month period separately for children and adults...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671814/sex-specific-alterations-in-%C3%AE-4-nicotinic-receptor-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#6
Joan Y Holgate, Josephine R Tarren, Selena E Bartlett
Background : The mechanisms leading from traumatic stress to social, emotional and cognitive impairment and the development of mental illnesses are still undetermined and consequently there remains a critical need to develop therapies for preventing the adverse consequences of traumatic stress. Research indicates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α4 subunits (α4*nAChRs) are both impacted by stress and capable of modulating the stress response. In this study, we investigated whether varenicline, a partial α4β2*nAChR agonist which reduces nicotine, alcohol and sucrose consumption, can reduce stress, a driving factor in substance use disorders...
April 19, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671696/emergency-department-visits-in-a-cohort-of-persons-with-substance-use-incorporating-the-role-of-social-networks
#7
Paul Sacamano, Noa Krawczyk, Carl Latkin
BACKGROUND: Frequent emergency department (ED) visits often suggest inappropriate use for low acuity needs and multiple comorbidities, including substance use disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study examines associations of individuals and their social networks with high frequency ED use among persons reporting substance use. METHODS: Information was obtained from interview responses from the first 6-month follow-up visit of a longitudinal. Prevalence ratios for the outcome of high frequency ED visits (≥2 in 6 months) were determined with a generalized linear model, log link, Poisson distribution and robust standard errors...
April 19, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671681/sexual-dysfunctions-are-predicted-by-childhood-sexual-abuse-in-women-with-opioid-use-disorder
#8
Ruken Ağaçhanlı, İzgi Alnıak, Cuneyt Evren
BACKGROUND: Studies on sexual functioning of populations with substance use disorders (SUDs) are mostly conducted with male substance users. We have very limited information about the sexuality and related factors in women with opioid use disorder (OUD). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the relationship between childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs) and sexual dysfunctions (SDs) of women with OUD and to compare it with a sample of women who do not have SUD. METHODS: Participants included 51 outpatient women with OUD who were on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) with Buprenorphine/Naloxone and 48 women without SUD...
April 19, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671504/buprenorphine-therapy-for-opioid-use-disorder
#9
Roger Zoorob, Alicia Kowalchuk, Maria Mejia de Grubb
Opioid misuse, including the use of heroin and the overprescribing, misuse, and diversion of opioid pain medications, has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. As a result, there has been a dramatic increase in opioid use disorder and associated overdoses and deaths. Addiction is a chronic brain disease with a genetic component that affects motivation, inhibition, and cognition. Patient characteristics associated with successful buprenorphine maintenance treatment include stable or controlled medical or psychiatric comorbidities and a safe, substance-free environment...
March 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671376/desistance-and-treatment-seeking-among-women-with-substance-use-disorders
#10
Blythe E Rhodes, Nisha C Gottfredson, Lauren M Hill
Addiction rates are rising faster among women than men. However, women with substance use disorders are less likely to enter treatment than males. This study seeks to understand how turning-point events and other maturational processes affect "life course persistent" women's motivations for seeking treatment for their disorder. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 women who were receiving treatment for addiction using thematic analysis. Recurring themes were as follows: experiences of rock-bottom events prior to entering treatment, feeling "sick and tired" in regard to both their physical and mental health, and shifting identities or perceptions of themselves...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669557/discovery-biology-of-neuropsychiatric-syndromes-dbns-a-center-for-integrating-clinical-medicine-and-basic-science
#11
Biju Viswanath, Naren P Rao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Palanimuthu T Sivakumar, Arun Kandasamy, Muralidharan Kesavan, Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, John P John, Odity Mukherjee, Meera Purushottam, Ramakrishnan Kannan, Bhupesh Mehta, Thennarasu Kandavel, B Binukumar, Jitender Saini, Deepak Jayarajan, A Shyamsundar, Sydney Moirangthem, K G Vijay Kumar, Jagadisha Thirthalli, Prabha S Chandra, Bangalore N Gangadhar, Pratima Murthy, Mitradas M Panicker, Upinder S Bhalla, Sumantra Chattarji, Vivek Benegal, Mathew Varghese, Janardhan Y C Reddy, Padinjat Raghu, Mahendra Rao, Sanjeev Jain
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that there are shared genetic, environmental and developmental risk factors in psychiatry, that cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries. With this background, the Discovery biology of neuropsychiatric syndromes (DBNS) proposes to recruit patients from five different syndromes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, Alzheimer's dementia and substance use disorders), identify those with multiple affected relatives, and invite these families to participate in this study...
April 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669495/paediatric-mental-and-physical-health-presentations-to-emergency-departments-victoria-2008-15
#12
Harriet Hiscock, Rachel J Neely, Shaoke Lei, Gary Freed
OBJECTIVES: To identify trends in presentations to Victorian emergency departments (EDs) by children and adolescents for mental and physical health problems; to determine patient characteristics associated with these presentations; to assess the relative clinical burdens of mental and physical health presentations. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (VEMD) data. Participants, setting: Children and young people, 0-19 years, who presented to public EDs in Victoria, 2008-09 to 2014-15...
