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Antimicrobial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941394/ceftolozane-tazobactam-activity-against-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-causing-healthcare-associated-infections-in-latin-america-report-from-an-antimicrobial-surveillance-program-2013-2015
#1
Michael A Pfaller, Dee Shortridge, Helio S Sader, Ana Gales, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Latin American isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with healthcare-associated infection (HAI). Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor. A total of 2415 Gram-negative organisms (537 P. aeruginosa and 1878 Enterobacteriaceae) were consecutively collected in 12 medical centers located in four Latin American countries...
September 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941393/mobile-health-application-to-assist-doctors-in-antibiotic-prescription-an-approach-for-antibiotic-stewardship
#2
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Juliano Gasparetto, Luciana Cristina Wollmann, Thyago Proença de Moraes
BACKGROUND: Technologies applied to mobile devices can be an important strategy in antibiotic stewardship programs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a decision-making application on antibiotic prescription. METHODS: This was an observational, analytical and longitudinal study on the implementation of an antimicrobial guide for mobile application (app). This study analyzed the period of 12 months before and 12 months after the app implementation at a university hospital based on local epidemiology, avoiding high cost drugs and reducing the potential for drug resistance including carbapenem...
September 20, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938624/addition-of-2-ethylamino-acetonitrile-group-to-nitroxoline-results-in-significantly-improved-anti-tumor-activity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Ana Mitrović, Izidor Sosič, Špela Kos, Urša Lampreht Tratar, Barbara Breznik, Simona Kranjc, Bojana Mirković, Stanislav Gobec, Tamara Lah, Gregor Serša, Janko Kos
Lysosomal cysteine peptidase cathepsin B, involved in multiple processes associated with tumor progression, is validated as a target for anti-cancer therapy. Nitroxoline, a known antimicrobial agent, is a potent and selective inhibitor of cathepsin B, hence reducing tumor progression in vitro and in vivo. In order to further improve its anti-cancer properties we developed a number of derivatives using structure-based chemical synthesis. Of these, the 7-aminomethylated derivative (compound 17) exhibited significantly improved kinetic properties over nitroxoline, inhibiting cathepsin B endopeptidase activity selectively...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938518/antimicrobial-peptides-amps-the-quintessential-offense-and-defense-molecules-are-more-than-antimicrobials
#4
REVIEW
Seema Patel, Nadeem Akhtar
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic amphiphilic molecules with α-helix or β-sheet linear motifs and linear or cyclic configurations. For their role in 'defense and offense', they are present in all living organisms. AMPs are named so, as they inhibit a wide array of microbes by membrane pore formation and subsequent perturbation of mitochondrial membrane ionic balance. However, their functional repertoire is expanding with validated roles in cytotoxicity, wound healing, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and chemotaxis [1]...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938046/the-value-that-infectious-diseases-physicians-bring-to-the-healthcare-system
#5
Daniel P McQuillen, Ann T MacIntyre
While a career in infectious diseases (ID) has always been challenging and exciting, recognition of the value that ID physicians provide to the healthcare system as a whole, over and above the value they provide to individual patients, has been poor in this system. In response to this disparity, the Infectious Diseases Society of America Clinical Affairs Committee has long endeavored to quantify the value of ID physicians to the system, which is challenging in part because of the many avenues through which they influence healthcare...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938042/infectious-diseases-careers-in-healthcare-epidemiology-and-antimicrobial-stewardship
#6
Ebbing Lautenbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937913/dietary-euphorbia-hirta-extract-improved-the-resistance-of-african-catfish-clarias-gariepinus-to-aeromonas-hydrophila
#7
Atefeh Sheikhlar, Goh Yong Meng, Razak Alimon, Nicholas Romano, Mahdi Ebrahimi
Aqueous and methanol extracts of lemon (Citrus lemon) peel, Euphorbia hirta (aerial parts) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila. A swab paper disk method showed the methanol extract of E. hirta (EHE) had the largest inhibition zone and the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration compared to all other herbal extracts. Based on these results, EHE was included in the diets of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) at 0 (control), 2, 5 or 7 g/kg diet (experiment 1)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937899/microbiological-evaluation-of-ozone-on-dentinal-lesions-in-young-permanent-molars-using-the-stepwise-excavation
#8
Osama Safwat, Mona Elkateb, Karin Dowidar, Hala Abdel Salam, Omar El Meligy
