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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431414/intratracheal-instillation-of-neutrophils-rescues-bacterial-overgrowth-initiated-by-trauma-damage-associated-molecular-patterns
#1
Kiyoshi Itagaki, Ingred Riça, Jing Zhang, Dave Gallo, Melissa DePrato, Leo E Otterbein, Carl J Hauser
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonias are common in trauma patients and so interventions to prevent and treat nosocomial pneumonia may improve outcomes. Our prior work strongly suggests that tissue injury predisposes to infections like nosocomial pneumonia because mitochondrial debris originating from injured cells contains damage-associated molecular patterns that can reduce neutrophil (PMN) migration into the airway and diminish PMN function in response to bacterial inoculation of the airway...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430812/nacl-cotransporter-abundance-in-urinary-vesicles-is-increased-by-calcineurin-inhibitors-and-predicts-thiazide-sensitivity
#2
Omar A Z Tutakhel, Arthur D Moes, Marco A Valdez-Flores, Marleen L A Kortenoeven, Mathijs V D Vrie, Sabina Jeleń, Robert A Fenton, Robert Zietse, Joost G J Hoenderop, Ewout J Hoorn, Luuk Hilbrands, René J M Bindels
Animal studies have shown that the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine and tacrolimus can activate the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC). A common side effect of CNIs is hypertension. Renal salt transporters such as NCC are excreted in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) after internalization into multivesicular bodies. Human studies indicate that CNIs also increase NCC abundance in uEVs, but results are conflicting and no relationship with NCC function has been shown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CsA and Tac on the abundance of both total NCC (tNCC) and phosphorylated NCC at Thr60 phosphorylation site (pNCC) in uEVs, and assessed whether NCC abundance in uEVs predicts the blood pressure response to thiazide diuretics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430642/immunocompetent-mouse-allograft-models-for-development-of-therapies-to-target-breast-cancer-metastasis
#3
Yuan Yang, Howard H Yang, Ying Hu, Peter H Watson, Huaitian Liu, Thomas R Geiger, Miriam R Anver, Diana C Haines, Philip Martin, Jeffrey E Green, Maxwell P Lee, Kent W Hunter, Lalage M Wakefield
Effective drug development to combat metastatic disease in breast cancer would be aided by the availability of well-characterized preclinical animal models that (a) metastasize with high efficiency, (b) metastasize in a reasonable time-frame, (c) have an intact immune system, and (d) capture some of the heterogeneity of the human disease. To address these issues, we have assembled a panel of twelve mouse mammary cancer cell lines that can metastasize efficiently on implantation into syngeneic immunocompetent hosts...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429751/preclinical-study-of-raav2-strail-pharmaceutical-efficacy-biodistribution-and-safety-in-animals
#4
Q Ru, W Li, X Wang, S Zhang, L Chen, Y Zhang, Y Ge, Y Zu, Y Liu, D Zheng
The recombinant sTRAIL has been in clinical trial for various human malignancies. However, the half-life time of sTRAIL is very short, which might be an important factor influencing its clinical efficacy for cancer therapy. We previously reported the recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV)-encoding sTRAIL95-281-mediated sTRAIL expression in vivo up to 8 months and suppressed tumor growth markedly in mouse xenografts. In the present study, we further evaluated the clinical potency for cancer gene therapy and the safety in mouse and non-human primates...
April 21, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429669/what-can-pharmacological-models-of-retinal-degeneration-tell-us
#5
M H Reisenhofer, J Balmer, V Enzmann
Animal models with pharmacologically induced retinal degeneration including sodium iodate (NaIO3) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) have been extensively used in ophthalmic research to investigate retinal degeneration. NaIO3 induces degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) followed by photoreceptor (PRC) cell death, mimicking features of age-related macular degeneration. In contrast, MNU leads to rapid destruction of the PRCs only, enabling the use of the MNU model to investigate degeneration induced in retinitis pigmentosa...
March 31, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429491/bringing-the-human-pancreas-into-focus-new-paradigms-for-the-understanding-of-type-1-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
N G Morgan
Type 1 diabetes affects increasingly large numbers of people globally (including at least half a million children under the age of 14 years) and it remains an illness with life-long and often devastating consequences. It is surprising, therefore, that the underlying aetiology of Type 1 diabetes remains poorly understood. This is largely because the cellular and molecular processes leading to the loss of β cells in the pancreas have rarely been studied at, or soon after, the onset of disease. Where such studies have been undertaken, a number of surprises have emerged which serve to challenge conventional wisdom...
April 20, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429194/photobiomodulation-therapy-associated-with-treadmill-training-in-the-oxidative-stress-in-a-collagen-induced-arthritis-model
#7
Solange Almeida Dos Santos, Marcia Ataize Dos Santos Vieira, Maira Cécilia Brandão Simões, Andrey Jorge Serra, Ernesto Cesar Leal-Junior, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by chronic and systemic inflammation, which leads to the destruction of the cartilage and bone and affects tissues in multiple joints. Oxidative stress has been implicated with regards to involvement in various disease conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative, respiratory, cardiovascular, and RA diseases. In vivo experimental studies using photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) have shown positive effects in reducing lipid peroxidation and in increasing antioxidant activity...
