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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219107/molecular-methods-for-detection-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#1
Muna F Anjum, Ea Zankari, Henrik Hasman
The increase in bacteria harboring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem because there is a paucity of antibiotics available to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in humans and animals. Detection of AMR present in bacteria that may pose a threat to veterinary and public health is routinely performed using standardized phenotypic methods. Molecular methods are often used in addition to phenotypic methods but are set to replace them in many laboratories due to the greater speed and accuracy they provide in detecting the underlying genetic mechanism(s) for AMR...
December 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200722/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-postprandial-glycemic-activity-of-citrus-limetta-peel-flour
#2
José Miguel Flores-Fernández, Carla Patricia Barragán-Álvarez, Nestor Emmanuel Díaz-Martínez, Socorro Villanueva-Rodríguez, Eduardo Padilla-Camberos
Background: Previous studies of Citrus spp. peel have shown hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities. Citrus limetta has been studied for its therapeutic properties. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a health problem in Mexico and worldwide, that takes a vital importance due to its high incidence. Recently, scientists have searched natural sources to control the disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the in vitro hypoglycemic activity and in vivo postprandial glycemic effect of C...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197408/the-sleep-and-circadian-modulation-of-neural-reward-pathways-a-protocol-for-a-pair-of-systematic-reviews
#3
Jamie E M Byrne, Greg Murray
BACKGROUND: Animal research suggests that neural reward activation may be systematically modulated by sleep and circadian function. Whether humans also exhibit sleep and circadian modulation of neural reward pathways is unclear. This area is in need of further research, as it has implications for the involvement of sleep and circadian function in reward-related disorders. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a pair of systematic literature reviews to synthesise existing literature related to (1) sleep and (2) circadian modulation of neural reward pathways in healthy human populations...
December 2, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187620/ocellar-structure-is-driven-by-the-mode-of-locomotion-and-activity-time-in-myrmecia-ants
#4
Ajay Narendra, Willi A Ribi
Insects have exquisitely adapted their compound eyes to suit the ambient light intensity in the different temporal niches they occupy. In addition to the compound eye, most flying insects have simple eyes known as ocelli, which assist in flight stabilisation, horizon detection and orientation. Among ants, typically the flying alates have ocelli while the pedestrian workers lack this structure. The Australian ant genus Myrmecia is one of the few ant genera in which both workers and alates have three ocellar lenses...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186915/development-of-a-dog-assisted-activity-program-in-an-elementary-classroom
#5
Cinzia Correale, Lara Crescimbene, Marta Borgi, Francesca Cirulli
Here we describe a pilot Dog-Assisted Activity program that was designed to improve wellbeing and social integration in a multi-cultural elementary classroom in which some episodes of bullying had been reported. We developed a 5-encounters protocol with the aim of introducing pet dogs into the class to stimulate understanding of different types of communication and behavior, ultimately facilitating positive relationships among peers. A preliminary evaluation was carried out in order to assess the effect of the program on teachers' perception of children's difficulties (e...
November 27, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185993/detection-of-protease-activity-by-fluorescent-protein-fret-sensors-from-computer-simulation-to-live-cells
#6
Alexander S Goryashchenko, Maria G Khrenova, Alexander P Savitsky
FRET sensors are widely used for the detection of protease activity in vitro and in vivo. Usually they consist of a FRET pair connected with a polypeptide linker containing a specific cleavage site for the relevant protease. Use of the fluorescent proteins as components of the FRET pair allows the genetic encoding of such sensors and solves the problem of their delivery into live cells and animals. There are several ways to improve the properties of such sensors, mainly to increase FRET efficiency and therefore the dynamic range...
