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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813757/quality-focus-antimicrobial-stewardship-cultural-change-continuing-challenge
#1
Stephan D Schroeder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813735/duration-of-antibiotics-prescribed-at-hospital-discharge
#2
Susan E Hoover
INTRODUCTION: A patient's transition from hospitalization to discharge may represent an additional opportunity for antibiotic stewardship. METHODS: We reviewed antimicrobial drugs prescribed at discharge to patients at our medical center over a nine-month period, and calculated the total duration of inpatient and outpatient antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: The median duration of inpatient antibiotics was three days (interquartile range [IQR] four days), of outpatient antibiotics was seven days (IQR six days), and of total antibiotics 10 days (IQR six days)...
April 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813677/the-il-17f-il-17rc-axis-promotes-respiratory-allergy-in-the-proximal-airways
#3
Antonella De Luca, Marilena Pariano, Barbara Cellini, Claudio Costantini, Valeria Rachela Villella, Shyam Sushama Jose, Melissa Palmieri, Monica Borghi, Claudia Galosi, Giuseppe Paolicelli, Luigi Maiuri, Jan Fric, Teresa Zelante
The interleukin 17 (IL-17) cytokine and receptor family is central to antimicrobial resistance and inflammation in the lung. Mice lacking IL-17A, IL-17F, or the IL-17RA subunit were compared with wild-type mice for susceptibility to airway inflammation in models of infection and allergy. Signaling through IL-17RA was required for efficient microbial clearance and prevention of allergy; in the absence of IL-17RA, signaling through IL-17RC on epithelial cells, predominantly by IL-17F, significantly exacerbated lower airway Aspergillus or Pseudomonas infection and allergic airway inflammation...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813520/the-frequency-of-class1-and-2-integrons-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-isolated-from-burn-patients-in-a-burn-center-of-ahvaz-iran
#4
Azar Dokht Khosravi, Moloudsadat Motahar, Effat Abbasi Montazeri
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen with the ability to cause severe nosocomial infections and remains a major problem in burn patients. This organism shows a remarkable antimicrobial resistance and is often resistant to multiple antibiotics. Integron genes as mobile genetic elements are playing an important role in the spread of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance. This study was aimed to investigate the occurrence of class 1, and 2 integron genes (int1, int2), among P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813492/point-prevalence-survey-of-healthcare-facility-onset-healthcare-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-greek-hospitals-outside-the-intensive-care-unit-the-c-define-study
#5
Athanasios Skoutelis, Angelos Pefanis, Sotirios Tsiodras, Nikolaos V Sipsas, Moyssis Lelekis, Marios C Lazanas, Panagiotis Gargalianos, George N Dalekos, Emmanuel Roilides, George Samonis, Efstratios Maltezos, Dimitrios Hatzigeorgiou, Malvina Lada, Symeon Metallidis, Athena Stoupis, Georgios Chrysos, Lazaros Karnesis, Styliani Symbardi, Chariclia V Loupa, Helen Giamarellou, Ioannis Kioumis, Helen Sambatakou, Epameinondas Tsianos, Maria Kotsopoulou, Areti Georgopali, Klairi Liakou, Stavroula Perlorentzou, Stamatina Levidiotou, Marina Giotsa-Toutouza, Helen Tsorlini-Christoforidou, Ilias Karaiskos, Georgia Kouppari, Eleftheria Trikka-Graphakos, Maria-Anna Ntrivala, Kate Themeli-Digalaki, Anastasia Pangalis, Melina Kachrimanidou, Maria Martsoukou, Stergios Karapsias, Maria Panopoulou, Sofia Maraki, Anagnostina Orfanou, Efthymia Petinaki, Maria Orfanidou, Vasiliki Baka, Antonios Stylianakis, Iris Spiliopoulou, Stavroula Smilakou, Loukia Zerva, Evangelos Vogiatzakis, Eleni Belesiotou, Charalambos A Gogos
BACKGROUND: The correlation of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with in-hospital morbidity is important in hospital settings where broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents are routinely used, such as in Greece. The C. DEFINE study aimed to assess point-prevalence of CDI in Greece during two study periods in 2013. METHODS: There were two study periods consisting of a single day in March and another in October 2013. Stool samples from all patients hospitalized outside the ICU aged ≥18 years old with diarrhea on each day in 21 and 25 hospitals, respectively, were tested for CDI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813477/colonization-prevalence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-group-b-streptococcus-in-pregnant-women-over-a-6-year-period-in-dongguan-china
#6
Wenjing Ji, Lihua Zhang, Zhusheng Guo, Shujin Xie, Weiqing Yang, Junjian Chen, Jiamin Wang, Zhiqin Cheng, Xin Wang, Xuehai Zhu, Jianwen Wang, Haiqing Wang, Juan Huang, Ning Liang, David J McIver
This study investigated the prevalence of recto-vaginal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among pregnant women in Dongguan, China. Recto-vaginal swabs were collected from pregnant women at gestational age 35-37 weeks between January 1st 2009 and December 31st 2014. Isolates were serotyped by latex-agglutination and were tested against seven antimicrobials by disk diffusion. Of 7,726 pregnant women who completed GBS testing, 636 (8.2%) were GBS carriers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813144/stimulated-raman-imaging-reveals-aberrant-lipogenesis-as-a-meta-bolic-marker-for-azole-resistant-candida-albicans
#7
Caroline W Karanja, Weili Hong, Waleed Younis, Hassan E Eldesouky, Mohamed N Seleem, Ji-Xin Cheng
Candida albicans (C. albicans) is the single most prevalent cause of fungal bloodstream infections worldwide causing significant mortality as high as fifty percent. This high mortality rate is, in part, due to the inability to initiate an effective antifungal therapy early in the disease process. Mortality rates significantly increase after twelve hours of delay in initiating the appropriate antifungal therapy following a positive blood culture. Early administration of appropriate antifungal therapy is hampered by the slow turnovers of the conventional antimicrobial testing techniques, which require days of incubation...
