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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646712/prediction-of-vocational-participation-and-global-role-functioning-in-help-seeking-young-adults-from-neurocognitive-demographic-and-clinical-variables
#1
Alice J Cairns, David J Kavanagh, Frances Dark, Steven M McPhail
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate neurocognitive, demographic and clinical correlates of vocational participation among a sample of young help-seeking adults. METHODS: Young people (18-25 years) accessing an early intervention youth health service participated. The Global Functioning: Role scale and level of vocational participation, participant characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic background and family history of serious mental illness), distress, psychotic-like experiences, substance use, and mental health diagnoses were recorded...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646248/-psychiatric-care-of-refugees-in-africa-and-the-middle-east-challenges-and-solutions
#2
REVIEW
K Adorjan, S Mulugeta, M Odenwald, D M Ndetei, A H Osman, M Hautzinger, S Wolf, M Othman, J I Kizilhan, O Pogarell, T G Schulze
Violence, flight, famine, and natural disasters as well as the absence of a psychosocial healthcare system are major psychological burdens for refugees. The level of provision of mental healthcare is particularly low in developing countries. Internally displaced people and refugees place high demands on the healthcare system because they often suffer from psychiatric disorders, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. We present first initiatives to improve psychiatric care in refugee camps in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Sudan...
June 23, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645126/-adhd-in-adults-and-comorbid-substance-use-disorder-prevalence-clinical-diagnostics-and-integrated-therapy
#3
Henrike Dirks, Norbert Scherbaum, Bernhard Kis, Christian Mette
Substance use disorders (SUD) are one of the most frequent mental disorders among adults. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental health issues in childhood and adolescence, often persisting in adulthood. ADHD in childhood and adolescence is a robust predictor of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use in adulthood. Prevalence of comorbid ADHD in SUD patients is high. Nearly one quarter of these patients fulfill the DSM IV criteria for ADHD. Integrated concepts for treatment of SUD and ADHD are needed, but rare up to now...
June 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644337/committee-opinion-no-705-mental-health-disorders-in-adolescents
#4
(no author information available yet)
Mental health disorders in adolescence are a significant problem, relatively common, and amenable to treatment or intervention. Obstetrician-gynecologists who see adolescent patients are highly likely to see adolescents and young women who have one or more mental health disorders. Some of these disorders may interfere with a patient's ability to understand or articulate her health concerns and appropriately adhere to recommended treatment. Some disorders or their treatments will affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, causing anovulatory cycles and various menstrual disturbances...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644330/committee-opinion-no-705-summary-mental-health-disorders-in-adolescents
#5
(no author information available yet)
Mental health disorders in adolescence are a significant problem, relatively common, and amenable to treatment or intervention. Obstetrician-gynecologists who see adolescent patients are highly likely to see adolescents and young women who have one or more mental health disorders. Some of these disorders may interfere with a patient's ability to understand or articulate her health concerns and appropriately adhere to recommended treatment. Some disorders or their treatments will affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, causing anovulatory cycles and various menstrual disturbances...
July 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643049/clozapine-in-reducing-aggression-and-violence-in-forensic-populations
#6
REVIEW
Kathleen Patchan, Gopal Vyas, Ann L Hackman, Marie Mackowick, Charles M Richardson, Raymond C Love, Ikwunga Wonodi, MacKenzie A Sayer, Matthew Glassman, Stephanie Feldman, Deanna L Kelly
Popular media often portray people with a mental illness as being aggressive, violent, and incarcerated as a result of their behavior. Despite exaggeration in the media, risks for some aggressive behaviors are in fact higher in individuals with schizophrenia. This is often the case with influence of comorbid substance use disorders. It is essential that mental health professionals are aware of treatments that may help with attenuating and treating behaviors that contribute to violence, aggression and incarceration...
June 22, 2017: Psychiatric Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642836/cultural-neuroscience-and-global-mental-health-addressing-grand-challenges
#7
Joan Y Chiao, Shu-Chen Li, Robert Turner, Su Yeon Lee-Tauler, Beverly A Pringle
Mental, neurological and substance-use (MNS) disorders comprise approximately 13% of the global burden of disease. The Grand Challenges in Global Mental Health Initiative has recently identified research priorities for the next decade to address prevention and treatment of MNS disorders. One main research priority is to identify the root causes, risks and protective factors associated with global mental health. Recent advances in cultural neuroscience have identified theoretical, methodological, and empirical methods of identifying biomarkers associated with mental health disorders across nations...
