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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441797/animal-assisted-intervention-and-dementia-a-systematic-review
#1
Michelle L Yakimicki, Nancy E Edwards, Elizabeth Richards, Alan M Beck
This review discusses the relationship between animal-assisted interventions (AAI) and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). A systematic search was conducted within CINAHL, Web of Science CAB Abstracts, PubMed, Abstracts in Social Gerontology, Google Scholar, and PsycINFO for primary research articles. A total of 32 studies were included in the final review. Variation was noted in study designs and in study setting. Twenty-seven of 32 studies used dogs as the intervention. Agitation/aggression showed a significant decrease in nine of 15 studies...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410003/pig-kdm5b-mrna-expression-profiles-of-different-tissues-and-testicular-cells-and-association-analyses-with-testicular-morphology-traits
#2
Yang Cui, Yanghai Zhang, Zhenyu Wei, Jiayang Gao, Ting Yu, Rui Chen, Xiaoyan Lv, Chuanying Pan
Lysine specific demethylase 5B gene (KDM5B, also known as JARID1B or PLU-1), encoding an enzyme of the lysine-specific histone demethylase family, has been reported to regulate androgen receptor transcriptional activity and male reproduction. To fully study the expression characteristics and genetic effects of pig KDM5B gene, the objective of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression profiles of KDM5B among different tissues and testicular cells (spermatogonia stem cells, SSCs; sertoli cells, SCs; leydig cells, LCs), as well as to explore the insertion/deletion (indel) variations of this gene...
January 30, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407896/free-gossypol-supplementation-frequency-and-reproductive-toxicity-in-young-bulls
#3
L K Hatamoto-Zervoudakis, M F Duarte Júnior, J T Zervoudakis, T F Motheo, R P Silva-Marques, P P Tsuneda, M Nichi, B S E Santo, R D Almeida
The aim of the present study was to analyze seminal quality of young bulls subjected to different frequencies of gossypol supplementation. Forty-eight Nellore bulls, with 19 months of age and weighing 357.8 ± 7.2 kg, were used in this study. Animals were fed with 10.5 kg of standard supplement containing free-gossypol from whole cottonseed (WCS) at the following frequency: 3x/week (G3x), 5x/week (G5x) or 7x/week (G7x - Control). Additionally, a negative control was provided, and the treated animals received only mineral supplement (MM) ad libtum...
January 9, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386286/modifications-to-the-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-2a-peptide-influence-on-polyprotein-processing-and-virus-replication
#4
Jonas Kjær, Graham J Belsham
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has a positive-sense ssRNA genome that includes a single, large, open reading frame encoding a polyprotein. The co-translational "cleavage" of this polyprotein at the 2A/2B junction is mediated by the 2A peptide (18 residues in length) using a non-proteolytic mechanism termed "ribosome skipping" or "StopGo". Multiple variants of the 2A polypeptide with this property among the picornaviruses share a conserved C-terminal motif (D(V/I)E(S/T)NPG↓P). The impact of 2A modifications within this motif on FMDV protein synthesis, polyprotein processing and virus viability were investigated...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381352/design-and-mechanism-of-s-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-cyclopent-1-ene-1-carboxylic-acid-a-highly-potent-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-aminotransferase-inactivator-for-the-treatment-of-addiction
#5
Jose I Juncosa, Kenji Takaya, Hoang V Le, Matthew J Moschitto, Pathum M Weerawarna, Romila Mascarenhas, Dali Liu, Stephen L Dewey, Richard B Silverman
