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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816642/proteomic-analysis-of-the-human-olfactory-bulb
#1
Manjunath Dammalli, Gourav Dey, Anil K Madugundu, Manish Kumar, Benvil Rodrigues, Harsha Gowda, Bychapur Gowrishankar Siddaiah, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla Krishna Shankar, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava Prasad
The importance of olfaction to human health and disease is often underappreciated. Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in association with a host of common complex diseases, including neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. For health, olfaction or the sense of smell is also important for most mammals, for optimal engagement with their environment. Indeed, animals have developed sophisticated olfactory systems to detect and interpret the rich information presented to them to assist in day-to-day activities such as locating food sources, differentiating food from poisons, identifying mates, promoting reproduction, avoiding predators, and averting death...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808954/heavy-metal-pollutants-in-selected-organs-of-african-giant-rats-from-three-agro-ecological-zones-of-nigeria-evidence-for-their-role-as-an-environmental-specimen-bank
#2
Ifukibot Levi Usende, Benjamin O Emikpe, James Olukayode Olopade
An assessment of the concentration of heavy metals in the liver, brain, kidney, bone, and lungs of African giant rats (AGRs) from three agro-ecological zones of Nigeria having different industrial activities was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Twenty adult AGRs from cities in mangrove/freshwater swamp, rainforest, and woodland/tall grass savanna agro-ecological zones of Nigeria were used for this study. AGRs were euthanized, carefully dissected, and the brains, liver, lungs, bone, and kidneys were harvested, digested, and analyzed for concentrations of vanadium (V), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe)...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800500/sb223412-a-neurokinin-3-receptor-selective-antagonist-suppresses-testosterone-secretion-in-male-guinea-pigs
#3
Sho Nakamura, Yoshiko Ito, Koki Yamamoto, Chudai Takahashi, Mingdao Dai, Miyu Tanahashi, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Hiroko Tsukamura, Shinya Oishi, Kei-Ichiro Maeda, Fuko Matsuda
Guinea pigs are important zoo animals and have been recommended for animal-assisted activities or therapy, however there are problems concerning testosterone inducing aggressive or sexual behaviors in male guinea pigs. Testicular testosterone secretion is regulated by pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) release in mammals. The mechanism generating GnRH/LH pulses is thought to be governed by kisspeptin neurons, which coexpress neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A (Dyn), in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
July 31, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789591/microwave-assisted-extraction-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-polysaccharides-from-posidonia-oceanica
#4
Yosra Ben Salem, Amal Abdelhamid, Khaoula Mkadmini Hammi, Didier Le Cerf, Abderrahman Bouraoui, Hatem Majdoub
Microwave-assisted extraction was employed for the isolation of polysaccharides from Posidonia oceanica (PPO). The extracting parameters were optimized adopting response surface methodology. The highest polysaccharide yield (2.55 ± 0.09%), which is in concordance with the predicted value (2.76%), was obtained under the following conditions: extraction time 60 s, liquid-solid ratio of 50:1 (mL/g) and power of 800 W. This polysaccharide, with molecular weight of 524 KDa, characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that PPO was mainly composed of galactose, glucose, and arabinose with molar percentages 25...
August 9, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760441/retinal-metabolism-a-comparative-look-at-energetics-in-the-retina
#5
REVIEW
Michael W Country
The retina is part of the central nervous system, and shares the characteristically high metabolism of the brain. The high energy demand of the retina is normally matched with a large supply of metabolites. When supply does not equal demand (e.g. if retinal blood flow is impaired), retinal neurons are at risk of excitotoxic cell death and vision is impaired or lost. Understanding the energetic budget of the retina is therefore crucial for understanding the pathology and treatment of retinal disease. In this minireview I give an overview of the energetics of the retina, with a focus on lessons learnt from comparative physiology...
July 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756255/microwave-assisted-solid-phase-extraction-for-separation-preconcentration-sulfamethoxazole-in-wastewater-using-tyre-based-activated-carbon-as-solid-phase-material-prior-to-spectrophotometric-determination
#6
K Mogolodi Dimpe, Anele Mpupa, Philiswa N Nomngongo
This work was chiefly encouraged by the continuous consumption of antibiotics which eventually pose harmful effects on animals and human beings when present in water systems. In this study, the activated carbon (AC) was used as a solid phase material for the removal of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in wastewater samples. The microwave assisted solid phase extraction (MASPE) as a sample extraction method was employed to better extract SMX in water samples and finally the analysis of SMX was done by the UV-Vis spectrophotometer...
