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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629387/an-updated-assessment-of-microglia-depletion-current-concepts-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
Jinming Han, Robert A Harris, Xing-Mei Zhang
Microglia are the principal resident immune cells in the central nervous system and are believed to be versatile players in both inflammatory and physiological contexts. On the one hand, in order to safeguard the microenvironment microglia can be rapidly activated by contact with microbial products or cell debris, thereby exerting the functions of innate immunity via phagocytosis and secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Conversely, microglia can also assist in brain development, synaptic plasticity and neural repair through the production of neurotrophic factors and clearance of myelin debris...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625714/proteomic-analysis-of-seminal-plasma-from-locally-adapted-curraleiro-p%C3%A3-duro-bulls-bos-taurus-identifying-biomarkers-involved-in-sperm-physiology-in-endangered-animals-for-conservation-of-biodiversity
#2
E B Menezes, R V de Oliveira, M F van Tilburg, E A Barbosa, N V Nascimento, A L M C S Velho, F B Moreno, R A Moreira, A C O Monteiro-Moreira, G M C Carvalho, A F Ramos, E Memili, A A Moura
The present study was aimed at evaluating the seminal plasma proteins and sperm parameters of Curraleiro Pé-Duro bulls. Semen was collected from 10 bulls by electroejaculation, and sperm parameters were evaluated in fresh and frozen-thawed semen. Seminal plasma proteins were analyzed by 2-D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrophotometry. Tools in computational biology were used to generate bioinformatic knowledge and evaluate gene ontology, protein-protein interactions, phylogenetic trees and multiple sequence alignments...
May 29, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614971/pilot-study-of-therapy-dog-visits-for-inpatient-youth-with-cancer
#3
Jessica Chubak, Rene Hawkes, Christi Dudzik, Jessica M Foose-Foster, Lauren Eaton, Rebecca H Johnson, Catherine Fiona Macpherson
This study assessed the feasibility of studying animal-assisted activities (AAA) in inpatient pediatric oncology and collected preliminary data on potential benefits of AAA for this population. Patients at a large pediatric hospital were identified using electronic medical records and approached with physician approval. Patients completed surveys before and after a therapy dog visit in their private hospital room. Data on infections were ascertained by electronic medical record review. Provider surveys were placed in provider common areas and distributed through a link in an e-mail...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604632/experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae-induced-elevated-expression-of-the-e1-isoform-of-methyl-cpg-binding-protein-2-mecp2e1-implications-in-multiple-sclerosis-ms-induced-neurological-disability-and-associated-myelin-damage
#4
Tina Khorshid Ahmad, Ting Zhou, Khaled AlTaweel, Claudia Cortes, Ryan Lillico, Ted Martin Lakowski, Kiana Gozda, Michael Peter Namaka
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease characterized by the destruction of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. At present, there is no cure for MS due to the inability to repair damaged myelin. Although the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a beneficial role in myelin repair, these effects may be hampered by the over-expression of a transcriptional repressor isoform of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) called MeCP2E1. We hypothesize that following experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-induced myelin damage, the immune system induction of the pathogenic MeCP2E1 isoform hampers the myelin repair process by repressing BDNF expression...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594888/semiochemicals-released-from-five-bacteria-identified-from-animal-wounds-infested-by-primary-screwworms-and-their-effects-on-fly-behavioral-activity
#5
Junwei J Zhu, Muhammad F Chaudhury, Lisa M Durso, Agustin Sagel, Steven R Skoda, Nadia S Jelvez-Serra, Euzebio Goulart Santanab
BACKGROUND: The Primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is a serious pest feeding on living flesh of any warm-blooded animal, including humans. It was eradicated from the United States in the early 1980s using the sterile male technique. However, it was recently detected in populations of wild deer and pets in the Florida Keys of the US. For monitoring purposes, screwworm flies are normally trapped using attractant bait with liver. However, there has been little effort to develop an efficient monitoring system for detection of screwworm flies using a specific synthetic attractant blend...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592282/the-role-of-virtual-reality-in-improving-motor-performance-as-revealed-by-eeg-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Naro, Margherita Russo, Antonino Leo, Rosaria De Luca, Tina Balletta, Antonio Buda, Gianluca La Rosa, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti
BACKGROUND: Many studies have demonstrated the usefulness of repetitive task practice by using robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) devices, including Lokomat, for the treatment of lower limb paresis. Virtual reality (VR) has proved to be a valuable tool to improve neurorehabilitation training. The aim of our pilot randomized clinical trial was to understand the neurophysiological basis of motor function recovery induced by the association between RAGT (by using Lokomat device) and VR (an animated avatar in a 2D VR) by studying electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586694/challenges-and-priorities-in-shark-and-ray-conservation
#7
REVIEW
Nicholas K Dulvy, Colin A Simpfendorfer, Lindsay N K Davidson, Sonja V Fordham, Amie Bräutigam, Glenn Sant, David J Welch
Sharks, rays, and chimaeras (Class Chondrichthyes; herein 'sharks') are the earliest extant jawed vertebrates and exhibit some of the greatest functional diversity of all vertebrates. Ecologically, they influence energy transfer vertically through trophic levels and sometimes trophic cascades via direct consumption and predation risk. Through movements and migrations, they connect horizontally and temporally across habitats and ecosystems, integrating energy flows at large spatial scales and across time. This connectivity flows from ontogenetic growth in size and spatial movements, which in turn underpins their relatively low reproductive rates compared with other exploited ocean fishes...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584175/one-health-emerging-infectious-diseases-and-wildlife-two-decades-of-progress
#8
REVIEW
Andrew A Cunningham, Peter Daszak, James L N Wood
Infectious diseases affect people, domestic animals and wildlife alike, with many pathogens being able to infect multiple species. Fifty years ago, following the wide-scale manufacture and use of antibiotics and vaccines, it seemed that the battle against infections was being won for the human population. Since then, however, and in addition to increasing antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens, there has been an increase in the emergence of, mostly viral, zoonotic diseases from wildlife, sometimes causing fatal outbreaks of epidemic proportions...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576470/toxicity-of-coumarins-synthesized-by-pechmann-duisberg-condensation-against-drosophila-melanogaster-larvae-and-antibacterial-effects
#9
Felipe A Vargas-Soto, Carlos L Céspedes-Acuña, Pedro M Aqueveque-Muñoz, Julio E Alarcón-Enos
On the background of the search of new insecticides friendly with the environment for replace those from synthesis organic origin with adverse effects on animals, soils and vegetables. It is reported in this study, the synthesis of a series of coumarins derivatives synthesized by Pechmann-Duisberg condensation assisted by microwave irradiation, their antibacterial and insecticidal activities. The most relevant results show that all compounds exhibit a mortality effect of 30-80% with doses between 10 and 100 μg/mL...
May 30, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559853/proteogenomics-reveals-enriched-ribosome-assembly-and-protein-translation-in-pectoralis-major-of-high-feed-efficiency-pedigree-broiler-males
#10
Walter G Bottje, Kentu Lassiter, Alissa Piekarski-Welsher, Sami Dridi, Antonio Reverter, Nicholas J Hudson, Byung-Whi Kong
Background: In production animal agriculture, the cost of feed represents 60-70% of the total cost of raising an animal to market weight. Thus, development of viable biomarkers for feed efficiency (FE, g gain/g feed) to assist in genetic selection of breeding stock remains an important goal in commercial breeding programs. Methods: Global gene (cDNA microarray, RNAseq) and protein expression (shotgun proteomics) analyses have been conducted on breast muscle samples obtained from pedigree broiler males (PedM) exhibiting high and low FE phenotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548693/hemodynamic-impact-of-the-c-pulse-cardiac-support-device-a-one-dimensional-arterial-model-study
#11
Daimé Campos Arias, Francisco Londono, Tania Rodríguez Moliner, Dimitrios Georgakopoulos, Nikos Stergiopulos, Patrick Segers
The C-Pulse is a novel extra-aortic counter-pulsation device to unload the heart in patients with heart failure. Its impact on overall hemodynamics, however, is not fully understood. In this study, the function of the C-Pulse heart assist system is implemented in a one-dimensional (1-D) model of the arterial tree, and central and peripheral pressure and flow waveforms with the C-Pulse turned on and off were simulated. The results were studied using wave intensity analysis and compared with in vivo data measured non-invasively in three patients with heart failure and with invasive data measured in a large animal (pig)...