April 21, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429193/effect-of-non-coherent-infrared-light-led-%C3%AE-945%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-20%C3%A2-nm-on-bone-repair-in-diabetic-rats-morphometric-and-spectral-analyses
#8
Alexandre Greca Diamantino, Renata Amadei Nicolau, Davidson Ribeiro Costa, Alessandra Paes de Barros Almeida, Danila Xênia de Miranda Mato, Marco Antonio de Oliveira, Ana Maria do Espírito Santo
Phototherapy using coherent light (lasers) and non-coherent light (light-emitting diodes (LEDs)) has been investigated for the purpose of biomodulation in biological tissues. Several effects can be expected, including pain moderation, biostimulation of cellular tropism, anti-inflammatory effects, regular circulatory stimulation, and tissue repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LED (λ945 ± 20 nm, 48 mW) therapy on the regeneration process in femoral lesions of rats (Wistar). Seven irradiation sessions were held, with a 48-h interval between sessions...
April 20, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429038/-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibition-for-treatment-of-endothelial-barrier-and-microcirculation-disorders-in-sepsis
#9
REVIEW
J Wollborn, N Schlegel, M A Schick
Sepsis is commonly associated with loss of microvascular endothelial barrier function (capillary leak) and dysfunctional microcirculation, which both promote organ failure. The development of a distinct therapy of impaired endothelial barrier function and disturbed microcirculation is highly relevant because both of these phenomena constitute crucial processes which critically influence the prognosis of patients. Numerous in vivo and in vitro trials over the past years have fostered a better understanding of the pathophysiology of capillary leak...
April 20, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428753/a-clinical-perspective-of-anti-fibrotic-therapies-for-cardiovascular-disease
#10
REVIEW
Lu Fang, Andrew J Murphy, Anthony M Dart
Cardiac fibrosis are central to various cardiovascular diseases. Research on the mechanisms and therapeutic targets for cardiac fibrosis has advanced greatly in recent years. However, while many anti-fibrotic treatments have been studied in animal models and seem promising, translation of experimental findings into human patients has been rather limited. Thus, several potential new treatments which have shown to reduce cardiac fibrosis in animal models have either not been tested in humans or proved to be disappointing in clinical trials...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428350/targeted-inactivation-of-copper-transporter-atp7b-in-hepatocytes-causes-liver-steatosis-and-obesity-in-mice
#11
Abigael Muchenditsi, Haojun Yang, James P Hamilton, Lahari Koganti, Franck Housseau, Lisa Aronov, Hongni Fan, Hannah Pierson, Ashima Bhattacharjee, Robert C Murphy, Cynthia L Sears, James J Potter, Clavia Ruth Wooton-Kee, Svetlana Lutsenko
The copper transporter ATP7B is essential for mammalian copper homeostasis. Mutations in ATP7B result in copper accumulation, especially in the liver, and cause Wilson disease (WD). The major role of hepatocytes in WD pathology is firmly established. It is less certain whether the excess Cu in hepatocytes is solely responsible for development of WD. To address this issue, we generated a mouse strain for Cre-mediated deletion of Atp7b and inactivated Atp7b selectively in hepatocytes. Atp7bΔ(Hep) mice accumulate copper in the liver, have elevated urinary copper, lack holo-ceruloplasmin, but show no liver disease for up to 30 weeks...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428349/toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-hemorrhagic-transformation-after-delayed-tissue-plasminogen-activator-administration-in-in-situ-thromboembolic-stroke
#12
Alicia García-Culebras, Sara Palma-Tortosa, Ana Moraga, Isaac García-Yébenes, Violeta Durán-Laforet, Maria I Cuartero, Juan de la Parra, Ana L Barrios-Muñoz, Jaime Díaz-Guzmán, Jesús M Pradillo, María A Moro, Ignacio Lizasoain
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemorrhagic transformation is the main complication of revascularization therapies after stroke. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is implicated in cerebral damage and inflammation in stroke. This study was designed to determine the role of TLR4 in hemorrhagic transformation development after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) administration. METHODS: Mice expressing (TLR4(+/+)) or lacking functional TLR4 (TLR4(-)(/-)) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion using an in situ thromboembolic model by thrombin injection into the middle cerebral artery, and tPA (10 mg/kg) was administered 20 minutes or 3 hours after ischemia...
April 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428133/epidemiological-study-of-common-diseases-and-their-risk-factors-in-camels-in-south-punjab-pakistan
#13
Aneela Zameer Durrani, Zubair Bashir, Imran Rasheed, Noor-Ul-Ain Sarwar
Bacteriological study of mastitis along with common blood protozoan diseases were studied in dromedary camels in Cholistan, Dera Ismail Khan and Rahim Yar Khan districts in South Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose 300 camels were sampled randomly at different common grazing and watering point. For study of blood parasites clinically suspected and apparently healthy camels, 150 each, were sampled. An overall prevalence of 15%and 5% was recorded for trypanosomiasis and Anaplasmosis respectively. Trypanosoma evansi was identified with 280 bp product on polymerase chain reaction test...