November 29, 2017: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181451/impact-of-trichiasis-surgery-on-daily-living-a-longitudinal-study-in-ethiopia
#7
Esmael Habtamu, Tariku Wondie, Sintayehu Aweke, Zerihun Tadesse, Mulat Zerihun, Berhanu Melak, Bizuayehu Gashaw, Kelly Callahan, Paul M Emerson, Robin L Bailey, David C W Mabey, Saul N Rajak, Hannah Kuper, Sarah Polack, David Macleod, Helen A Weiss, Matthew J Burton
Background: Trachomatous trichiasis (TT) may lead to disability, impeding productive activities, resulting in loss of income. This study was conducted to determine if trichiasis surgery improves participation in productive and leisure activities, and ability to perform activities without difficulty or assistance. Methods: We recruited 1000 adults with trichiasis (cases) and 200 comparison participants, matched to every fifth trichiasis case on age (+/- two years), sex and location. The 'Stylised Activity List' tool, developed for the World Bank Living Standard Measurement Survey, was adapted to collect data on activity in the last week (participation in activity, difficulty with activity, requirement of assistance for activity), at baseline and 12 months later...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180048/proteolytic-and-amylolytic-enzymes-from-a-newly-isolated-bacillus-mojavensis-sa-characterization-and-applications-as-laundry-detergent-additive-and-in-leather-processing
#8
Amal Hammami, Nahed Fakhfakh, Ola Abdelhedi, Moncef Nasri, Ahmed Bayoudh
The present work aims to study the simultaneous production of highly alkaline proteases and thermostable α-amylases by a newly isolated bacterium Bacillus mojavensis SA. The optimum pH and temperature of amylase activity were 9.0 and 55°C, respectively, while those of the proteolytic activity were 12.0 and 60°C, respectively. Both α-amylase and protease enzymes showed a high stability towards a wide range of pH and temperature. Furthermore, SA crude enzymes were relatively stable towards non-ionic (Tween 20, Tween 80 and Triton X-100) and anionic (SDS) surfactants, as well as oxidizing agents...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163434/neglected-australian-arboviruses-and-undifferentiated-febrile-illness-addressing-public-health-challenges-arising-from-the-developing-northern-australia-government-policy
#9
Narayan Gyawali, Richard S Bradbury, John G Aaskov, Andrew W Taylor-Robinson
The Australian Government is currently promoting the development of Northern Australia, with an associated increase in the local population. Consequent to this is the public health threat posed by heightened human exposure to many previously neglected arboviruses that are indigenous to the region. This initiative to support economic activity in the tropical north of the continent is leading to the accelerated expansion of an infection-naïve human population into hitherto un-encountered ecosystems inhabited by reservoir animals and vectors for these arboviruses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161013/intelligent-peptide-gathering-mechanical-arm-tames-wild-trojan-horse-peptides-for-the-controlled-delivery-of-cancer-nanotherapeutics
#10
Nian-Qiu Shi, Yan Li, Yong Zhang, Nan Shen, Ling Qi, Shu-Ran Wang, Xian-Rong Qi
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), also called "Trojan-Horse" peptides, have been used for facilitating intracellular delivery of numerous diverse cargoes and even nanocarriers. However, the lack of targeting specificity ("wildness" or nonselectivity) of CPP-nanocarriers remains an intractable challenge for many in vivo applications. In this work, we used an intelligent "peptide-gathering mechanical arm" (Int PMA) to curb CPPs' wildness and enhance the selectivity of R9-liposome-based cargo delivery for tumor targeting...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156586/in-depth-glyco-peptidomics-approach-reveals-unexpected-diversity-of-glycosylated-peptides-and-atypical-post-translational-modifications-in-dendroaspis-angusticeps-snake-venom
#11
Michel Degueldre, Julien Echterbille, Nicolas Smargiasso, Christian Damblon, Charlotte Gouin, Gilles Mourier, Nicolas Gilles, Edwin De Pauw, Loïc Quinton
Animal venoms represent a valuable source of bioactive peptides that can be derived into useful pharmacological tools, or even innovative drugs. In this way, the venom of Dendroaspis angusticeps (DA), the Eastern Green Mamba, has been intensively studied during recent years. It mainly contains hundreds of large toxins from 6 to 9 kDa, each displaying several disulfide bridges. These toxins are the main target of venom-based studies due to their valuable activities obtained by selectively targeting membrane receptors, such as ion channels or G-protein coupled receptors...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155651/enhancing-surveillance-and-diagnostics-in-anthrax-endemic-countries
#12
Antonio R Vieira, Johanna S Salzer, Rita M Traxler, Katherine A Hendricks, Melissa E Kadzik, Chung K Marston, Cari B Kolton, Robyn A Stoddard, Alex R Hoffmaster, William A Bower, Henry T Walke
Naturally occurring anthrax disproportionately affects the health and economic welfare of poor, rural communities in anthrax-endemic countries. However, many of these countries have limited anthrax prevention and control programs. Effective prevention of anthrax outbreaks among humans is accomplished through routine livestock vaccination programs and prompt response to animal outbreaks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention uses a 2-phase framework when providing technical assistance to partners in anthrax-endemic countries...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149813/structural-analysis-of-cd59-of-chinese-tree-shrew-a-new-reference-molecule-for-human-immune-system-specific-cd59-drug-discovery
#13
Subhamay Panda, Leena Kumari, Santamay Panda
BACKGROUND: Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) bear several characteristics that are considered to be very crucial for utilizing in animal experimental models in biomedical research. Subsequent to the identification of key aspects and signaling pathways in nervous and immune systems, it is revealed that tree shrews acquires shared common as well as unique characteristics, and hence offers a genetic basis for employing this animal as a prospective model for biomedical research...