July 22, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752052/the-role-of-ghrelin-responsive-mediobasal-hypothalamic-neurons-in-mediating-feeding-responses-to-fasting
#7
Bharath K Mani, Sherri Osborne-Lawrence, Mathieu Mequinion, Sydney Lawrence, Laurent Gautron, Zane B Andrews, Jeffrey M Zigman
OBJECTIVE: Ghrelin is a stomach-derived hormone that affects food intake and regulates blood glucose. The best-characterized actions of ghrelin are mediated by its binding to and activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor). Adequate examination of the identity, function, and relevance of specific subsets of GHSR-expressing neurons has been hampered by the absence of a suitable Cre recombinase (Cre)-expressing mouse line with which to manipulate gene expression in a targeted fashion within GHSR-expressing neurons...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744884/shear-stress-induced-total-blood-trauma-in-multiple-species
#8
Chris H H Chan, Ina Laura Pieper, Christian R Robinson, Yasmin Friedmann, Venkateswarlu Kanamarlapudi, Catherine A Thornton
The common complications in heart failure patients with implanted ventricular assist devices (VADs) include hemolysis, thrombosis, and bleeding. These are linked to shear stress-induced trauma to erythrocytes, platelets, and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Novel device designs are being developed to reduce the blood trauma, which will need to undergo in vitro and in vivo preclinical testing in large animal models such as cattle, sheep, and pig. To fully understand the impact of device design and enable translation of preclinical results, it is important to identify any potential species-specific differences in the VAD-associated common complications...
July 26, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735821/medical-practitioners-attitudes-towards-animal-assisted-interventions-an-italian-survey
#9
Anna Pinto, Marta De Santis, Carlo Moretti, Luca Farina, Licia Ravarotto
OBJECTIVES: The present study had a dual purpose: to obtain a comprehensive picture of the Italian medical practitioners' opinions, professional experiences, training needs and knowledge of Animal Assisted Interventions (AAI); and to provide a detailed description of the medical practitioners who are characterized by a strongly positive attitude towards AAI. METHODS: An online survey addressed to Italian medical practitioners was carried out using a 35-items structured questionnaire...
August 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721542/molecular-characterization-modeling-in-silico-analysis-of-equine-pituitary-gonadotropin-alpha-subunit-and-docking-interaction-studies-with-ganirelix
#10
Anuradha Bhardwaj, Varij Nayan, Parvati Sharma, Sanjay Kumar, Yash Pal, Jitender Singh
Equine pituitary gonadotropins (eLH, eFSH, eCG) are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones with alpha (α) and beta (β) subunits. It is responsible for maintenance of pregnancy in mares during early gestation and fairly valuable for inducing superovulation in animals other than equines. The alpha subunit is common, while beta subunit is species-specific in all glycoprotein hormones. In the present investigation, molecular cloning and in silico characterization including homology modeling and molecular docking analysis of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) alpha subunit was carried out for gaining structural and functional insights into the eCG alpha subunit and its possible interaction with ganirelix, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist...
December 2016: In Silico Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701540/a-novel-paraplegia-model-in-awake-behaving-macaques
#11
Max Ostrinsky Krucoff, Katie Zhuang, David B Macleod, Allen Yin, Yoon Woo Byun, Roberto Jose Manson, Dennis A Turner, Laura Oliveira, Mikhail A Lebedev
Lower limb paralysis from spinal cord injury (SCI) or neurological disease carries a poor prognosis for recovery and remains a large societal burden. Neurophysiological and neuroprosthetic research have the potential to improve quality of life for these patients; however, the lack of an ethical and sustainable non-human primate model for paraplegia hinders their advancement. Therefore, our multi-disciplinary team developed a way to induce temporary paralysis in awake behaving macaques by creating a fully implantable lumbar epidural catheter-subcutaneous port system that enables easy and reliable targeted drug delivery for sensorimotor blockade...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698229/changes-in-the-phosphoproteome-of-brown-adipose-tissue-during-hibernation-in-the-ground-squirrel-ictidomys-tridecemlineatus
#12
Didier Vertommen, Gaetan Herinckx, Nusrat Hussain, Fred Opperdoes, Kenneth B Storey, Mark H Rider
Mammalian hibernation is characterized by metabolic rate depression and a strong decrease in core body temperature. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a thermogenic tissue that uses uncoupled mitochondrial respiration to generate heat instead of ATP, plays a major role in rewarming from deep torpor. In the present study we developed a label-free LC-MS strategy to investigate both differential protein expression and protein phosphorylation in BAT extracts from euthermic versus hibernating ground squirrels. In particular, we incorporated the filter-assisted sample preparation (FASP) protocol, which provides a more in-depth analysis compared with gel-based and other LC-MS proteomics approaches...
July 10, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693538/patient-benefit-of-dog-assisted-interventions-in-health-care-a-systematic-review
#13
Martina Lundqvist, Per Carlsson, Rune Sjödahl, Elvar Theodorsson, Lars-Åke Levin
BACKGROUND: Dogs are the most common companion animal, and therefore not surprisingly a popular choice for animal-assisted interventions. Dog-assisted interventions are increasingly used in healthcare. The aim of the review was to conduct a systematic literature review of quantitative studies on dog-assisted interventions in healthcare, with the intention of assessing the effects and cost-effectiveness of the interventions for different categories of patients. METHODS: A systematic review of the scientific literature reporting results of studies in healthcare, nursing home or home care settings, was conducted...
