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Animal-assisted activities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901267/binge-alcohol-intake-after-hypergravity-stress-sustainably-decreases-ampk-and-transcription-factors-necessary-for-hepatocyte-survival
#1
Sang Gil Lee, Hong Min Wu, Chan Gyu Lee, Choong Sik Oh, So Won Chung, Sang Geon Kim
BACKGROUND: Binge alcohol consumption elicits mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatocytes. An understanding of the effect of ethanol (EtOH) exposure after hypergravity stress on liver function may assist in the implementation of pathophysiological countermeasures for aerospace missions. This study investigated whether a combination of hypergravity stress and binge alcohol intake has a detrimental effect on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other molecules necessary for hepatocyte survival...
November 30, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899701/-calm-satisfied-comforting-the-experience-and-meaning-of-rabbit-assisted-activities-for-older-adults
#2
Natalie Pitheckoff, Sara J McLaughlin, Kate de Medeiros
Animal-assisted activity programs are commonly used in long-term care facilities to enhance the well-being of older residents. Although research suggests that older adults benefit from these programs, little is known about the experience from the perspective of older adults themselves. In this qualitative study, we used direct observation and in-depth interviews to gain an understanding of the experience of participating in a unique rabbit-assisted activity program delivered in a Midwestern residential facility...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886245/early-evidence-of-stone-tool-use-in-bone-working-activities-at-qesem-cave-israel
#3
Andrea Zupancich, Stella Nunziante-Cesaro, Ruth Blasco, Jordi Rosell, Emanuela Cristiani, Flavia Venditti, Cristina Lemorini, Ran Barkai, Avi Gopher
For a long while, the controversy surrounding several bone tools coming from pre-Upper Palaeolithic contexts favoured the view of Homo sapiens as the only species of the genus Homo capable of modifying animal bones into specialised tools. However, evidence such as South African Early Stone Age modified bones, European Lower Palaeolithic flaked bone tools, along with Middle and Late Pleistocene bone retouchers, led to a re-evaluation of the conception of Homo sapiens as the exclusive manufacturer of specialised bone tools...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882211/novel-perspectives-on-the-role-of-the-human-microbiota-in-regenerative-medicine-and-surgery
#4
Tommaso Pellegatta, Marco Saler, Viola Bonfanti, Giovanni Nicoletti, Angela Faga
Plastic surgery is transitioning from a fine craftsmanship to a regenerative science. In wound healing, the role of microorganisms is no longer considered to be just counteracting, but also promoting. Furthermore, host-microbe interactions are essential for numerous aspects of normal mammalian physiology, from metabolic activity to immune homeostasis. Each area of the human body hosts a unique microbial community, and the composition of microbiota is dependent on the host, age and the anatomical area, and it changes according to the characteristics of the microenvironment...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880936/dietary-grape-seed-proanthocyanidins-gsps-improve-weaned-intestinal-microbiota-and-mucosal-barrier-using-a-piglet-model
#5
Meng Han, Peixia Song, Chang Huang, Arash Rezaei, Shabnam Farrar, Michael A Brown, Xi Ma
Proanthocyanidins have been suggested as an effective antibiotic alternative, however their mechanisms are still unknown. The present study investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins on gut microbiota and mucosal barrier using a weaned piglet model in comparison with colistin. Piglets weaned at 28 day were randomly assigned to four groups treated with a control ration, or supplemented with 250 mg/kg proanthocyanidins, kitasamycin/colistin, or 250 mg/kg proanthocyanidins and half-dose antibiotics, respectively...
November 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880763/inhibition-of-mtor-induces-a-paused-pluripotent-state
#6
Aydan Bulut-Karslioglu, Steffen Biechele, Hu Jin, Trisha A Macrae, Miroslav Hejna, Marina Gertsenstein, Jun S Song, Miguel Ramalho-Santos
Cultured pluripotent stem cells are a cornerstone of regenerative medicine owing to their ability to give rise to all cell types of the body. Although pluripotent stem cells can be propagated indefinitely in vitro, pluripotency is paradoxically a transient state in vivo, lasting 2-3 days around the time of blastocyst implantation. The exception to this rule is embryonic diapause, a reversible state of suspended development triggered by unfavourable conditions. Diapause is a physiological reproductive strategy widely employed across the animal kingdom, including in mammals, but its regulation remains poorly understood...
