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Animal-assisted activities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034329/comparative-metabolomics-of-mycoplasma-bovis-and-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-reveals-fundamental-differences-in-active-metabolic-pathways-and-suggests-novel-gene-annotations
#1
Y Masukagami, D P De Souza, S Dayalan, C Bowen, S O'Callaghan, K Kouremenos, B Nijagal, D Tull, K A Tivendale, P F Markham, M J McConville, G F Browning, F M Sansom
Mycoplasmas are simple, but successful parasites that have the smallest genome of any free-living cell and are thought to have a highly streamlined cellular metabolism. Here, we have undertaken a detailed metabolomic analysis of two species, Mycoplasma bovis and Mycoplasma gallisepticum, which cause economically important diseases in cattle and poultry, respectively. Untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of mycoplasma metabolite extracts revealed significant differences in the steady-state levels of many metabolites in central carbon metabolism, while (13)C stable isotope labeling studies revealed marked differences in carbon source utilization...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021779/xenon-reduces-neuronal-hippocampal-damage-and-alters-the-pattern-of-microglial-activation-after-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-randomized-controlled-animal-trial
#2
Michael Veldeman, Mark Coburn, Rolf Rossaint, Hans Clusmann, Kay Nolte, Benedikt Kremer, Anke Höllig
OBJECTIVE: The neuroprotective properties of the noble gas xenon have already been demonstrated using a variety of injury models. Here, we examine for the first time xenon's possible effect in attenuating early brain injury (EBI) and its influence on posthemorrhagic microglial neuroinflammation in an in vivo rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 22) were randomly assigned to receive either Sham surgery (n = 9; divided into two groups) or SAH induction via endovascular perforation (n = 13, divided into two groups)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993949/poly-n-methylated-a%C3%AE-peptide-c-terminal-fragments-meptides-reverse-the-deleterious-effects-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-rats
#3
Siya G Sibiya, Musa V Mbandla, Thavi Govender, Adeola Shobo, William M U Daniels
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. These protein deposits impair synaptic plasticity thereby producing a progressive decline in cognitive function. Current therapies are merely palliative and only slow cognitive decline. Poly-N-methylated Aβ-Peptide C-Terminal Fragments (MEPTIDES) were recently shown to reduce Aβ toxicity in vitro and in Drosophila melanogaster, however whether these novel compounds are effective in inhibiting Aβ-induced toxicity in the mammalian brain remains unclear...
October 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988466/characterization-of-ancient-lipids-in-prehistoric-organic-residues-chemical-evidence-of-livestock-pens-in-rock-shelters-since-early-neolithic-to-bronze-age
#4
Jaime Gea, María Carmen Sampedro, Asier Vallejo, Ana Polo, M Aranzazu Goicolea, Javier Fernández-Eraso, Ramón J Barrior
The characterization of ancient lipids from prehistoric organic residues (fumiers) located in rock-shelters has been possible after the optimization of an analytical method based on the microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction clean-up step and a final derivatization step followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Eight sterols and two bile acids were detected just in the partially burned and unburned layers of the fumiers (animal organic residues deriving from manure/dung). The relationship between some of these compounds can be used to distinguish the biogenic origin of the samples, concluding that these strata (from Early Neolithic to Chacolithic period) can be classified as ruminants residues...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987825/potential-of-connected-devices-to-optimize-cattle-reproduction
#5
Marie Saint-Dizier, Sylvie Chastant-Maillard
Estrus and calving are two major events of reproduction that benefit from connected devices because of their crucial importance in herd economics and the amount of time required for their detection. The objectives of this review are to: 1) provide an update on performances reached by sensor systems to detect estrus and calving time; 2) discuss current economic issues related to connected devices for the management of cattle reproduction; 3) propose perspectives for these devices. The main physiological parameters monitored separately or in combination by connected devices are the cow activity, body temperature and rumination or eating behavior...
September 27, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986809/review-on-antioxidants-and-evaluation-procedures
#6
REVIEW
Suresh Kumar, Sunil Sharma, Neeru Vasudeva
Antioxidants are the substances that are capable of counteracting the damaging effects of the physiological process of oxidation occur in animal tissues. These may be nutrients (vitamins and minerals) as well as enzymes (proteins) in our body that assist in chemical reactions. They are believed to play a role in preventing the development of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cataracts etc. The present review article emphasizes on the various aspects of oxidants and antioxidants viz...
