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Antimicrobial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340510/the-diverse-family-of-mmpl-transporters-in-mycobacteria-from-regulation-to-antimicrobial-developments
#1
REVIEW
Albertus Viljoen, Violaine Dubois, Fabienne Girard-Misguich, Mickael Blaise, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterial genomes contain large sets of loci encoding membrane proteins that belong to a family of multidrug resistance pumps designated Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) permeases. Mycobacterial membrane protein Large (MmpL) transporters represent a subclass of RND transporters known to participate in the export of lipid components across the cell envelope. These surface-exposed lipids with unusual structures play key roles in the physiology of mycobacteria and/or can act as virulence factors and immunomodulators...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340483/improving-the-water-solubility-and-antimicrobial-activity-of-silymarin-by-nanoencapsulation
#2
Ji-Soo Lee, Da Young Hong, Eun Suh Kim, Hyeon Gyu Lee
The aims of this study were to improve the water solubility and antimicrobial activity of milk thistle silymarin by nanoencapsulation and to assess the functions of silymarin nanoparticle-containing film as an antimicrobial food-packaging agent. Silymarin nanoparticles were prepared using water-soluble chitosan (WCS) and poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). As the WCS and silymarin concentrations increased, particle size and polydispersity index (PDI) significantly increased. Nanoencapsulation significantly improved the water solubility of silymarin 7...
March 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340427/identification-and-characterization-of-a-%C3%AE-defensin-gene-involved-in-the-immune-defense-response-of-channel-catfish-ictalurus-punctatus
#3
Jieyao Zhu, Hong Wang, Jun Wang, Xingli Wang, Shuang Peng, Yi Geng, Kaiyu Wang, Pin Ouyang, Zhiqiong Li, Xiaoli Huang, Defang Chen
Antimicrobial peptides are small peptides that play important roles in a host's innate immune response. As an important antimicrobial peptide, β-defensin widely distribute in mammals, insects and plants with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, the β-defensin gene of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, was cloned, sequenced, and subjected to a bioinformatic analysis. The β-defensin gene of the channel catfish contains three exons and two introns, and encodes a precursor peptide consisting of two domains: a signal peptide of 24 amino acid residues and a mature peptide of 43 amino acid residues...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340368/synthesis-molecular-docking-antimycobacterial-and-antimicrobial-evaluation-of-new-pyrrolo-3-2-c-pyridine-mannich-bases
#4
Gilish Jose, Tholappanavara H Suresha Kumara, Haliwana B V Sowmya, Dharmarajan Sriram, Tayur N Guru Row, Amar A Hosamani, Sunil S More, Bhavya Janardhan, B G Harish, Sandeep Telkar, Yalegara Siddappa Ravikumar
In this report, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridine Mannich bases (7a-v). The Mannich bases were obtained in good yields by one-pot three component condensation of pyrrolo[3,2-c]pyridine scaffold (6a-c) with secondary amines and excess of formaldehyde solution in AcOH. The chemical structures of the compounds were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, LC/MS and elemental analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction has been recorded for compound 7k ([C23H29ClN4](+2), H2O)...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340252/urinary-tract-infection-recent-insight-into-the-evolutionary-arms-race-between-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-our-immune-system
#5
Sebastian Schwab, Katarzyna Jobin, Christian Kurts
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections worldwide. Humans evolved various immune-dependent and independent defense mechanisms, while pathogens evolved multiple virulence factors to fight back. This article summarizes recent findings regarding the arms race between hosts and pathogens in UTIs. It was recently reported that macrophage subsets regulate neutrophil-mediated defense in primary UTIs but seem to subvert adaptive immunity upon re-infection. Moreover, some bacterial strains can survive inside macrophages, leading to recurrent infections...
March 15, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340091/effect-of-antimicrobial-treatment-on-the-resolution-of-middle-ear-effusion-after-acute-otitis-media
#6
Aino Ruohola, Miia K Laine, Paula A Tähtinen
Background.: Acute otitis media (AOM) induces middle-ear effusion (MEE), which affects hearing. The effect of antimicrobial treatment on the resolution of MEE is controversial, and the factors that affect resolution are unknown. Methods.: We studied the effect of antimicrobial treatment on the time to the resolution of MEE as a secondary objective in our randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Children aged 6 to 35 months with stringently diagnosed AOM were allocated to receive amoxicillin-clavulanate (161 patients) or placebo (158 patients) for 7 days and closely followed for 3 months...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339926/study-on-the-expression-of-human-lysozyme-in-oviduct-bioreactor-mediated-by-recombinant-avian-adeno-associated-virus1
#7
A P Wang, Y J Wang, S Wu, W Y Zuo, C M Guo, W M Hong, S Y Zhu
Due to its antimicrobial properties and low toxicity, human lysozyme (hLYZ) has broad application in the medical field and as a preservative used by the food industry. However, limited availability hinders its widespread use. Hence, we constructed a recombinant avian adeno-associated virus (rAAAV) that would specifically express hLYZ in the chicken oviduct and harvested hLYZ from the egg whites of laying hens. The oviduct-specific human lysozyme expression cassette flanked by avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) was subcloned into the modified baculovirus transfer vector pFBX, and then the recombinant baculovirus rBac-ITRLYZ was generated...