April 23, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668645/coverage-of-medications-that-treat-opioid-use-disorder-and-opioids-for-pain-management-in-marketplace-plans-2017
#13
Haiden A Huskamp, Lauren E Riedel, Colleen L Barry, Alisa B Busch
BACKGROUND: Efficacious medications to treat opioid use disorders (OUDs) have been slow to diffuse into practice, and insurance coverage limits may be one important barrier. OBJECTIVES: To compare coverage for medications used to treat OUDs and opioids commonly prescribed for pain management in plans offered on the 2017 Health Insurance Marketplace exchanges. RESEARCH DESIGN: We identified a sample of 100 plans offered in urban and in rural counties on the 2017 Marketplaces, weighting by population...
April 17, 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668421/factors-associated-with-unplanned-early-discharges-from-a-dual-diagnosis-inpatient-detoxification-unit-in-israel
#14
Menachem M Sofer, Alexander Kaptsan, Jonathan Anson
OBJECTIVES: Currently, Israel has a single governmental inpatient dual diagnosis detoxification unit. We provide a cross-section of patient profiles in this unit, as well as explore possible associations between clinical/demographic factors, and the unplanned early discharge of patients from the unit, aiming at improving rehabilitation success rates. METHODS: In this retrospective study, medical records of all patients admitted to the unit between January 1st 2012 and July 1st 2013 were examined (N = 323)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668364/increased-resilience-is-associated-with-positive-treatment-outcomes-for-veterans-with-comorbid-ptsd-and-substance-use-disorders
#15
Adam P McGuire, Natalie P Mota, Lauren M Sippel, Kevin M Connolly, Judith A Lyons
OBJECTIVE: Resilience has been associated with less severe psychiatric symptomatology and better treatment outcomes among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD). However, it remains unknown whether resilience increases during psychotherapy within the comorbid PTSD and SUD population with unique features of dual-diagnosis, including trauma cue-related cravings. We tested whether veterans seeking psychotherapy for comorbid PTSD-SUD reported increased resilience from pre- to post-treatment...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667715/gender-differences-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#16
Maya Asher, Idan M Aderka
OBJECTIVE:  Despite the ample literature on gender differences in anxiety and mood disorders, gender differences in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have received little empirical attention. The aim of the present study is to examine gender differences in 12-months prevalence, patterns of comorbidity, clinical presentation, subjective distress and functional impairment, age of onset, and treatment seeking, and discuss their clinical implications. METHOD: We used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R; n = 652, 63...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667292/sharing-power-in-criminal-justice-the-potential-of-co-production-for-offenders-experiencing-mental-health-and-addictions-in-new-zealand
#17
Katey Thom, Dave Burnside
Co-production has begun to make inroads into research, policy, and practice in mental health and addictions. Little is known, however, about the role co-production has or could have in shaping how the criminal justice system responds to mental health and addictions. Given that a large majority of prisoners in Aotearoa New Zealand have been diagnosed with either a mental health or substance use disorder within their lifetime, it is imperative alternative approaches are considered if we are to reduce the high imprisonment rates and contribute positively to health, safety, and well-being of all New Zealanders...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665607/-who-benefits-from-forensic-psychiatric-treatment-results-of-a-catamnestic-study-in-swabia
#18
Manuela Dudeck, Irina Franke, Adelheid Bezzel, Stefanie Otte, Norbert Ormanns, Stefanie Nigel, Felix Segmiller, Judith Streb
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of treatment outcomes of forensic inpatients in the Bavarian district of Swabia (2010 - 2014). METHODS: 130 inpatients were interviewed about their social reintegration, substance use and delinquency immediately after discharge from forensic psychiatry and one year after. RESULTS: One year after discharge 67 % of the patients referred due to substance use disorder according to § 64 of the German Penal Code were employed, 57 % were abstinent and 83 % did not reoffend...
April 17, 2018: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665075/the-characteristics-of-transferrin-variants-by-carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin-tests-using-capillary-zone-electrophoresis
#19
Gilsung Yoo, Juwon Kim, Kap Joon Yoon, Jong-Han Lee
BACKGROUND: Transferrin is the major plasma transport protein for iron. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of transferrin variant by carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) test using capillary zone electrophoresis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the CDT tests of 2449 patients from March 2009 to May 2017 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. CDT was quantified using a Capillarys 2 system (Sebia, Lisses, France) by capillary zone electrophoresis. The characteristics of variant transferrin patterns using electropherogram of CDT tests were analyzed...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663337/predicting-substance-use-patterns-among-rural-adults-the-roles-of-mothers-fathers-and-parenthood
#20
Jessie J Wong, Michael A Cucciare, Brenda M Booth, Christine Timko
This study examined the role of parenthood and parental influences on substance use patterns for 710 stimulant users age 18-61 living in the rural Midwest and Mid-south U.S. Longitudinal growth analyses showed that a maternal history of drug use was associated with increased baseline drug use severity, lesser declines in severity, and greater plateau of drug use severity over time. Parental conflict was associated with lesser declines in drug use severity, and drug use severity declined more steeply for participants who were themselves parents...
April 16, 2018: Family Process
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