December 1, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862500/antibodies-to-h1-histone-from-the-sera-of-hiv-infected-patients-recognize-and-catalyze-site-specific-degradation-of-this-histone
#7
Svetlana V Baranova, Pavel S Dmitrienok, Nikita V Ivanisenko, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
Histones and their posttranslational modifications have key roles in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. Besides intranuclear functions, histones act as damage-associated molecules when they are released into the extracellular space. Administration of histones to animals leads to systemic inflammatory and toxic responses. Autoantibodies with enzymatic activities (abzymes) are distinctive feature of some autoimmune and viral diseases. Electrophoretically and immunologically homogeneous IgGs containing no canonical enzymes were isolated from sera of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients by chromatography on several affinity sorbents...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770890/osseointegration-is-improved-by-coating-titanium-implants-with-a-nanostructured-thin-film-with-titanium-carbide-and-titanium-oxides-clustered-around-graphitic-carbon
#8
Francesca Veronesi, Gianluca Giavaresi, Milena Fini, Giovanni Longo, Caterina Alexandra Ioannidu, Anna Scotto d'Abusco, Fabiana Superti, Gianluca Panzini, Carlo Misiano, Alberto Palattella, Paolo Selleri, Nicola Di Girolamo, Viola Garbarino, Laura Politi, Roberto Scandurra
Titanium implants coated with a 500nm nanostructured layer, deposited by the Ion Plating Plasma Assisted (IPPA) technology, composed of 60% graphitic carbon, 25% titanium oxides and 15% titanium carbide were implanted into rabbit femurs whilst into the controlateral femurs uncoated titanium implants were inserted as control. At four time points the animals were injected with calcein green, xylenol orange, oxytetracycline and alizarin. After 2, 4 and 8weeks femurs were removed and processed for histology and static and dynamic histomorphometry for undecalcified bone processing into methylmethacrylate, sectioned, thinned, polished and stained with Toluidine blue and Fast green...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768064/applications-of-in-vivo-functional-testing-of-the-rat-tibialis-anterior-for-evaluating-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-repair
#9
Ellen L Mintz, Juliana A Passipieri, Daniel Y Lovell, George J Christ
Despite the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle, permanent functional and/or cosmetic deficits (e.g., volumetric muscle loss (VML) resulting from traumatic injury, disease and various congenital, genetic and acquired conditions are quite common. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies have enormous potential to provide a therapeutic solution. However, utilization of biologically relevant animal models in combination with longitudinal assessments of pertinent functional measures are critical to the development of improved regenerative therapeutics for treatment of VML-like injuries...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751862/the-impella-cp-device-for-acute-mechanical-circulatory-support-in-refractory-cardiac-arrest
#10
Henrik Vase, Steffen Christensen, Aage Christiansen, Christian Juhl Therkelsen, Evald Høj Christiansen, Hans Eiskjær, Steen Hvidtfeldt Poulsen
INTRODUCTION: Mechanical circulatory support may be considered as a therapeutic option in selected patients with refractory cardiac arrest (rCA). Animal studies suggest a potential role for the Impella(®) left ventricular assist device in this setting, but so far no human data have been published. METHODS: Eight patients with rCA were treated with the Impella CP(®) device at our institution from November 2014 to October 2015. The Impella CP(®) was used at the discretion of the treating physicians in patients with rCA and pulseless electrical activity with presumed primary left ventricular failure...
October 14, 2016: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746677/more-than-just-a-break-from-treatment-how-substance-use-disorder-patients-experience-the-stable-environment-in-horse-assisted-therapy
#11
Ann Kern-Godal, Ida Halvorsen Brenna, Espen Ajo Arnevik, Edle Ravndal
Inclusion of horse-assisted therapy (HAT) in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is rarely reported. Our previous studies show improved treatment retention and the importance of the patient-horse relationship. This qualitative study used thematic analysis, within a social constructionist framework, to explore how eight patients experienced contextual aspects of HAT's contribution to their SUD treatment. Participants described HAT as a "break from usual treatment". However, four interrelated aspects of this experience, namely "change of focus", "activity", "identity", and "motivation," suggest HAT is more than just a break from usual SUD treatment...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736955/crystal-structure-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-ecm4-a-xi-class-glutathione-transferase-that-reacts-with-glutathionyl-hydro-quinones
#12
Mathieu Schwartz, Claude Didierjean, Arnaud Hecker, Jean-Michel Girardet, Mélanie Morel-Rouhier, Eric Gelhaye, Frédérique Favier
Glutathionyl-hydroquinone reductases (GHRs) belong to the recently characterized Xi-class of glutathione transferases (GSTXs) according to unique structural properties and are present in all but animal kingdoms. The GHR ScECM4 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied since 1997 when it was found to be potentially involved in cell-wall biosynthesis. Up to now and in spite of biological studies made on this enzyme, its physiological role remains challenging. The work here reports its crystallographic study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702512/relationships-between-protein-content-starch-molecular-structure-and-grain-size-in-barley
#13
Wenwen Yu, Xinle Tan, Wei Zou, Zhenxia Hu, Glen P Fox, Michael J Gidley, Robert G Gilbert
Correlations among barley protein, starch molecular structure and grain size were determined using 30 barley samples with variable protein contents. Starch molecular structure was characterized by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis and by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC, also termed GPC). The chain-length distributions of amylopectin were fitted using a mathematical model reflecting the relative activities of starch branching enzymes and starch synthase enzymes. Increased protein content significantly and negatively correlated with higher amounts of amylose with longer chains (degree of polymerization, DP 1600-40000) while barley grain sizes positively associated with starch contents...