March 2, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339914/infant-colonization-with-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-or-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-preceding-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-discharge
#8
Sarah A Clock, Haomiao Jia, Sameer Patel, Yu-Hui Ferng, Luis Alba, Susan Whittier, Patricia DeLaMora, Setareh Tabibi, Jeffrey Perlman, David Paul, Theoklis Zaoutis, Elaine Larson, Lisa Saiman
Rates of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were determined for 1320 infants within 7 days of neonatal intensive care unit discharge. Overall, 4% and 1% of the infants were colonized with MRSA or VRE, respectively. Predictors identified in fixed-effects models were surgery during hospitalization (for MRSA colonization) and prolonged antimicrobial treatment (for VRE colonization).
March 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339845/expanded-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-chickens-with-colibacillosis-in-egypt
#9
D A El-Shazly, S A Nasef, F F Mahmoud, Daniel Jonas
Throughout the world, expanded spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are increasing among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, both in humans and animals. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data on ESBL or Ampicillin class C β-lactamase (AmpC) in Egypt, although antimicrobial consumption is high in this developing country. This study aims to characterize the resistance mechanisms to expanded spectrum cephalosporins among resistant veterinary Escherichia coli isolates in Egypt. We investigated 50 clinical multi-resistant E...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339746/in-vitro-cytotoxic-and-ace-inhibitory-activities-of-promod-278p-hydrolysate-of-ovotransferrin-from-chicken-egg-white
#10
S H Moon, J H Lee, J H Kim, H-D Paik, D U Ahn
Peptides released from egg proteins via enzymatic hydrolysis show various bioactivities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and immunomodulatory properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities of ovotransferrin and its promod 278P enzyme hydrolysate. Ovotransferrin from egg white was hydrolyzed using promod 278P at 45°C for 3 hours. Using the MTT assay, the cytotoxicity of ovotransferrin and promod 278P hydrolysate of ovotransferrin were evaluated in human cancer cell lines of various tissue origins...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339728/comparative-expression-of-host-defense-peptides-in-turkey-poults
#11
Shaimaa K Hamad, Sungwon Kim, Samer W El-Kadi, Eric A Wong, Rami A Dalloul
Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a large group of small, positively charged peptides that play an important role in innate immunity, particularly at early ages when other components of the immune system have not fully developed. There are 3 classes of avian HDPs: avian beta defensins (AvBDs), cathelicidins (Cath), and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2). The objective was to compare expression of HDP mRNAs in male turkey poults at day of hatch (d 0), d 7, d 14, d 21 and d 28 from the thymus, spleen, bursa, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339716/prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-and-genetic-diversity-of-campylobacter-coli-and-campylobacter-jejuni-in-ecuadorian-broilers-at-slaughter-age
#12
Christian Vinueza-Burgos, Magali Wautier, Delphine Martiny, Marco Cisneros, Inge Van Damme, Lieven De Zutter
Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are a major cause of foodborne gastrointestinal infections worldwide. The linkage of human campylobacteriosis and poultry has been widely described. In this study we aimed to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of C. coli and C. jejuni in broilers from Ecuador. Caecal content from 379 randomly selected broiler batches originating from 115 farms were collected from 6 slaughterhouses located in the province of Pichincha during 1 year. Microbiological isolation was performed by direct plating on mCCDA agar...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339695/incidence-and-outcomes-of-infections-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-children-2007-2015
#13
Sharon B Meropol, Allison A Haupt, Sara M Debanne
Background.: The escalating incidence of invasive disease caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative enteric Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-GNE) is a global concern. Scant published studies in which the epidemiology of these infections in children is described exist; previous studies focused mainly on adults, described circumscribed populations, or lacked clinical detail. The objective of this study was to examine and describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes associated with MDR-GNE infection in children...
