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S Su, K B Miska, R H Fetterer, M C Jenkins, S J Lamont, E A Wong
Fayoumi chickens are believed to be more disease resistant compared to commercial broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to compare mRNA expression of intestinal nutrient transporters, digestive enzymes, and host defense peptides (HDP) between Eimeria maxima-challenged Fayoumi and Ross broiler chickens. At 21 d of age, Ross broilers and Fayoumi lines M5.1 and M15.2 were challenged with 1,000 E. maxima oocysts. Control birds were not challenged. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were sampled (n = 6) at 7 d post challenge...
July 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Jinshan Jin, Ying-Hsin Hsieh, Arpana S Chaudhary, Jianmei Cui, John E Houghton, Sen-Fang Sui, Binghe Wang, Phang C Tai
Sec-dependent protein translocation is an essential process in bacteria. SecA is a key component of the translocation machinery and has multiple domains that interact with various ligands. SecA acts as an ATPase motor to drive the precursor protein/peptide through the SecYEG protein translocation channels. As SecA is unique to bacteria and there is no mammalian counterpart, it is an ideal target for the development of new antimicrobials. Several reviews detail the assays for ATPase and protein translocation, as well as the search for SecA inhibitors...
August 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Yuan Lin Zhang, Xiu E Feng, Rong Rong Chang, Le Hua Zhang, Bao Guo Xiao, Qing Shan Li, Xu Liang Hao
Antibiotics are still the primary therapy for acute pyelonephritis (APN); rarely, natural polyphenols are also used. LM49 is a novel marine bromophenol derivative displaying strong anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of LM49 in an experimental rat model of APN. The model was established by injecting 0.5 mL Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, 108  CFU/mL) into the urinary bladders of Sprague Dawley rats. This model showed increased kidney viscera indices and renal bacterial growth scores, as well as pathological changes in kidneys...
July 11, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Jingtao Zhang, Xing Liu, Xueying Wang, Lilong Mu, Mingming Yuan, Bingkun Liu, Hengzhen Shi
Photodisinfection by semiconductors has been proven to be an effective method for achieving antibacterial or antifungal activity. However, the toxicity of the nanomaterial to the environment and organisms is a major concern. Herein, a highly efficient and environmentally friendly photodisinfection material of a carbon dots (CDs) decorated Na2 W4 O13 composite with WO3 photocatalyst was fabricated via a facile hydrothermal-calcination approach. The TEM (transmission electron microscopy) images showed that CDs decorated the surface of the Na2 W4 O13 flakes...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Thanaa Shalaby, Hesham Hamad, Ebtihag Ibrahim, Ola Mahmoud, Affaf Al-Oufy
Safety of drinking-water is an urgent for human health. It is critical to promote the cheap technologies for water purification to guarantee the free-pathogens-drinking water. The present study has been investigated the antibacterial activity of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers membranes which decorated by Ag, CuO or ZnO nanoparticles as bactericides. The hybrid nanofiber composites were fabricated by electrospinning technique and the obtained membranes were characterized using SEM, EDX and FTIR. Their antibacterial activity was evaluated against E...
July 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Omid Ghafari, Aram Sharifi, Ali Ahmadi, Bahar Nayeri Fasaei
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is recognized as one of the major cause of infections in communities and hospitals. In this study, anti-pneumococcal and anti-efflux pump activity of two medicinal plants (Thymus daenensis and Origanum vulgare) essential oils were evaluated. Checkerboard assay test was performed for investigation of the effects of selected EOs on ciprofloxacin and ethidium bromide uptake in pmrA overexpressed fluoroquinolone resistant pneumococcus. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR the PmrA efflux pump gene (pmrA) expression was evaluated following treatment with selected EOs...
