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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806136/harnessing-olig2-function-in-tumorigenicity-and-plasticity-to-target-malignant-gliomas
#1
Jennifer Kosty, Fanghui Lu, Robert Kupp, Shwetal Mehta, Q Richard Lu
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant brain tumor, displaying notorious resistance to conventional therapy, partially due to molecular and genetic heterogeneity. Understanding the mechanisms for gliomagenesis, tumor stem/progenitor cell propagation and phenotypic diversity is critical for devising effective and targeted therapy for this lethal disease. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor OLIG2, which is universally expressed in gliomas, has emerged as an important player in GBM cell reprogramming, genotoxic resistance, and tumor phenotype plasticity...
August 14, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805977/prevention-against-renal-damage-in-rats-with-subtotal-nephrectomy-by-sacubitril-valsartan-lcz696-a-dual-acting-angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitor
#2
Kentaro Ushijima, Hitoshi Ando, Yusuke Arakawa, Kenichi Aizawa, Chisato Suzuki, Ken Shimada, Shu-Ichi Tsuruoka, Akio Fujimura
Although patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular events, adequate drug therapies for preventing the deterioration of these conditions are still not established. This study was undertaken to evaluate a preventive effect of an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696), which is converted to sacubitril and valsartan in the body, against the progression of renal disease in rats with subtotal nephrectomy, an animal model of human CKD...
August 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805762/-a-study-of-combination-treatment-with-nacom-levodopa-carbodope-and-citicoline-in-the-model-of-parkinson-disease-in-rats
#3
V A Kashkin, E V Shekunova, M N Makarova, V G Makarov
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of the combined use of citicoline (neipilept) and levodopa/carbidopa (nakom) in the rotenone model of Parkinson's disease in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rotenone was administrated during 14 days in dose 2 mg/kg/day subcutaneously. The duration of treatment was 7 days, intragastrically. Alteration of locomotor behavior components, muscular rigidity in resistance to passive flexion in the ankle joint and signs of extrapyramidal disorders were assessed...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805741/alcohol-and-cancer-mechanisms-and-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Anuradha Ratna, Pranoti Mandrekar
Several scientific and clinical studies have shown an association between chronic alcohol consumption and the occurrence of cancer in humans. The mechanism for alcohol-induced carcinogenesis has not been fully understood, although plausible events include genotoxic effects of acetaldehyde, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species, aberrant metabolism of folate and retinoids, increased estrogen, and genetic polymorphisms. Here, we summarize the impact of alcohol drinking on the risk of cancer development and potential underlying molecular mechanisms...
August 14, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805581/nonmotor-parkinson-s-and-future-directions
#5
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) are integral to the condition largely regarded as a motor syndrome. A range of NMS underpin the prodromal stage of Parkinson's and are present with variable frequency, range, and nature across the whole journey of a patient with Parkinson's from the onset of the motor disease to palliative stage. These symptoms also are key determinants of quality of life of the patient as well as the carer. Despite this, recognition management and focused treatment of NMS of PD remain poor...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805303/controlled-release-of-igf1-enhances-urethral-sphincter-function-and-histological-structure-in-the-treatment-of-female-stress-urinary-incontinence-in-a-rodent-model
#6
Hao Yan, Liren Zhong, Yaodong Jiang, Jian Yang, Junhong Deng, Shicheng Wei, Emmanuel Opara, Anthony Atala, Xiangming Mao, Margot Damaser, Yuanyuan Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) diminishes the quality of life of millions, particularly women who have delivered vaginally, which can injure the urethral sphincter. Despite several well-established treatments for SUI, growth factor therapy might provide an alternative to promote urethral sphincter repair. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of controlled release of IGF1 from alginate-poly-L-ornithine-gelatin microbeads (IGF1-A-PLO-G microbeads) on sphincter tissue regeneration in a rat model of SUI...