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Inhibition of GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that degrades GABA, has been established as a possible strategy for the treatment of substance abuse. The raised GABA levels that occur as a consequence of this inhibition have been found to antagonize the rapid release of dopamine in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) that follows an acute challenge by an addictive substance...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380329/in-vivo-electrical-stimulation-for-the-assessment-of-skeletal-muscle-contractile-function-in-murine-models
#6
Kaio F Vitzel, Marco A Fortes, Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr, Maria V M Scervino, Carlos H Pinheiro, Leonardo R Silveira, Rui Curi
Skeletal muscle electrical stimulation is commonly used for clinical purposes, assisting recovery, preservation, or even improvement of muscle mass and function in healthy and pathological conditions. Additionally, it is a useful research tool for evaluation of skeletal muscle contractile function. It may be applied in vitro, using cell culture or isolated fibers/muscles, and in vivo, using human subjects or animal models (neuromuscular electrical stimulation - NMES). This chapter focuses on the electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve as a research method for evaluation of the contractile properties of murine hind limb muscles...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378182/activation-of-mitochondrial-fusion-provides-a-new-treatment-for-mitochondria-related-diseases
#7
Aliz Szabo, Katalin Sumegi, Katalin Fekete, Eniko Hocsak, Balazs Debreceni, Gyorgy Setalo, Krisztina Kovacs, Laszlo Deres, Andras Kengyel, Dominika Kovacs, Jozsef Mandl, Miklos Nyitrai, Mark A Febbraio, Ferenc Gallyas, Balazs Sumegi
Mitochondria fragmentation destabilizes mitochondrial membranes, promotes oxidative stress and facilitates cell death, thereby contributing to the development and the progression of several mitochondria-related diseases. Accordingly, compounds that reverse mitochondrial fragmentation could have therapeutic potential in treating such diseases. BGP-15, a hydroxylamine derivative, prevents insulin resistance in humans and protects against several oxidative stress-related diseases in animal models. Here we show that BGP-15 promotes mitochondrial fusion by activating optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), a GTPase dynamin protein that assist fusion of the inner mitochondrial membranes...
January 26, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370127/food-acquisition-through-private-and-public-social-networks-and-its-relationship-with-household-food-security-among-various-socioeconomic-statuses-in-south-korea
#8
Sohyun Park, Kirang Kim
This study was conducted to understand food acquisition practices from social networks and its relationship with household food security. In-depth interviews and a survey on food security were conducted with twenty-nine mothers and one father in metropolitan areas of South Korea. Many families acquired food from their extended families, mainly participants' mothers. Between low-income and non-low-income households, there was a pattern of more active sharing of food through private networks among non-low-income households...
January 25, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368001/pharmacokinetics-tissue-localization-toxicity-and-treatment-efficacy-in-the-first-small-animal-rabbit-model-of-intra-arterial-chemotherapy-for-retinoblastoma
#9
Anthony B Daniels, Michael T Froehler, Janene M Pierce, Amy H Nunnally, M Wade Calcutt, Thomas M Bridges, David C LaNeve, Phillip E Williams, Kelli L Boyd, Michelle L Reyzer, Craig W Lindsley, Debra L Friedman, Ann Richmond
Purpose: Current intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) drug regimens for retinoblastoma have ocular and vascular toxicities. No small-animal model of IAC exists to test drug efficacy and toxicity in vivo for IAC drug discovery. The purpose of this study was to develop a small-animal model of IAC and to analyze the ocular tissue penetration, distribution, pharmacokinetics, and treatment efficacy. Methods: Following selective ophthalmic artery (OA) catheterization, melphalan (0...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363584/neurogenesis-during-abstinence-is-necessary-for-context-driven-methamphetamine-related-memory
#10