August 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813096/cytotoxicity-and-bacterial-membrane-destabilization-induced-by-annona-squamosa-l-extracts
#8
Nícolas C C Pinto, Jucélia B Silva, Laura M Menegati, Maria Clara M R Guedes, Lucas B Marques, Thiago P DA Silva, Rossana C N DE Melo, Elaine M DE Souza-Fagundes, Marcos J Salvador, Elita Scio, Rodrigo L Fabri
This study aimed to further investigate the cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines and several bacterial strains of Annona squamosa and its mode of action. Methanol extracts of A. squamosa leaves (ASL) and seeds (ASS) were used. ASL showed significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. faecalis with MIC values of 78, 78 and 39 µg/mL respectively. Moreover, ASL exhibited significant biofilm disruption, rapid time dependent kinetics of bacterial killing, increased membrane permeability and significantly reduced the cell numbers and viability...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813014/antibacterial-properties-of-nonwoven-wound-dressings-coated-with-manuka-honey-or-methylglyoxal
#9
Sophie E L Bulman, Giuseppe Tronci, Parikshit Goswami, Chris Carr, Stephen J Russell
Manuka honey (MH) is used as an antibacterial agent in bioactive wound dressings via direct impregnation onto a suitable substrate. MH provides unique antibacterial activity when compared with conventional honeys, owing partly to one of its constituents, methylglyoxal (MGO). Aiming to investigate an antibiotic-free antimicrobial strategy, we studied the antibacterial activity of both MH and MGO (at equivalent MGO concentrations) when applied as a physical coating to a nonwoven fabric wound dressing. When physically coated on to a cellulosic hydroentangled nonwoven fabric, it was found that concentrations of 0...
August 16, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813003/self-assessment-of-antimicrobial-stewardship-in-primary-care-self-reported-practice-using-the-target-primary-care-self-assessment-tool
#10
Rebecca Owens, Leah Ffion Jones, Michael Moore, Dirk Pilat, Cliodna McNulty
Multifaceted antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) interventions including: antibiotic guidance, reviews of antibiotic use using audits, education, patient facing materials, and self-assessment, are successful in improving antimicrobial use. We aimed to measure the self-reported AMS activity of staff completing a self-assessment tool (SAT). The Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP)/Public Health England (PHE) SAT enables participants considering an AMS eLearning course to answer 12 short questions about their AMS activities...
August 16, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813002/application-of-surfactant-micelle-entrapped-eugenol-for-prevention-of-growth-of-the-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-ground-beef
#11
Tamra N Tolen, Songsirin Ruengvisesh, Thomas M Taylor
Beef safety may be compromised by O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) contamination. The capacity of surfactant micelles loaded with the plant-derived antimicrobial eugenol to reduce STEC on beef trimmings that were later ground and refrigerated for five days at 5 ± 1 °C was tested to determine their utility for beef safety protection. STEC-inoculated trimmings were treated with free eugenol, micelle-encapsulated eugenol, 2% lactic acid (55 °C), sterile distilled water (25 °C), or left untreated (control)...