May 26, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546807/isolation-of-biologically-active-peptides-from-the-venom-of-japanese-carpenter-bee-xylocopa-appendiculata
#12
Hiroko Kawakami, Shin G Goto, Kazuya Murata, Hideaki Matsuda, Yasushi Shigeri, Tomohiro Imura, Hidetoshi Inagaki, Tetsuro Shinada
BACKGROUND: Mass spectrometry-guided venom peptide profiling is a powerful tool to explore novel substances from venomous animals in a highly sensitive manner. In this study, this peptide profiling approach is successfully applied to explore the venom peptides of a Japanese solitary carpenter bee, Xylocopa appendiculata (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apidae: Anthophila: Xylocopinae: Xylocopini). Although interesting biological effects of the crude venom of carpenter bees have been reported, the structure and biological function of the venom peptides have not been elucidated yet...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538830/subjective-memory-complaints-and-their-relation-with-verbal-fluency-in-active-older-people
#13
Flavia Rodrigues Bernardes, Camila Kretzer Machado, Monique Coan Souza, Marcos José Machado, Aline Megumi Arakawa Belaunde
Purpose: To verify subjective memory complaints and their relation to verbal fluency in older people participating in community groups. Methods: An epidemiological quantitative study performed in community groups for older people in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected by structured interview using the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) and the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT) by semantic categories "animals/minute". For an inferential descriptive analysis, data with p < 5% were considered...
May 22, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536832/proteomic-profiling-reveals-crucial-retinal-protein-alterations-in-the-early-phase-of-an-experimental-glaucoma-model
#14
Fabian Anders, Julia Teister, Sebstian Funke, Norbert Pfeiffer, Franz Grus, Thanos Solon, Verena Prokosch
PURPOSE: Clinical glaucoma is difficult to assess in terms of molecular pathophysiology, prompting studies in experimental models of glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate quantitative changes in retinal protein expression at the onset of experimental glaucoma in rats. Analyzing the proteome provides a suitable tool to decipher the pathophysiological processes in glaucomatous degeneration. METHODS: Thermic cauterization of episcleral veins was utilized to elevate the intraocular pressure in Sprague Dawley rats...
July 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522438/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-oxpapc-involve-endothelial-cell-mediated-generation-of-lxa4
#15
Yunbo Ke, Noureddine Zebda, Olga Oskokova, Taras Afonyushkin, Evgeny Berdyshev, Yufeng Tian, Fanyong Meng, Nicolene Sarich, Valery N Bochkov, Ji Ming Wang, Anna A Birukova, Konstantin G Birukov
Rationale: Oxidation of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine generates a group of bioactive oxidized phospholipid products (OxPAPC) with a broad range of biological activities. Barrier-enhancing and anti-inflammatory effects of OxPAPC on pulmonary endothelial cells (EC) are critical for prevention of acute lung injury caused by bacterial pathogens or excessive mechanical ventilation. Anti-inflammatory properties of OxPAPC are associated with its antagonistic effects on toll-like receptors and suppression of RhoA GTPase signaling...