January 2, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698667/myo-inositol-safety-in-pregnancy-from-preimplantation-development-to-newborn-animals
#14
Nilay Kuşcu, Mariano Bizzarri, Arturo Bevilacqua
Myo-inositol (myo-Ins) has a physiological role in mammalian gametogenesis and embryonic development and a positive clinical impact on human medically assisted reproduction. We have previously shown that mouse embryo exposure to myo-Ins through preimplantation development in vitro increases proliferation activity and blastocyst production, representing an improvement in culture conditions. We have herein investigated biochemical mechanisms elicited by myo-Ins in preimplantation embryos and evaluated myo-Ins effects on postimplantation/postnatal development...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693423/possible-influence-of-vitamin-d-on-male-reproduction
#15
Ida Marie Boisen, Lasse Bøllehuus Hansen, Li Juel Mortensen, Beate Lanske, Anders Juul, Martin Blomberg Jensen
Vitamin D is a versatile signaling molecule with an established role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone health. In recent years the spectrum of vitamin D target organs has expanded and a reproductive role is supported by the presence of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D metabolizing enzymes in the gonads, reproductive tract, and human spermatozoa. Interestingly, expression levels of VDR and the vitamin D inactivating enzyme CYP24A1 in human spermatozoa serve as positive predictive markers of semen quality and are higher expressed in spermatozoa from normal than infertile men...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683825/coa7-c1orf163-resa1-mutations-associated-with-mitochondrial-leukoencephalopathy-and-cytochrome-c-oxidase-deficiency
#16
Anabel Martinez Lyons, Anna Ardissone, Aurelio Reyes, Alan J Robinson, Isabella Moroni, Daniele Ghezzi, Erika Fernandez-Vizarra, Massimo Zeviani
BACKGROUND: Assembly of cytochrome c oxidase (COX, complex IV, cIV), the terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is assisted by several factors, most of which are conserved from yeast to humans. However, some of them, including COA7, are found in humans but not in yeast. COA7 is a 231aa-long mitochondrial protein present in animals, containing five Sel1-like tetratricopeptide repeat sequences, which are likely to interact with partner proteins. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was carried out on a 19 year old woman, affected by early onset, progressive severe ataxia and peripheral neuropathy, mild cognitive impairment and a cavitating leukodystrophy of the brain with spinal cord hypotrophy...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680307/spect-and-fluorescence-imaging-of-vulnerable-atherosclerotic-plaque-with-a-vascular-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-single-chain-antibody-fragment
#17
Chunbao Liu, Xiao Zhang, Yiling Song, Yichun Wang, Fengzhen Zhang, Yingying Zhang, Yongxue Zhang, Xiaoli Lan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Early detection and evaluation of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque are important for risk stratification and timely intervention, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) assists in adhesion and recruitment of inflammatory cells to vulnerable lesions. We labeled a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of VCAM1 with (99m)technetium ((99m)Tc) and fluorescent markers to investigate its potential utility in detecting vulnerable plaques in animal models of atherosclerosis...
September 13, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663233/macrophages-mediated-diagnosis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-using-fibrin-based-magnetic-nanoparticles-as-mri-contrast-agents
#18
Prabu Periyathambi, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara Sastry, Suresh Kumar Anandasadagopan, Kanagavel Manickavasagam
BACKGROUND: A variety of bioimaging tools assists in the diagnosis and evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other osteoarthritis. However, detection of RA in the early stages by targeting its macrophages with suitable contrast agents will help in arresting the progression of the disease. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of using magnetic fibrin nanoparticles (MFNPs) conjugated with folic acid (FA-MFNPs) as a specific contrast agent to target the activated macrophages, which overexpress the folate receptors (FR) in the knee joints of rats with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA)...
September 20, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642163/restoration-of-eye-closure-in-facial-paralysis-using-implantable-electromagnetic-actuator
#19
Shaheen Hasmat, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning, Tsu-Hui Hubert Low, Jonathan Clark
The most devastating outcome of facial nerve paralysis is the inability to completely close the eye as it can lead to corneal ulceration and loss of vision. Gravity-assisted eye closure with upper lid loading is commonly used; however it is limited in replicating physiological eye closure to adequately lubricate the cornea. Superior results can be obtained using more advanced reconstructive approaches, however they depend on nerve regrowth which may be unpredictable and prolonged. This report describes a novel technique for creating an active eye closure using an implantable actuator...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633038/pharmacological-interactions-of-paraoxonase-1-pon1-a-hdl-bound-antiatherogenic-enzyme
#20
Abdolkarim Mahrooz
A growing interest exists in documenting the role of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in different human diseases including, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancers, aging, and several neurological disorders. Three aspects of PON1 has attracted the attention of researchers: (1) hydrolyzing and detoxifying of toxic organophosphorous compounds such as nerve gases; (2) antioxidative activity in hydrolyzing oxidized phospholipids in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL); (3) interaction with various drugs...
September 15, 2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
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