August 16, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812948/age-related-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-involves-the-mads-domain-transcription-factor-short-vegetative-phase-and-direct-action-of-salicylic-acid-on-pseudomonas-syringae
#12
Daniel C Wilson, Christine J Kempthorne, Philip Carella, David K Liscombe, Robin Cameron
Arabidopsis thaliana exhibits a developmentally regulated disease-resistance response known as Age-Related Resistance (ARR), a process that requires intercellular accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), which is thought to act as an antimicrobial agent. ARR is characterized by enhanced resistance to some pathogens at the late adult-vegetative and reproductive stages. While the transition to flowering does not cause the onset of ARR, both processes involve the MADS-domain transcription factor SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP)...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812924/susceptibility-testing-and-reporting-of-new-antibiotics-with-a-focus-on-tedizolid-an-international-working-group-report
#13
Mark H Wilcox, Natalia Dmitrieva, Ana Cristina Gales, Irina Petukhova, Suleiman Al-Obeid, Flavia Rossi, Joseph M Blondeau
Inappropriate use and overuse of antibiotics are among the most important factors in resistance development, and effective antibiotic stewardship measures are needed to optimize outcomes. Selection of appropriate antimicrobials relies on accurate and timely antimicrobial susceptibility testing. However, the availability of clinical breakpoints and in vitro susceptibility testing often lags behind regulatory approval by several years for new antimicrobials. A Working Group of clinical/medical microbiologists from Brazil, Canada, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Russia and the UK recently examined issues surrounding antimicrobial susceptibility testing for novel antibiotics...
August 16, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812768/chemical-nutritive-composition-and-a-wide-range-of-bioactive-properties-of-honey-mushroom-armillaria-mellea-vahl-fr-kummer
#14
Marina Kostić, Marija Smiljković, Jovana Petrović, Jasmina Glamočlija, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Ana Ćirić, Marina Soković
A. mellea fruiting bodies collected from nature were chemically characterized and shown to be rich in carbohydrates (81.25 g per 100 g dw), ash, fat and proteins (8.84 g per 100 g dw, 1.97 g per 100 g dw and 1.81 g per 100 g dw, respectively). Mannitol was the main free sugar while malic acid was the most abundant organic acid. δ-Tocopherol was the dominant form of tocopherols with 42.41 μg per 100 g dw. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were predominant, followed by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. A methanolic extract prepared from these samples was tested for antioxidant, quorum sensing and antimicrobial assays, as well as for its cytotoxicity effects...
August 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812621/erratum-competition-along-trajectories-governs-adaptation-rates-towards-antimicrobial-resistance
#15
C Brandon Ogbunugafor, Margaret J Eppstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812552/competition-along-trajectories-governs-adaptation-rates-towards-antimicrobial-resistance
#16
C Brandon Ogbunugafor, Margaret J Eppstein
The increasing availability of genotype-phenotype maps for different combinations of mutations has empowered evolutionary biologists with the tools to interrogate the predictability of adaptive evolution, especially in the context of the evolution of antimicrobial resistance. Large microbial populations are known to generate competing beneficial mutations, but determining how these mutations contribute to the adaptive trajectories that are most likely to be followed remains a challenge. Despite a recognition that there may also be competition between successive alleles on the same trajectory, prior studies have not fully considered how this impacts adaptation rates along, or likelihood of following, individual trajectories...
November 21, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812547/lung-epithelial-cells-therapeutically-inducible-effectors-of-antimicrobial-defense
#17
REVIEW
M M Leiva-Juárez, J K Kolls, S E Evans
Lung epithelial cells are increasingly recognized to be active effectors of microbial defense, contributing to both innate and adaptive immune function in the lower respiratory tract. As immune sentinels, lung epithelial cells detect diverse pathogens through an ample repertoire of membrane-bound, endosomal, and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The highly plastic epithelial barrier responds to detected threats via modulation of paracellular flux, intercellular communications, mucin production, and periciliary fluid composition...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812009/the-bacteriological-quality-safety-and-antibiogram-of-salmonella-isolates-from-fresh-meat-in-retail-shops-of-bahir-dar-city-ethiopia
#18
Melkamnesh Azage, Mulugeta Kibret
The habit of raw meat consumption in addition to the poor hygienic standards and lack of knowledge contribute to food-borne diseases outbreaks. The objective of this research was to assess the bacterial quality and safety of fresh meat from retail Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. A total of 30 fresh meat samples were collected from butcher shops. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and enumerate bacteria. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella isolates...
2017: International journal of food science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811792/antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-patients-of-respiratory-tract-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-peshawar
#19
Abdul Samad, Tanveer Ahmed, Afaq Rahim, Abdul Khalil, Iftikhar Ali
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates in patients suffering from respiratory tract infection. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from January to December 2014 in Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre, Peshawar. A total of 615 sputum samples were collected from both in and out-patients. Sputum samples were collected as per standard procedure and were inoculated on Blood, MacConkey and Chocolate agar...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811751/bioactive-potential-of-3d-printed-oleo-gum-resin-disks-b-papyrifera-c-myrrha-and-s-benzoin-loading-nanooxides-tio2-p25-cu2o-and-moo3
#20
Diogo José Horst, Sergio Mazurek Tebcherani, Evaldo Toniolo Kubaski, Rogério de Almeida Vieira
This experimental study investigates the bioactive potential of filaments produced via hot melt extrusion (HME) and intended for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing purposes. The oleo-gum-resins from benzoin, myrrha, and olibanum in pure state and also charged with 10% of metal oxide nanoparticles, TiO2, P25, Cu2O, and MoO3, were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)...
2017: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
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