July 14, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Mostafa Ali, Julia K Keppler, Tom Coenye, Karin Schwarz
The covalent interactions between whey protein isolate (WPI) and rosmarinic acid (RosA) at two different conditions, alkaline (pH 9) and enzymatic (in the presence of tyrosinase, PPO), at room temperature with free atmospheric air were studied. The conjugates formed between WPI and RosA were characterized in terms of their physicochemical and functional properties. The changes in protein structure were analyzed by intrinsic fluorescence and binding of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid. The findings show that the covalent interactions caused a decrease in free amino and thiol groups and tryptophan content at both conditions...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Bruna Regina Zaccarim, Fernanda de Oliveira, Michel Rodrigo Zambrano Passarini, Alysson Wagner Fernandes Duarte, Lara Durães Sette, Angela Faustino Jozala, Maria Francisca Simas Teixeira, Valéria de Carvalho Santos Ebinuma
The population's interest in health products is increasing day by day. Thus, the demand for natural products as additives for food and pharmaceutical commodities is also growing. Colorants are additives that provide color to products and can be produced by microorganisms via various bioprocesses. In the search for new sources of natural colorants, fungi have been employed to produce novel and safer natural colorants. Therefore, the main goal of this study is to describe a Talaromyces species able to produce natural colorants and investigate the nutritional parameters for colorant production using statistical tools...
July 14, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Niko Paalanne, Aleksi Husso, Jarmo Salo, Oskari Pieviläinen, Mysore V Tejesvi, Pirjo Koivusaari, Anna Maria Pirttilä, Tytti Pokka, Sampo Mattila, Juha Jyrkäs, Ari Turpeinen, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko, Terhi Tapiainen
As urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogens originate from the gut, we hypothesized that the gut environment reflected by intestinal microbiome influences the risk of UTI. Our prospective case-control study compared the intestinal microbiomes of 37 children with a febrile UTI with those of 69 healthy children. We sequenced the regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and used the LefSe algorithm to calculate the size of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect. We measured fecal lactoferrin and iron concentrations and quantitative PCR for Escherichia coli...
July 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Lang Yang, Peihan Li, Beibei Liang, Xiaofeng Hu, Jinhui Li, Jing Xie, Chaojie Yang, Rongzhang Hao, Ligui Wang, Leili Jia, Peng Li, Shaofu Qiu, Hongbin Song
The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Citrobacter freundii poses a significant threat to public health worldwide. Here, we reported a C. freundii strain CWH001 which was resistant to all tested antimicrobials except tetracycline. Whole genome sequencing and analysis were performed. The strain, which belonged to a new sequence type ST139, showed close relationship with other foreign C. freundii strains through phylogenetic analysis. A novel variant of the intrinsic blaCMY gene located on the chromosome was identified and designated as blaCMY-152 ...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mia T Lieberman, Daria Van Tyne, JoAnn Dzink-Fox, Eric J Ma, Michael S Gilmore, James G Fox
Enterococcus faecalis is a common opportunistic pathogen that colonizes cephalic recording chambers (CRCs) of macaques used in cognitive neuroscience research. We previously characterized 15 E. faecalis strains isolated from macaques at our institution in 2011. The goal of this study was to examine how a 2014 protocol change prohibiting antimicrobials within CRCs affected colonizing E. faecalis strains. We collected 20 E. faecalis isolates from 10 macaques between 2013-2017 for comparison to four previously characterized 2011 isolates with respect to sequence type (ST) distribution, antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and changes in genes that might confer a survival advantage...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Shoko Ito, Masahiro Ashizawa, Ryo Sasaki, Takashi Ikeda, Yumiko Toda, Kiyomi Mashima, Kento Umino, Daisuke Minakata, Hirofumi Nakano, Ryoko Yamasaki, Yasufumi Kawasaki, Miyuki Sugimoto, Chihiro Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiro Fujiwara, Kaoru Hatano, Kazuya Sato, Iekuni Oh, Ken Ohmine, Kazuo Muroi, Jun Suzuki, Shuji Hatakeyama, Yuji Morisawa, Toshiyuki Yamada, Yoshinobu Kanda
The 1,3-beta-D-Glucan (BDG) assay is widely used for the diagnosis of fungal infections, especially in patients with hematologic malignancies. Some antimicrobials have been reported to cause false-positive results for BDG, but there has been no report on the effect of penicillin G (PCG) on BDG levels. We experienced a patient who developed false-positive BDG elevation during the administration of PCG for osteomyelitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. The serum BDG level increased up to 81.0 pg/ml during the continuous administration of PCG at 24 million units per day...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Flaviana R F Dias, Juliana S Novais, Talita A do Nascimento Santos Devillart, Wanderson Amaral da Silva, Matheus O Ferreira, Raquel de S Loureiro, Vinícius R Campos, Vitor F Ferreira, Maria C B V de Souza, Helena C Castro, Anna C Cunha
Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a serious global public health problem and lately very few antibiotics have been discovered and introduced into clinical practice. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of antibacterial compounds with new mechanism of action, especially those capable of evading known resistance mechanisms. In this work two series of glycoconjugate and non-glycoconjugate amino compounds derived from of isoquinoline-5,8-dione and 1,4-naphthoquinone and their halogenated derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S...