AIM: To assess the microbial effect of ozone gas on dentinal lesions in young permanent molars using the stepwise excavation. STUDY DESIGN: An experimental, controlled clinical trial was performed. The sample included 80 immature first permanent molars, showing deep occlusal carious cavities that were indicated for stepwise excavation. Following first step of dentin excavation, the sample was divided into test (ozone gas) and control (calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) base material) groups...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937854/probiotics-from-isolation-to-application
#9
Parisa Shokryazdan, Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi, Juan Boo Liang, Yin Wan Ho
Probiotics have become highly recognized as supplements for humans and animals because of their beneficial effects on health and well-being. The present review aims to provide an overview of different steps through which microbial strains become applicable probiotics in food and/or feed industries. Isolation of potential probiotic strains is the first step. Lactic acid bacteria are the most frequently used microorganisms as probiotics, which can be isolated from human, animal, plant, and environment. The next steps are identification of the isolates and characterization of them based on the main selection criteria for any potential probiotic microorganism, including resistance to gastric acidity and bile salt, adherence to mucus and/or intestinal epithelial cells and cell lines, and antimicrobial and antagonism activity against potentially pathogenic microbes...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937623/antifungal-activity-of-thapsia-villosa-essential-oil-against-candida-cryptococcus-malassezia-aspergillus-and-dermatophyte-species
#10
Eugénia Pinto, Maria-José Gonçalves, Carlos Cavaleiro, Lígia Salgueiro
The composition of the essential oil (EO) of Thapsia villosa (Apiaceae), isolated by hydrodistillation from the plant's aerial parts, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity of the EO and its main components, limonene (57.5%) and methyleugenol (35.9%), were evaluated against clinically relevant yeasts (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia furfur) and moulds (Aspergillus spp. and dermatophytes). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)...
September 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937585/phytochemicals-extraction-isolation-and-identification-of-bioactive-compounds-from-plant-extracts
#11
REVIEW
Ammar Altemimi, Naoufal Lakhssassi, Azam Baharlouei, Dennis G Watson, David A Lightfoot
There are concerns about using synthetic phenolic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as food additives because of the reported negative effects on human health. Thus, a replacement of these synthetics by antioxidant extractions from various foods has been proposed. More than 8000 different phenolic compounds have been characterized; fruits and vegetables are the prime sources of natural antioxidants. In order to extract, measure, and identify bioactive compounds from a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, researchers use multiple techniques and methods...
September 22, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937457/is-a-drain-tip-culture-required-after-spinal-surgery
#12
Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kei Ando, Hideki Yagi, Tetsuro Hida, Kenyu Ito, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Mikito Tsushima, Naoki Ishiguro
STUDY DESIGN: The efficacy of use of a drain tip culture for early detection of surgical-site infection (SSI) was investigated in 329 patients after spinal surgery. OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of a wound drain tip culture for detection of SSI in spinal surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A complication of SSI after spinal surgery has high associated morbidity and mortality, and is often difficult to treat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects were patients who underwent spinal surgery at our institution between January 2010 and March 2013...
October 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936777/phytosphingosine-enhances-moisture-level-in-human-skin-barrier-through-stimulation-of-the-filaggrin-biosynthesis-and-degradation-leading-to-nmf-formation
#13
Hyun Kyung Choi, Young Hoon Cho, Eun Ok Lee, Jin Wook Kim, Chang Seo Park
Phytosphingosine (PHS) is a sphingoid that is a key component of phytoceramides NP, AP and EOP. PHS has been known to have anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities and to stimulate epidermal differentiation. In addition, it is reported that PHS treatment notably increased phytoceramide content in keratinocytes. In this study, we tried to investigate whether PHS has any effect on the maturation of corneocytes such as formation of cornified envelope and natural moisturizing factor (NMF) that is also an essential event during the formation of skin barrier, stratum corneum...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936484/cetylpyridinium-chloride-cpc-exhibits-potent-rapid-activity-against-influenza-viruses-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Daniel L Popkin, Sarah Zilka, Matthew Dimaano, Hisashi Fujioka, Cristina Rackley, Robert Salata, Alexis Griffith, Pranab K Mukherjee, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Frank Esper
BACKGROUND: There is a continued need for strategies to prevent influenza. While cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, has an extensive antimicrobial spectrum, its ability to affect respiratory viruses has not been studied in detail. OBJECTIVES: Here, we evaluate the ability of CPC to disrupt influenza viruses in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The virucidal activity of CPC was evaluated against susceptible and oseltamivir-resistant strains of influenza viruses...