April 2017: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642080/impact-of-juvenile-chronic-stress-on-adult-cortico-accumbal-function-implications-for-cognition-and-addiction
#8
REVIEW
Michael J Watt, Matthew A Weber, Shaydel R Davies, Gina L Forster
Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641975/engendering-drug-problems-materialising-gender-in-the-dudit-and-other-screening-and-diagnostic-apparatuses
#9
Robyn Dwyer, Suzanne Fraser
It is widely accepted that alcohol and other drug consumption is profoundly gendered. Just where this gendering is occurring, however, remains the subject of debate. We contend that one important and overlooked site where the gendering of substance consumption and addiction is taking place is through AOD research itself: in particular, through the addiction screening and diagnostic tools designed to measure and track substance consumption and problems within populations. These tools establish key criteria and set numerical threshold scores for the identification of problems...
June 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641609/a-systematic-review-of-the-psychometric-properties-usability-and-clinical-impacts-of-mobile-mood-monitoring-applications-in-young-people
#10
M Dubad, C Winsper, C Meyer, M Livanou, S Marwaha
BACKGROUND: Mobile mood-monitoring applications are increasingly used by mental health providers, widely advocated within research, and a potentially effective method to engage young people. However, little is known about their efficacy and usability in young populations. METHOD: A systematic review addressing three research questions focused on young people: (1) what are the psychometric properties of mobile mood-monitoring applications; (2) what is their usability; and (3) what are their positive and negative clinical impacts? Findings were synthesised narratively, study quality assessed and compared with evidence from adult studies...
June 23, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641520/try-to-remember-interplay-between-memory-and-substance-use-disorder
#11
Rashidi Mohamed Pakri Mohamed, Jaya Kumar, Ernie Yap, Isa Naina Mohamed, Hatta Sidi, Raja Lope Adam, Srijit Das
Memories associated with substance use disorders, or substance-associated cues increase the likelihood of craving and relapse during abstinence. There is growing consensus that manipulation of synaptic plasticity may reduce the strength of substance abuse-related memories. On the biological front, there are new insights that suggest memories associated with substance use disorder may follow unique neurobiological pathways that render them more accessible to pharmacological intervention. In parallel to this, research in neurochemistry has identified several potential candidate molecules that could influence the formation and maintenance of long-term memory...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641361/maternal-alcohol-use-disorder-and-risk-of-child-contact-with-the-justice-system-in-western-australia-a-population-cohort-record-linkage-study
#12
Katherine Hafekost, David Lawrence, Colleen O'Leary, Carol Bower, James Semmens, Stephen R Zubrick
BACKGROUND: Early contact with the justice system is associated with a multitude of negative outcomes across the life course. This includes an increased risk of ongoing justice contact, social disadvantage and marginalization, and mental health and substance use issues. Children whose mothers have an alcohol use disorder may be at risk of early justice system contact, and we sought to quantify this relationship in a Western Australian cohort. METHODS: This population cohort study made use of linked administrative data...
June 22, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641217/the-aggressor-at-the-mirror-psychiatric-correlates-of-deliberate-self-harm-in-male-prison-inmates
#13
N Verdolini, A Murru, L Attademo, R Garinella, I Pacchiarotti, C Del Mar Bonnin, L Samalin, L Pauselli, M Piselli, A Tamantini, R Quartesan, A F Carvalho, E Vieta, A Tortorella
BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) causes important concern in prison inmates as it worsens morbidity and increases the risk for suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence and correlates of DSH in a large sample of male prisoners. METHODS: A cross-sectional study evaluated male prisoners aged 18+ years. Current and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II Disorders and with the Addiction Severity Index-Expanded Version...
April 14, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641131/children-s-brain-activation-during-risky-decision-making-a-contributor-to-substance-problems
#14
Thomas J Crowley, Manish S Dalwani, Joseph T Sakai, Kristen M Raymond, Shannon K McWilliams, Marie T Banich, Susan K Mikulich-Gilbertson
OBJECTIVE: Among young children excessive externalizing behaviors often predict adolescent conduct and substance use disorders. Adolescents with those disorders show aberrant brain function when choosing between risky or cautious options. We therefore asked whether similarly aberrant brain function during risky decision-making accompanies excessive externalizing behaviors among children, hypothesizing an association between externalizing severity and regional intensity of brain activation during risky decision-making...