June 23, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Talha Khan Burki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Theckla Kazimoto, Salim Abdulla, Leah Bategereza, Omar Juma, Francis Mhimbira, Maja Weisser, Jürg Utzinger, Lutz von Müller, Sören L Becker
Few epidemiological studies have been carried out to assess the aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of pathogens giving rise to skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in sub-Saharan Africa. In the present study from six healthcare facilities in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, wound swabs from outpatients with SSTIs were analysed by a suite of methods, including microbiological culture techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and resistance testing. Among 185 patients with SSTIs, 179 (97%) swabs showed microbiological growth...
July 10, 2018: Acta Tropica
Sujogya Kumar Panda, Raju Das, Pieter Leyssen, Johan Neyts, Walter Luyten
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Knowledge on the use of plants for different ailments by the tribals of the Chirang Reserve Forest (CRF, Northeast India) was used to assess the potential of these plants for treating viral, bacterial and fungal infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fieldwork in the CRF documented the use of plants for the treatment of various human ailments. The ethnobotanical data were analyzed using different quantitative indices viz. Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Relative Frequency Citation (RFC), Fidelity Level (FL), Relative Popularity Level (RPL) and Rank Order Priority (ROP)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ufuk Cakir, Cuneyt Tayman, Utku Serkant, Halil Ibrahim Yakut, Esra Cakir, Ufuk Ates, Ismail Koyuncu, Eyyup Karaogul
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most important gastrointestinal emergency affecting especially preterm infants and causes severe morbidities and mortality. However, there is no cure. Oxidant stress, inflammation, apoptosis, as well as prematurity are believed to responsible in the pathogenesis of the disease. Ginger and its compounds have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant properties and immunomodulatory, cytoprotective/regenerative actions...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ali Harb, Ihab Habib, Ezat Hussain Mezal, Hayder Shannoon Kareem, Tanya Laird, Mark O'Dea, Sam Abraham
Salmonella is a major cause of human foodborne illnesses worldwide; however, little is known about its occurrence and genomic characteristics in food sources in many developing countries. This study investigates the occurrence, serotypes distribution, antimicrobial resistance, and multilocus sequence types (ST) of Salmonella isolated from 400 imported frozen chicken carcasses sold in the markets of Thi-Qar, south-eastern Iraq. Salmonella was detected in 46 out of 400 tested samples [11.5% (95% confidence interval: 8...
July 5, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Hosam O Elansary, Samir A M Abdelgaleil, Eman A Mahmoud, Kowiyou Yessoufou, Khalid Elhindi, Salah El-Hendawy
BACKGROUND: Identifying ornamental plants as new natural antioxidant and antimicrobial sources is always of great importance for the ornamental and horticultural industries. METHODS: The antimicrobial activities of leaves and fruits peel essential oils of twelve ornamental and horticultural crops were determined by screening against wide spectrum of fungi and bacteria, and their respective in vitro antioxidant capacity was evaluated. Furthermore, the anticancer activities against several cancer cells, and one normal human cell line (HEK-293) were examined...
July 13, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Mailan Natarajan, Deepika Kumar, Jharna Mandal, Niranjan Biswal, Selvaraj Stephen
BACKGROUND: Emergence of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and hybrid E. coli (harboring genes of more than one DEC pathotypes) strains have complicated the issue of growing antibiotic resistance in diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC). This ongoing evolution occurs in nature predominantly via horizontal gene transfers involving the mobile genetic elements like integrons notably class 1 integron. This study was undertaken to determine the virulence pattern and antibiotic resistance among the circulating DEC strains in a tertiary care center in south of India...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
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