Melissa H Galinato, Yoshio Takashima, McKenzie J Fannon, Leon W Quach, Roberto J Morales Silva, Karthik K Mysore, Michael J Terranova, Rahul R Dutta, Ryan W Ostrom, Sucharita S Somkuwar, Chitra D Mandyam
Abstinence from methamphetamine addiction enhances proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors and increases adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG). We hypothesized that neurogenesis during abstinence contributes to context-driven drug-seeking behaviors. To test this hypothesis, the pharmacogenetic rat model (GFAP-TK rats) was used to conditionally and specifically ablate neurogenesis in the DG. Male GFAP-TK rats were trained to self-administer methamphetamine or sucrose and were administered the antiviral drug valganciclovir (Valcyte) to produce apoptosis of actively dividing GFAP-type 1 stem-like cells to inhibit neurogenesis during abstinence...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355995/dysphagia-secondary-to-focal-inflammatory-myopathy-and-consequent-dorsiflexion-of-the-tongue-in-a-dog
#11
P C Strøm, S L Marks, J A Rivera, G D Shelton
A 14-month-old female pitbull terrier mix was presented for evaluation of dysphagia of 8 months' duration secondary to intermittent dorsiflexion of the tongue apex. Physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable with the exception of the dorsiflexed tongue. Serum creatine kinase activity was increased (703 IU/L, reference interval: 55 to 257 IU/L), and electromyography of the tongue demonstrated areas of fibrillation potentials. Histopathology of the tongue showed myopathic changes with excessive variability in myofibre size and endomysial fibrosis...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333553/microwave-assisted-synthesis-of-tempo-labeled-hydrogels-traceable-with-mri
#12
Emanuele Mauri, Edoardo Micotti, Arianna Rossetti, Lucio Melone, Simonetta Papa, Giulia Azzolini, Stefano Rimondo, Pietro Veglianese, Carlo Punta, Filippo Rossi, Alessandro Sacchetti
Polymer functionalization strategies have recently attracted considerable attention for several applications in biomaterials science. In particular, technological advancements in medical imaging have focused on the design of polymeric matrices to improve non-invasive approaches and diagnostic accuracy. In this scenario, the use of microwave irradiation of aqueous solutions containing appropriate combinations of polymers is gaining increasing interest in the synthesis of sterile hydrogels without using monomers, eliminating the need to remove unreacted species...
January 15, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305535/an-insula-central-amygdala-circuit-for-guiding-tastant-reinforced-choice-behavior
#13
Hillary Schiff, Anna Lien Bouhuis, Kai Yu, Mario A Penzo, Haohong Li, Miao He, Bo Li
Predicting which substances are suitable for consumption during foraging is critical for animals to survive. Despite extensive study, the neural circuit mechanisms underlying such adaptive behavior remain poorly understood. Here we examined the anatomical and functional connectivity of the insular cortex (IC) to central amygdala (CeA) circuit and the role of this circuit in the establishment of appropriate behavioral responses in a tastant (sucrose/quinine)-reinforced "go/no-go" task in male and female mice...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286458/surgical-training-for-the-implantation-of-neocortical-microelectrode-arrays-using-a-formaldehyde-fixed-human-cadaver-model
#14
Pierre Mégevand, Alain Woodtli, Aude Yulzari, G Rees Cosgrove, Shahan Momjian, Bojan V Stimec, Marco V Corniola, Jean H D Fasel
This protocol describes a procedure to assist surgeons in training for the implantation of microelectrode arrays into the neocortex of the human brain. Recent technological progress has enabled the fabrication of microelectrode arrays that allow recording the activity of multiple individual neurons in the neocortex of the human brain. These arrays have the potential to bring unique insight onto the neuronal correlates of cerebral function in health and disease. Furthermore, the identification and decoding of volitional neuronal activity opens the possibility to establish brain-computer interfaces, and thus might help restore lost neurological functions...