June 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639813/contingency-management-interventions-for-tobacco-and-other-substance-use-disorders-in-pregnancy
#15
Dennis J Hand, Jennifer D Ellis, Meagan M Carr, Diane J Abatemarco, David M Ledgerwood
Contingency management (CM) is an effective intervention for reducing use of licit and illicit substances in a variety of populations. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population with much to gain from effective interventions for substance use disorders, and for whom CM interventions may be especially well-suited. We reviewed the literature on CM interventions among pregnant women with tobacco and other substance use disorders with 3 aims: (a) describe the effectiveness of CM for reducing use of tobacco and other substances during pregnancy, (b) describe the effects of CM interventions on infant outcomes, and (c) identify needs for future research on CM in pregnancy...
June 22, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639812/contingency-management-treatment-for-substance-use-disorders-how-far-has-it-come-and-where-does-it-need-to-go
#16
Nancy M Petry, Sheila M Alessi, Todd A Olmstead, Carla J Rash, Kristyn Zajac
Contingency management (CM) interventions consistently improve substance abuse treatment outcomes, yet CM remains a highly controversial intervention and is rarely implemented in practice settings. This article briefly outlines the evidence base of CM and then describes 4 of the most often-cited concerns about it: philosophical, motivational, durability, and economic. Data supporting and refuting each of these issues are reviewed. The article concludes with suggestions to address these matters and other important areas for CM research and implementation, with the aims of improving uptake of this efficacious intervention in practice settings and outcomes of patients with substance use disorders...
June 22, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639495/substance-use-in-adolescents-with-mental-illness-in-durban-south-africa
#17
Bhoodeo Taukoor, Saeeda Paruk, Enver Karim, Jonathan K Burns
Comorbid substance use in adolescents with mental illness is often an indicator of poor treatment outcome. This study aims to determine the prevalence of, and associated risk factors for, substance use in adolescents with mental illness attending a mental health service. Data was collected from hospital records of 162 adolescents, using a structured data sheet, over a two-year period. Substance use was more significant in older adolescents and those with severe mental illness. Sixty-two (38.3%) adolescents used substances...
May 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639494/status-of-mental-health-services-for-adolescents-with-psychiatric-morbidity-in-youth-correctional-institutions-in-lagos
#18
Olayinka Atilola, Bolanle Ola, Gbonjubola Abiri, Modepeola Sahid-Adebambo, Olubukayo Odukoya, Abiodun Adewuya, Olurotimi Coker, Oluwadamilola Folarin, Adedolapo Fasawe
BACKGROUND: High prevalence rates of psychiatric morbidity have been documented among adolescents within youth correctional institutions in Nigeria. However, there has not been prior investigation to determine the capacity for and nature of mental health services being provided in these institutions. OBJECTIVES: To assess psychiatric morbidity among adolescents within youth correctional institutions in Lagos, while simultaneously examining the capacity for and the scope of mental health services...
May 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639480/managing-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-adults-using-illicit-psychostimulants-a-systematic-review
#19
Jon Cook, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Shalini Arunogiri, Edward Ogden, Yvonne Bonomo
CONTEXT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and stimulant use disorder commonly co-exist, and appropriate treatments have not been well established. OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance for treatment of co-existing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and stimulant use disorder. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of published English articles using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane, utilising consistent search terms. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials, comparing any treatment arm with a control group, for participants meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders or equivalent criteria for both attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and stimulant use disorder...
June 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639209/substance-use-and-misuse-among-children-and-youth-with-mental-illness-a%C3%A2-pilot-study
#20
V Herz, N Franzin, J Huemer, D Mairhofer, J Philipp, K Skala
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine prevalence, patterns and predictors of substance use among a sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients. METHODS: Participants included 25 minors aged 12-17 years admitted to an Austrian department of child and adolescent psychiatry. Lifetime use, initiation, frequency and quantity of substance use, sociodemographic, family and school-related data were collected by self-report measures. Substance use disorders were detected using CAGE (a screening instrument for problem drinking) and FTND (Fagerström Test For Nicotine Dependence)...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
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