May 18, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518085/analysis-of-chromosome-segregation-histone-acetylation-and-spindle-morphology-in-horse-oocytes
#16
Federica Franciosi, Irene Tessaro, Rozenn Dalbies-Tran, Cecile Douet, Fabrice Reigner, Stefan Deleuze, Pascal Papillier, Ileana Miclea, Valentina Lodde, Alberto M Luciano, Ghylene Goudet
The field of assisted reproduction has been developed to treat infertility in women, companion animals, and endangered species. In the horse, assisted reproduction also allows for the production of embryos from high performers without interrupting their sports career and contributes to an increase in the number of foals from mares of high genetic value. The present manuscript describes the procedures used for collecting immature and mature oocytes from horse ovaries using ovum pick-up (OPU). These oocytes were then used to investigate the incidence of aneuploidy by adapting a protocol previously developed in mice...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504425/active-surveillance-to-update-county-scale-distribution-of-four-tick-species-of-medical-and-veterinary-importance-in-oklahoma
#17
Jessica R Mitcham, Anne W Barrett, Jeff M Gruntmeir, Taylor Holland, Jaclyn E Martin, Eileen M Johnson, Susan E Little, Bruce H Noden
The incidence of tick-borne disease continues to increase in humans and companion animals in the United States, yet distribution maps for several tick vectors in Oklahoma, including Dermacentor variabilis, Dermacentor albipictus, Ixodes scapularis, and Amblyomma maculatum, are not available or are outdated. To address this issue, county-scale tick records from peer-reviewed literature and passive collections were reviewed for Oklahoma. Additionally, dry ice traps, tick drags, and harvested deer were utilized to actively collect adult ticks throughout the state...
June 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480589/quantification-and-tracking-of-genetically-engineered-dendritic-cells-for-studying-immunotherapy
#18
Amnon Bar-Shir, Lina Alon, Michael J Korrer, Hong Seo Lim, Nirbhay N Yadav, Yoshinori Kato, Arvind P Pathak, Jeff W M Bulte, Assaf A Gilad
PURPOSE: Genetically encoded reporters can assist in visualizing biological processes in live organisms and have been proposed for longitudinal and noninvasive tracking of therapeutic cells in deep tissue. Cells can be labeled in situ or ex vivo and followed in live subjects over time. Nevertheless, a major challenge for reporter systems is to identify the cell population that actually expresses an active reporter. METHODS: We have used a nucleoside analog, pyrrolo-2'-deoxycytidine, as an imaging probe for the putative reporter gene, Drosophila melanogaster 2'-deoxynucleoside kinase...
May 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475125/melatonin-promotes-the-in-vitro-development-of-microinjected-pronuclear-mouse-embryos-via-its-anti-oxidative-and-anti-apoptotic-effects
#19
Xiuzhi Tian, Feng Wang, Lu Zhang, Pengyun Ji, Jing Wang, Dongying Lv, Guangdong Li, Menglong Chai, Zhengxing Lian, Guoshi Liu
CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) combined with pronuclear microinjection has become the most effective method for producing transgenic animals. However, the relatively low embryo developmental rate limits its application. In the current study, it was observed that 10(-7) M melatonin is considered an optimum concentration and significantly promoted the in vitro development of murine microinjected pronuclear embryos, as indicated by the increased blastocyst rate, hatching blastocyst rate and blastocyst cell number...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472113/modelling-seasonal-habitat-suitability-for-wide-ranging-species-invasive-wild-pigs-in-northern-australia
#20
Jens G Froese, Carl S Smith, Peter A Durr, Clive A McAlpine, Rieks D van Klinken
Invasive wildlife often causes serious damage to the economy and agriculture as well as environmental, human and animal health. Habitat models can fill knowledge gaps about species distributions and assist planning to mitigate impacts. Yet, model accuracy and utility may be compromised by small study areas and limited integration of species ecology or temporal variability. Here we modelled seasonal habitat suitability for wild pigs, a widespread and harmful invader, in northern Australia. We developed a resource-based, spatially-explicit and regional-scale approach using Bayesian networks and spatial pattern suitability analysis...
2017: PloS One
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