July 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663311/the-use-of-physiology-based-pk-and-pd-modeling-in-the-discovery-of-the-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonist-act-541468
#14
Alexander Treiber, Ruben de Kanter, Catherine Roch, John Gatfield, Christoph Boss, Markus von Raumer, Benno Schindelholz, Clemens Muehlan, Joop van Gerven, Francois Jenck
The identification of new sleep drugs poses particular challenges in drug discovery due to disease-specific requirements such as rapid onset of action, sleep maintenance throughout major parts of the night, and absence of residual next-day effects. Robust tools to estimate drug levels in human brain are therefore key for a successful discovery program. Animal models constitute an appropriate choice for drugs without species differences in receptor pharmacology or pharmacokinetics. Translation to man becomes more challenging in case inter-species differences are prominent...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660769/platelets-as-a-surrogate-disease-model-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders-insights-from-fragile-x-syndrome
#15
David Pellerin, Audrey Lortie, François Corbin
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability and the leading monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite a large number of therapeutics developed in past years, there is currently no targeted treatment approved for FXS. In fact, translation of the positive and very promising preclinical findings from animal models to human subjects has so far fallen short owing in part to the low predictive validity of the Fmr1 ko mouse, an overly simplistic model of the complex human disease...
June 29, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629387/an-updated-assessment-of-microglia-depletion-current-concepts-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Jinming Han, Robert A Harris, Xing-Mei Zhang
Microglia are the principal resident immune cells in the central nervous system and are believed to be versatile players in both inflammatory and physiological contexts. On the one hand, in order to safeguard the microenvironment microglia can be rapidly activated by contact with microbial products or cell debris, thereby exerting the functions of innate immunity via phagocytosis and secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Conversely, microglia can also assist in brain development, synaptic plasticity and neural repair through the production of neurotrophic factors and clearance of myelin debris...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625714/proteomic-analysis-of-seminal-plasma-from-locally-adapted-curraleiro-p%C3%A3-duro-bulls-bos-taurus-identifying-biomarkers-involved-in-sperm-physiology-in-endangered-animals-for-conservation-of-biodiversity
#17
E B Menezes, R V de Oliveira, M F van Tilburg, E A Barbosa, N V Nascimento, A L M C S Velho, F B Moreno, R A Moreira, A C O Monteiro-Moreira, G M C Carvalho, A F Ramos, E Memili, A A Moura
The present study was aimed at evaluating the seminal plasma proteins and sperm parameters of Curraleiro Pé-Duro bulls. Semen was collected from 10 bulls by electroejaculation, and sperm parameters were evaluated in fresh and frozen-thawed semen. Seminal plasma proteins were analyzed by 2-D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrophotometry. Tools in computational biology were used to generate bioinformatic knowledge and evaluate gene ontology, protein-protein interactions, phylogenetic trees and multiple sequence alignments...
May 29, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614971/pilot-study-of-therapy-dog-visits-for-inpatient-youth-with-cancer
#18
Jessica Chubak, Rene Hawkes, Christi Dudzik, Jessica M Foose-Foster, Lauren Eaton, Rebecca H Johnson, Catherine Fiona Macpherson
This study assessed the feasibility of studying animal-assisted activities (AAA) in inpatient pediatric oncology and collected preliminary data on potential benefits of AAA for this population. Patients at a large pediatric hospital were identified using electronic medical records and approached with physician approval. Patients completed surveys before and after a therapy dog visit in their private hospital room. Data on infections were ascertained by electronic medical record review. Provider surveys were placed in provider common areas and distributed through a link in an e-mail...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604632/experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae-induced-elevated-expression-of-the-e1-isoform-of-methyl-cpg-binding-protein-2-mecp2e1-implications-in-multiple-sclerosis-ms-induced-neurological-disability-and-associated-myelin-damage
#19
Tina Khorshid Ahmad, Ting Zhou, Khaled AlTaweel, Claudia Cortes, Ryan Lillico, Ted Martin Lakowski, Kiana Gozda, Michael Peter Namaka
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease characterized by the destruction of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. At present, there is no cure for MS due to the inability to repair damaged myelin. Although the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a beneficial role in myelin repair, these effects may be hampered by the over-expression of a transcriptional repressor isoform of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) called MeCP2E1. We hypothesize that following experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-induced myelin damage, the immune system induction of the pathogenic MeCP2E1 isoform hampers the myelin repair process by repressing BDNF expression...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594888/semiochemicals-released-from-five-bacteria-identified-from-animal-wounds-infested-by-primary-screwworms-and-their-effects-on-fly-behavioral-activity
#20
Junwei J Zhu, Muhammad F Chaudhury, Lisa M Durso, Agustin Sagel, Steven R Skoda, Nadia S Jelvez-Serra, Euzebio Goulart Santanab
BACKGROUND: The Primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is a serious pest feeding on living flesh of any warm-blooded animal, including humans. It was eradicated from the United States in the early 1980s using the sterile male technique. However, it was recently detected in populations of wild deer and pets in the Florida Keys of the US. For monitoring purposes, screwworm flies are normally trapped using attractant bait with liver. However, there has been little effort to develop an efficient monitoring system for detection of screwworm flies using a specific synthetic attractant blend...
2017: PloS One
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