November 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274427/purification-in-vitro-antioxidant-and-in-vivo-anti-aging-activities-of-soluble-polysaccharides-by-enzyme-assisted-extraction-from-agaricus-bisporus
#15
Shangshang Li, Min Liu, Chen Zhang, Chengye Tian, Xiuxiu Wang, Xinling Song, Huijuan Jing, Zheng Gao, Zhenzhen Ren, Weiru Liu, Jianjun Zhang, Le Jia
In present study, the soluble polysaccharides by enzyme-assisted extraction from Agaricus bisporus (EnAPS) and its purified fractions of EnAPS-1, -2 and -3 were successfully obtained, and the antioxidant activities and anti-aging effects were investigated. The in vitro antioxidant assay demonstrated that EnAPS-2 had superior scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, chelating activities of Fe2+ and reducing power. The in vivo animal experiments showed that both EnAPS and its purifies fractions had potential anti-aging effects against the D-galctose-induced aging diseases on liver, kidney, brain and skin, possibly by increasing the antioxidant enzymes, reducing the lipid peroxidation, improving the organ functions and remitting the lipid metabolism...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248595/quantification-of-11b-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-kinetics-and-pharmacodynamic-effects-of-inhibitors-in-brain-using-mass-spectrometry-imaging-and-stable-isotope-tracers-in-mice
#16
D F Cobice, D E W Livingstone, A McBride, C L MacKay, B R Walker, S P Webster, R Andrew
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1; EC 1.1.1.146) generates active glucocorticoid hormones. Small molecule inhibitors have been developed to target 11β-HSD1 for the treatment of dementia; these must enter brain subregions, such as the hippocampus, to be effective. We previously reported mass spectrometry imaging measurement of murine tissue steroids, and deuterated steroid tracer infusion quantification of 11 β -HSD1 turnover in humans. Here, these tools are combined to assess tissue pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of an 11 β -HSD1 inhibitor that accesses the brain...
December 14, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240631/in-vivo-5-day-animal-studies-of-a-compact-wearable-pumping-artificial-lung
#17
Shalv P Madhani, Brian J Frankowski, Sang-Ho Ye, Greg W Burgreen, William R Wagner, Robert Kormos, Jonathan D'Cunha, William J Federspiel
Recent studies show improved outcomes in ambulated lung failure patients. Ambulation still remains a challenge in these patients. This necessitates development of more compact and less cumbersome respiratory support specifically designed to be wearable. The Paracorporeal Ambulatory Assist Lung (PAAL) is being designed for providing ambulatory support in lung failure patients during bridge to transplant or recovery. We previously published in vitro and acute in vivo results of the PAAL. This study further evaluates the PAAL for 5 days...
December 11, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219107/molecular-methods-for-detection-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#18
Muna F Anjum, Ea Zankari, Henrik Hasman
The increase in bacteria harboring antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem because there is a paucity of antibiotics available to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in humans and animals. Detection of AMR present in bacteria that may pose a threat to veterinary and public health is routinely performed using standardized phenotypic methods. Molecular methods are often used in addition to phenotypic methods but are set to replace them in many laboratories due to the greater speed and accuracy they provide in detecting the underlying genetic mechanism(s) for AMR...
December 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200722/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-postprandial-glycemic-activity-of-citrus-limetta-peel-flour
#19
José Miguel Flores-Fernández, Carla Patricia Barragán-Álvarez, Nestor Emmanuel Díaz-Martínez, Socorro Villanueva-Rodríguez, Eduardo Padilla-Camberos
Background: Previous studies of Citrus spp. peel have shown hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities. Citrus limetta has been studied for its therapeutic properties. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a health problem in Mexico and worldwide, that takes a vital importance due to its high incidence. Recently, scientists have searched natural sources to control the disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated the in vitro hypoglycemic activity and in vivo postprandial glycemic effect of C...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197408/the-sleep-and-circadian-modulation-of-neural-reward-pathways-a-protocol-for-a-pair-of-systematic-reviews
#20
Jamie E M Byrne, Greg Murray
BACKGROUND: Animal research suggests that neural reward activation may be systematically modulated by sleep and circadian function. Whether humans also exhibit sleep and circadian modulation of neural reward pathways is unclear. This area is in need of further research, as it has implications for the involvement of sleep and circadian function in reward-related disorders. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a pair of systematic literature reviews to synthesise existing literature related to (1) sleep and (2) circadian modulation of neural reward pathways in healthy human populations...
December 2, 2017: Systematic Reviews
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