2017: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936203/modulation-of-gut-microbiome-composition-and-function-in-experimental-colitis-treated-with-sulfasalazine
#15
Haihui Zheng, Mingyi Chen, Yuan Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Lin Wei, Ziqiong Liao, Mengxia Wang, Fangli Ma, Qiongfeng Liao, Zhiyong Xie
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from alterations in intestinal flora and the immune system. Sulfasalazine (SASP) is a sulfa antimicrobial used to treat IBD in clinic for years. However, how SASP affects gut microbes and its potential functions remains unclear. To investigate the relationships of SASP, IBD, and gut microbiome, we used 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) to induce experimental colitis in rats, and analyzed the microbiota in the fecal samples, which come from the control group (treated with ethanol + saline), the model group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + saline) and the SASP group (treated with TNBS-ethanol + SASP), with 16S gene sequencing and followed up a subset sample using shotgun sequencing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936051/bacterial-contamination-of-multi-dose-eye-drops-at-ophthalmology-department-university-of-gondar-northwest-ethiopia
#16
Asegedech Tsegaw, Asamere Tsegaw, Tefera Abula, Yared Assefa
PURPOSE: Ophthalmic solutions used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes were found to be contaminated with bacteria pathogens and caused serious ocular infections such as keratitis and endophthalmitis. The objective was to assess the magnitude and pattern of bacterial contamination of multi-dose ophthalmic medications and investigate the drug susceptibility pattern of the isolates in the Department of Ophthalmology at Gondar University Teaching Hospital. METHODS: A total of 100 ophthalmic medications in-use by patients and eye-care workers have been taken and cultured for potential bacterial contamination in the Microbiology Department after 1 week and >1 week of use...
April 2017: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935938/an-engineered-bispecific-dna-encoded-igg-antibody-protects-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-pneumonia-challenge-model
#17
Ami Patel, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Ashley E Keller, Trevor R F Smith, Daniel H Park, Stephanie Ramos, Katherine Schultheis, Sarah T C Elliott, Janess Mendoza, Kate E Broderick, Megan C Wise, Jian Yan, Jingjing Jiang, Seleeke Flingai, Amir S Khan, Kar Muthumani, Laurent Humeau, Lily I Cheng, Leslie Wachter-Rosati, C Kendall Stover, Niranjan Y Sardesai, David B Weiner
The impact of broad-spectrum antibiotics on antimicrobial resistance and disruption of the beneficial microbiome compels the urgent investigation of bacteria-specific approaches such as antibody-based strategies. Among these, DNA-delivered monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs), produced by muscle cells in vivo, potentially allow the prevention or treatment of bacterial infections circumventing some of the hurdles of protein IgG delivery. Here, we optimize DNA-delivered monoclonal antibodies consisting of two potent human IgG clones, including a non-natural bispecific IgG1 candidate, targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935918/host-directed-therapies-for-bacterial-and-viral-infections
#18
REVIEW
Stefan H E Kaufmann, Anca Dorhoi, Richard S Hotchkiss, Ralf Bartenschlager
Despite the recent increase in the development of antivirals and antibiotics, antimicrobial resistance and the lack of broad-spectrum virus-targeting drugs are still important issues and additional alternative approaches to treat infectious diseases are urgently needed. Host-directed therapy (HDT) is an emerging approach in the field of anti-infectives. The strategy behind HDT is to interfere with host cell factors that are required by a pathogen for replication or persistence, to enhance protective immune responses against a pathogen, to reduce exacerbated inflammation and to balance immune reactivity at sites of pathology...
September 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935900/antibacterial-and-immunomodulatory-activities-of-insect-defensins-dlp2-and-dlp4-against-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Zhanzhan Li, Ruoyu Mao, Da Teng, Ya Hao, Huixian Chen, Xiumin Wang, Xiao Wang, Na Yang, Jianhua Wang
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are the most frequent cause of sepsis, which urgently demanding new drugs for treating infection. Two homologous insect CSαβ peptides-DLP2 and DLP4 from Hermetia illucens were firstly expressed in Pichia pastoris, with the yields of 873.5 and 801.3 mg/l, respectively. DLP2 and DLP4 displayed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria especially MRSA and had greater potency, faster killing, and a longer postantibiotic effect than vancomycin...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935738/complete-genome-sequence-of-campylobacter-jejuni-rm1246-errc-which-exhibits-resistance-to-quaternary-ammonium-compounds
#20
Nereus W Gunther, Erin R Reichenberger
Campylobacter jejuni strain RM1246-ERRC is a clinical isolate. In laboratory experiments, RM1246-ERRC exhibited greater resistance to the antimicrobial effects of quaternary ammonium compounds than other C. jejuni strains. The chromosome of RM1246-ERRC is 1,659,694 bp with a G+C content of 30.56%. The strain also possesses a 45,197-bp plasmid.
September 21, 2017: Genome Announcements
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