April 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428116/cycloastragenol-improves-hepatic-steatosis-by-activating-farnesoid-x-receptor-signalling
#14
Ming Gu, Shiying Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Jinwen Huang, Yahui Wang, Yin Li, Shengjie Fan, Li Yang, Guang Ji, Qingchun Tong, Cheng Huang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a global health problem. However, there is no approved therapy for NAFLD. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a potential drug target for treatment of NAFLD. In an attempt to screen FXR agonists, we found that cycloastragenol (CAG), a natural occurring compound in Astragali Radix, stimulated FXR transcription activity. In animal studies, we demonstrated that CAG treatment resulted in obvious reduction of high-fat diet induced lipid accumulation in liver accompanied by lowered blood glucose, serum triglyceride levels and hepatic bile acid pool size...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428049/stem-cells-for-retinal-disease-a-perspective-on-the-promise-and-perils
#15
Rajesh C Rao, Vaidehi S Dedania, Mark W Johnson
PURPOSE: To summarize key concepts, and early safety and efficacy signals from clinical trials for stem/progenitor cell-based interventions for retinal disease. DESIGN: Interpretive essay. METHODS: Review and synthesis of selected recent reports of stem/progenitor cell-based approaches for retinal disease, with interpretation and perspective. RESULTS: Stem/progenitor cell-based interventions represent a novel class of potential therapies for retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, inherited retinal dystrophies, and others...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428016/the-role-of-low-level-laser-therapy-on-neuropathic-pain-relief-and-interleukin-6-expression-following-spinal-cord-injury-an-experimental-study
#16
Negin Mojarad, Atousa Janzadeh, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Farinaz Nasirinezhad
INTRODUCTION: The effect of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) as a non-invasive treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) is still under investigation. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of LLLT on neuropathic pain and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression following SCI in male rats. METHODS: 46 adult male rats were divided into 5 groups of control, SCI, treatment with methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS), 1-week LLLT and 2-week LLLT. Animals underwent behavioral evaluations for motor behavior, level of allodynia and hyperalgesia every week...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427967/mechanisms-underlying-hiv-associated-non-infectious-lung-disease
#17
REVIEW
Rachel M Presti, Sonia C Flores, Brent E Palmer, Jeffrey J Atkinson, Catherine R Lesko, Bryan Lau, Andrew P Fontenot, Jesse Roman, John F McDyer, Homer L Twigg
Pulmonary disease remains a primary source of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV (PLWH), although the advent of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has resulted in a shift from predominantly infectious to noninfectious pulmonary complications. PLWH are at high risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, and lung cancer even in the era of cART. The underlying mechanisms of this are incompletely understood, but recent research in both human and animal models suggest that oxidative stress, expression of matrix metalloproteinases, and genetic instability may result in lung damage which predisposes PLWH to these conditions...
April 17, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427752/spontaneously-arising-tumours-and-tumour-like-lesions-of-the-cervix-and-uterus-in-83-pet-guinea-pigs-cavia-porcellus
#18
C Laik-Schandelmaier, R Klopfleisch, S Schöniger, G Weiffenbach, M Staudacher, H Aupperle
Tumours and tumour-like lesions are rare findings in the genital system of guinea pigs. The aim of the present study was to characterize nodular lesions in the cervix and uterus of guinea pigs submitted for histopathological diagnosis. Samples from 83 pet animals were investigated. Cases included 64 surgically excised masses including complete uteri (n = 37), parts from uteri containing masses (n = 8), complete masses (n = 12) or samples from masses (n = 7) and 19 complete necropsy examinations. In 55 of the cases, only solitary changes were observed; in 28 cases two or more lesions were diagnosed...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427564/inflammation-in-epileptic-encephalopathies
#19
Oleksii Shandra, Solomon L Moshé, Aristea S Galanopoulou
West syndrome (WS) is an infantile epileptic encephalopathy that manifests with infantile spasms (IS), hypsarrhythmia (in ~60% of infants), and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The etiologies of WS can be structural-metabolic pathologies (~60%), genetic (12%-15%), or of unknown origin. The current treatment options include hormonal treatment (adrenocorticotropic hormone and high-dose steroids) and the GABA aminotransferase inhibitor vigabatrin, while ketogenic diet can be given as add-on treatment in refractory IS...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425467/hyperpolarized-13-c-spectroscopic-evaluation-of-oxidative-stress-in-a-rodent-model-of-steatohepatitis
#20
David M Wilson, Valentina Di Gialleonardo, Zhen J Wang, Valerie Carroll, Cornelius Von Morze, Andrew Taylor, Victor Sai, Mark VanCriekinge, Robert Bok, Michael A Ohliger, Kayvan R Keshari
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become highly prevalent, now considered the most common liver disease in the western world. Approximately one-third of patients with NASH develop non-alchoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), histologically defined by lobular and portal inflammation, and accompanied by marked oxidative stress. Patients with NASH are at increased risk for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and diagnosis currently requires invasive biopsy. In animal models of NASH, particularly the methionine-choline deficient (MCD) model, profound changes are seen in redox enzymes and key intracellular antioxidants...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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