August 14, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805182/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-research-tool-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
J P Robbins, J Price
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a novel, timely approach for investigating the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although we are starting to gain more insight into the specific mechanisms that cause Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, this has not resulted in therapies to slow the pathological processes. Animal models have been paramount in studying the neurobiological processes underlying psychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, these human conditions cannot be entirely recapitulated in rodents...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804709/exploring-animal-models-that-resemble-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#8
REVIEW
Jun Tashiro, Gustavo A Rubio, Andrew H Limper, Kurt Williams, Sharon J Elliot, Ioanna Ninou, Vassilis Aidinis, Argyrios Tzouvelekis, Marilyn K Glassberg
Large multicenter clinical trials have led to two recently approved drugs for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); yet, both of these therapies only slow disease progression and do not provide a definitive cure. Traditionally, preclinical trials have utilized mouse models of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis-though several limitations prevent direct translation to human IPF. Spontaneous pulmonary fibrosis occurs in other animal species, including dogs, horses, donkeys, and cats. While the fibrotic lungs of these animals share many characteristics with lungs of patients with IPF, current veterinary classifications of fibrotic lung disease are not entirely equivalent...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803934/doses-durations-and-gender-predict-vancomycin-induced-kidney-injury-in-pre-clinical-studies
#9
J Nicholas O'Donnell, Nathaniel J Rhodes, Cristina M Miglis, Lejla Catovic, Jiajun Liu, Cameron Cluff, Gwen Pais, Sean Avedissian, Medha Joshi, Brooke Griffin, Walter Prozialeck, Anil Gulati, Thomas P Lodise, Marc H Scheetz
Background While vancomycin's exposure-dependent efficacy thresholds have been probed, less is known regarding acute kidney injury (AKI) thresholds for vancomycin. Sensitive urinary biomarkers such as Kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) have shown high sensitivity and specificity for vancomycin-associated AKI. We sought to determine if dose-response curves existed with urinary KIM-1. Secondarily, we sought to evaluate the impact of therapy duration and gender status on observed relationships. Methods A systematic review was conducted via PubMed/MEDLINE...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803751/insulin-prevents-aberrant-mitochondrial-phenotype-in-sensory-neurons-of-type-1-diabetic-rats
#10
Mohamad-Reza Aghanoori, Darrell R Smith, Subir Roy Chowdhury, Mohammad Golam Sabbir, Nigel A Calcutt, Paul Fernyhough
Diabetic neuropathy affects approximately 50% of diabetic patients. Down-regulation of mitochondrial gene expression and function has been reported in both human tissues and in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that loss of direct insulin signaling in diabetes contributes to loss of mitochondrial function in DRG neurons and to development of neuropathy. Sensory neurons obtained from age-matched adult control or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats were cultured with or without insulin before determining mitochondrial respiration and expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain and insulin signaling-linked proteins...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803745/further-development-of-the-mronj-minipig-large-animal-model
#11
Sven Otto, Christoph Pautke, Olga Martin Jurado, Dirk Nehrbass, Martin J Stoddart, Michael Ehrenfeld, Stephan Zeiter
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a rare but serious and potentially severe side effect of antiresorptive therapy with bisphosphonates or denosumab. Recently, a large animal minipig MRONJ model was introduced which led to early necrotic lesions in the majority of extraction sites after bisphosphonate administration. The aim of this project was to modify the preoperative cumulative bisphosphonate dose (zoledronate) and hereby firstly to demonstrate the reliability and reproducibility of the established model...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803667/future-prospect-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-as-a-potential-therapy-in-asthma
#12
Y Kang, Y Cai
There is convincing evidence from both human and animal studies suggesting that the gut microbiota plays an important role in regulating immune responses associated with the development of asthma. Certain intestinal microbial strains have been demonstrated to suppress or impair immune responsiveness in asthma experimental models, suggesting that specific species among gut commensal microbiota may play either a morbific or phylactic role in the progression of asthma. Evidence to date suggests that the intestinal microbiota represent fertile targets for prevention or management of asthma...
August 10, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802983/systemic-and-local-management-of-burn-wounds
#13
REVIEW
Alessio Vigani, Christine A Culler
Management of severe burn injury (SBI) requires prompt, complex, and aggressive care. Despite major advances in the management of SBI-including patient-targeted resuscitation, management of inhalation injuries, specific nutritional support, enhanced wound therapy, and infection control-the consequences of SBI often result in complex, multiorgan metabolic changes. Consensus guidelines and clinical evidence regarding specific management of small animal burn patients are lacking. This article aims to review updated therapeutic consideration for the systemic and local management of SBI that are proven effective to optimize outcomes in human burn patients and may translate to small animal patients...