November 17, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137652/characterization-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-from-austrian-companion-animals-and-horses
#14
Maximilian Ginders, Michael Leschnik, Frank Künzel, Doris Kampner, Claudia Mikula, Georg Steindl, Inga Eichhorn, Andrea T Feßler, Stefan Schwarz, Joachim Spergser, Igor Loncaric
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the genetic relatedness and the antimicrobial resistance profiles of a collection of Austrian Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from companion animals and horses. A total of 12 non-repetitive isolates presumptively identified as S. pneumoniae were obtained during routinely diagnostic activities between March 2009 and January 2017. RESULTS: Isolates were confirmed as S. pneumoniae by bile solubility and optochin susceptibility testing, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and sequence analysis of a part recA and the 16S rRNA genes...
November 14, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136189/serum-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-treatment-outcomes-among-women-undergoing-assisted-reproduction
#15
Y-H Chiu, A E Karmon, A J Gaskins, M Arvizu, P L Williams, I Souter, B R Rueda, R Hause, J E Chavarro
STUDY QUESTION: Are serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations, including omega-3 (ω3-PUFA) and omega-6 (ω6-PUFA), related to ART outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Serum levels of long-chain ω3-PUFA were positively associated with probability of live birth among women undergoing ART. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Intake of ω3-PUFA improves oocyte and embryo quality in animal and human studies. However, a recent cohort study found no relation between circulating ω3-PUFA levels and pregnancy rates after ART...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135514/prevalence-and-clinical-characteristics-of-local-allergic-rhinitis-to-house-dust-mites
#16
Yoo Seob Shin, Chang-Gyu Jung, Hae-Sim Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is a recently classified subtype of rhinitis defined by a nasal allergic response in patients without systemic evidence of atopy. Recent studies have reported the prevalence, clinical course, culprit allergens, diagnostic methods and treatment outcomes of LAR. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most relevant and updated scientific evidence for LAR, especially focusing on its prevalence and clinical characteristics. RECENT FINDINGS: LAR is found in a significant proportion (3...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119254/potential-pharmacological-chaperones-for-cystathionine-beta-synthase-deficient-homocystinuria
#17
Tomas Majtan, Angel L Pey, Paula Gimenez-Mascarell, Luis Alfonso Martínez-Cruz, Csaba Szabo, Viktor Kožich, Jan P Kraus
Classical homocystinuria (HCU) is the most common loss-of-function inborn error of sulfur amino acid metabolism. HCU is caused by a deficiency in enzymatic degradation of homocysteine, a toxic intermediate of methionine transformation to cysteine, chiefly due to missense mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene. As with many other inherited disorders, the pathogenic mutations do not target key catalytic residues, but rather introduce structural perturbations leading to an enhanced tendency of the mutant CBS to misfold and either to form nonfunctional aggregates or to undergo proteasome-dependent degradation...
November 10, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107082/purification-and-characterization-of-an-anti-hemorrhagic-protein-from-naja-naja-indian-cobra-venom
#18
K N Suvilesh, M Yariswamy, M N Savitha, Vikram Joshi, A N Nanjaraj Urs, Amog P Urs, M Choudhury, D Velmurugan, B S Vishwanath
Snake venom Kunitz-type proteins are well known to inhibit serine proteases but a few studies have also shown matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) inhibition. In view of the fact that MMPs and snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) have similar catalytic site, inhibition of SVMP activity by Kunitz-type proteins remains to be studied. Recent proteomic studies of Naja naja (N. naja) venom revealed the abundance of Kunitz-type proteins. In this regard, present study aimed at purification of a protease inhibitor from N...
October 26, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102147/invited-review-breeding-and-ethical-perspectives-on-genetically-modified-and-genome-edited-cattle
#19
S Eriksson, E Jonas, L Rydhmer, H Röcklinsberg
The hot topic of genetic modification and genome editing is sometimes presented as a rapid solution to various problems in the field of animal breeding and genetics. These technologies hold potential for future use in agriculture but we need to be aware of difficulties in large-scale application and integration in breeding schemes. In this review, we discuss applications of both classical genetic modifications (GM) using vectors and genome editing in dairy cattle breeding. We use an interdisciplinary approach considering both ethical and animal breeding perspectives...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101800/pharmacotherapeutic-potential-of-phytochemicals-implications-in-cancer-chemoprevention-and-future-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Varinder Kaur, Manish Kumar, Ajay Kumar, Kamaldeep Kaur, Varinderpal Singh Dhillon, Satwinderjeet Kaur
Cancer is a leading cause of disease burden throughout the world. Many cancers develop as a result of exposure to both lifestyle and environmental factors that are potentially modifiable. In the last few years, much of the scientific attention has drawn to the discovery of new and effective chemopreventive agents from natural sources. A multitude of phytoconstituents have been explored for their potential to prevent the occurrence of carcinogenesis both in vitro and in vivo by means of diverse cellular and molecular approaches...
November 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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