February 22, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339675/high-reported-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-indian-neonatal-and-pediatric-blood-stream-infections
#14
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anita Shet, Vijay Yewale, Mike Sharland
Background.: There is real shortage of national data on antimicrobial resistance rates in Indian neonates and children. A descriptive review was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of blood stream infection among hospitalized children in India. Methods.: Published and gray literature on antibiotic resistance in children was searched using "Google Scholar", "Scopus", and "PubMed" databases between January 2000 and July 2015...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339590/reducing-antimicrobial-use-in-an-academic-pediatric-institution-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-a-prospective-audit-with-real-time-feedback
#15
Zachary I Willis, Jessica Gillon, Meng Xu, James C Slaughter, M Cecilia Di Pentima
Introduction: Antimicrobial use is decreasing across freestanding children's hospitals, predominantly in institutions with antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) in place. A highly effective ASP should effect a greater decrease in use than predicted by existing trends. Antimicrobial stewardship programs depend on clinician adherence to program recommendations, but little is known about factors associated with adherence. Methods: Parenteral antimicrobial-use data for our institution and 43 additional freestanding children's hospitals were obtained and normalized for patient census...
October 7, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339496/correction-the-tir-homologue-lies-near-resistance-genes-in-staphylococcus-aureus-coupling-modulation-of-virulence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility
#16
Sabine Patot, Paul R C Imbert, Jessica Baude, Patricia Martins Simões, Jean-Baptiste Campergue, Arthur Louche, Reindert Nijland, Michèle Bès, Anne Tristan, Frédéric Laurent, Adrien Fischer, Jacques Schrenzel, François Vandenesch, Suzana P Salcedo, Patrice François, Gérard Lina
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006092.].
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339349/is-triclosan-a-neurotoxic-agent
#17
Joanna A Ruszkiewicz, Shaojun Li, Maliya B Rodriguez, Michael Aschner
Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial agent that has been used in many products since 1960s. Given its broad usage as an antiseptic TCS is present ubiquitously in the environment. Trace levels of TCS continue to be detected in many organisms, and it has been shown to be particularly toxic to aquatic species. The mechanisms underlying TCS-mediated toxicity include hormone dyshomeostasis, induction of oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation. Although TCS has been considered to be non-toxic to mammals, the adverse effects of continuous, long-term and low concentration exposure remain unknown...
2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339295/antifungal-plant-defensins-increased-insight-in-their-mode-of-action-as-a-basis-for-their-use-to-combat-fungal-infections
#18
Tanne L Cools, Caroline Struyfs, Bruno Pa Cammue, Karin Thevissen
Plant defensins are small, cationic peptides with a highly conserved 3D structure. They have been studied extensively in the past decades. Various biological activities have been attributed to plant defensins, such as anti-insect and antimicrobial activities, but they are also known to affect ion channels and display antitumor activity. This review focuses on the structure, biological activity and antifungal mode of action of some well-characterized plant defensins, with particular attention to their fungal membrane target(s), their induced cell death mechanisms as well as their antibiofilm activity...
March 24, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339294/rapid-assessment-of-antimicrobial-resistance-prevalence-using-a-lot-quality-assurance-sampling-approach
#19
Frank van Leth, Casper den Heijer, Mariëlle Beerepoot, Ellen Stobberingh, Suzanne Geerlings, Constance Schultsz
AIM: Increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires rapid surveillance tools, such as Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS). MATERIALS & METHODS: LQAS classifies AMR as high or low based on set parameters. We compared classifications with the underlying true AMR prevalence using data on 1335 Escherichia coli isolates from surveys of community-acquired urinary tract infection in women, by assessing operating curves, sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity of any set of LQAS parameters was above 99% and between 79 and 90%, respectively...
March 24, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339182/widespread-and-indiscriminate-nanosilver-use-genuine-potential-for-microbial-resistance
#20
Cindy Gunawan, Christopher P Marquis, Rose Amal, Georgios A Sotiriou, Scott A Rice, Elizabeth J Harry
In this era of increasing antibiotic resistance, the use of alternative antimicrobials such as silver has become more widespread. Superior antimicrobial activity has been provided through fabrication of silver nanoparticles or nanosilver (NAg), which imparts cytotoxic actions distinct from those of bulk silver. In the wake of the recent discoveries of bacterial resistance to NAg and its rising incorporation in medical and consumer goods such as wound dressings and dietary supplements, we argue that there is an urgent need to monitor the prevalence and spread of NAg microbial resistance...
March 24, 2017: ACS Nano
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