August 9, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802855/antifungal-resistance-in-mucorales
#14
E Dannaoui
The order Mucorales, which includes the agents of mucormycosis, comprises a large number of species. These fungi are characterized by high-level resistance to most currently available antifungal drugs. Standardized antifungal susceptibility testing methods are now available, allowing a better understanding of the in vitro activity of antifungal drugs against members of Mucorales. Such tests have made apparent that antifungal susceptibility within this group may be species-specific. Experimental animal models of mucormycosis have also been developed and are of great importance in bridging the gap between in vitro results and clinical trials...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802235/steviol-stabilizes-polycystin-1-expression-and-promotes-lysosomal-degradation-of-cftr-and-%C3%AE-catenin-proteins-in-renal-epithelial-cells
#15
Chaowalit Yuajit, Chatchai Muanprasat, Sureeporn Homvisasevongsa, Varanuj Chatsudthipong
Malfunction of polycystin 1 (PC1) is linked to abnormally high epithelial cell proliferation and fluid secretion, eventually leading to renal cyst development and declined renal function as found in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Currently, there is no effective therapy for ADPKD. Recent studies report PC1 regulates CFTR chloride channels and β-catenin levels in normal renal epithelial cells. Concurrently, our previous study found steviol retarded renal cyst enlargement in an in vitro and in an in vivo models by reducing CFTR expression and activity...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802204/humanized-mouse-models-to-study-human-cell-mediated-and-humoral-responses-to-dengue-virus
#16
REVIEW
Anuja Mathew
Several candidate dengue virus vaccines are in clinical trials and show promise as an effective measure to control dengue. However, it is becoming clear that additional vaccine candidates may be needed as there is concern about the durability of the immune response to all four serotypes of vaccine components and efficacy varies dependent on the immune status of the individual. The lack of an appropriate animal model to mimic human dengue has deterred the development of vaccines and anti-viral therapies to dengue virus...
August 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801498/comparison-of-veterinary-drugs-and-veterinary-homeopathy-part-1
#17
P Lees, L Pelligand, M Whiting, D Chambers, P-L Toutain, M L Whitehead
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products...
August 12, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801311/ethical-issues-when-modelling-brain-disorders-in-non-human-primates
#18
Carolyn P Neuhaus
Non-human animal models of human diseases advance our knowledge of the genetic underpinnings of disease and lead to the development of novel therapies for humans. While mice are the most common model organisms, their usefulness is limited. Larger animals may provide more accurate and valuable disease models, but it has, until recently, been challenging to create large animal disease models. Genome editors, such as Clustered Randomised Interspersed Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR), meet some of these challenges and bring routine genome engineering of larger animals and non-human primates (NHPs) well within reach...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800956/adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-is-it-the-alpha-and-omega-of-antidepressant-action
#19
REVIEW
Hoda Eliwa, Catherine Belzung, Alexandre Surget
It is now well established that all clinically available antidepressants share a common aptitude: they increase the production of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. This was first observed in animal models and subsequently in human populations, highlighting the clinical relevance of this finding. Later, it was suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis was not an epiphenomenal correlate of antidepressant action but was causally involved. Indeed, when neurogenesis is suppressed, antidepressant compounds can no longer achieve remission...
August 8, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800600/botulinum-neurotoxin-c-mutants-reveal-different-effects-of-syntaxin-or-snap-25-proteolysis-on-neuromuscular-transmission
#20
Giulia Zanetti, Stefan Sikorra, Andreas Rummel, Nadja Krez, Elisa Duregotti, Samuele Negro, Tina Henke, Ornella Rossetto, Thomas Binz, Marco Pirazzini
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype C (BoNT/C) is a neuroparalytic toxin associated with outbreaks of animal botulism, particularly in birds, and is the only BoNT known to cleave two different SNARE proteins, SNAP-25 and syntaxin. BoNT/C was shown to be a good substitute for BoNT/A1 in human dystonia therapy because of its long lasting effects and absence of neuromuscular damage. Two triple mutants of BoNT/C, namely BoNT/C S51T/R52N/N53P (BoNT/C α-51) and BoNT/C L200W/M221W/I226W (BoNT/C α-3W), were recently reported to selectively cleave syntaxin and have been used here to evaluate the individual contribution of SNAP-25 and syntaxin cleavage to the effect of BoNT/C in vivo...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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