October 6, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981094/tat-protein-disulfide-isomerase-a3-a-possible-candidate-for-preventing-ischemic-damage-in-the-spinal-cord
#7
Dae Young Yoo, Su Bin Cho, Hyo Young Jung, Woosuk Kim, Goang-Min Choi, Moo-Ho Won, Dae Won Kim, In Koo Hwang, Soo Young Choi, Seung Myung Moon
In the present study, we searched for possible candidates that can prevent ischemic damage in the rabbit spinal cord. For this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in sham- and ischemia-operated animals. As the level of protein disulfide-isomerase A3 (PDIA3) significantly decreased 3 h after ischemia/reperfusion, we further investigated its possible role against ischemic damage using an in vitro spinal cord cell line and in vivo spinal cord ischemic model...
October 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969693/effects-of-melatonin-administration-on-embryo-implantation-and-offspring-growth-in-mice-under-different-schedules-of-photoperiodic-exposure
#8
Lu Zhang, Zhenzhen Zhang, Feng Wang, Xiuzhi Tian, Pengyun Ji, Guoshi Liu
BACKGROUND: Embryo implantation is crucial for animal reproduction. Unsuccessful embryo implantation leads to pregnancy failure, especially in human-assisted conception. Environmental factors have a profound impact on embryo implantation. Because people are being exposed to more light at night, the influence of long-term light exposure on embryo implantation should be explored. METHODS: The effects of long photoperiodic exposure and melatonin on embryo implantation and offspring growth were examined...
October 2, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969619/animal-assisted-therapy-at-a-university-centre-for-palliative-medicine-a-qualitative-content-analysis-of-patient-records
#9
Andrea Schmitz, Melanie Beermann, Colin R MacKenzie, Katharina Fetz, Christian Schulz-Quach
BACKGROUND: Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is a therapeutic concept, which has only recently been explored in more detail within the palliative care setting. A programme of AAT was begun in June 2014 at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Palliative Medicine of the University Hospital Dusseldorf, Germany. The AAT sessions were performed by two trained and certified dog assistant therapy teams (DATT). To date only very limited scientific data are available with regard to feasibility, therapeutic indications and efficacy of AAT in palliative care...
October 2, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933591/suppression-of-chrn-endocytosis-by-carbonic-anhydrase-car3-in-the-pathogenesis-of-myasthenia-gravis
#10
Ailian Du, Shiqian Huang, Xiaonan Zhao, Kuan Feng, Shuangyan Zhang, Jiefang Huang, Xiang Miao, Fulvio Baggi, Rennolds S Ostrom, Yanyun Zhang, Xiangjun Chen, Congfeng Xu
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction manifested as fatigable muscle weakness, which is typically caused by pathogenic autoantibodies against postsynaptic CHRN/AChR (cholinergic receptor nicotinic) in the endplate of skeletal muscle. Our previous studies have identified CA3 (carbonic anhydrase 3) as a specific protein insufficient in skeletal muscle from myasthenia gravis patients. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of how CA3 insufficiency might contribute to myasthenia gravis...
September 21, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927469/genetic-diversity-of-haemonchus-contortus-isolated-from-sympatric-wild-blue-sheep-pseudois-nayaur-and-sheep-in-helan-mountains-china
#11
Dong-Dong Shen, Ji-Fei Wang, Dan-Yu Zhang, Zhi-Wei Peng, Tian-Yun Yang, Zhao-Ding Wang, Dwight D Bowman, Zhi-Jun Hou, Zhen-Sheng Liu
BACKGROUND: Haemonchus contortus is known among parasitic nematodes as one of the major veterinary pathogens of small ruminants and results in great economic losses worldwide. Human activities, such as the sympatric grazing of wild with domestic animals, may place susceptible wildlife hosts at risk of increased prevalence and infection intensity with this common small ruminant parasite. Studies on phylogenetic factors of H. contortus should assist in defining the amount of the impact of anthropogenic factors on the extent of sharing of agents such as this nematode between domestic animals and wildlife...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926813/risk-assessment-to-groundwater-of-pit-latrine-rural-sanitation-policy-in-developing-country-settings
#12
Jan O Back, Michael O Rivett, Laura B Hinz, Nyree Mackay, Gift J Wanangwa, Owen L Phiri, Chrispine Emmanuel Songola, Mavuto A S Thomas, Steve Kumwenda, Muthi Nhlema, Alexandra V M Miller, Robert M Kalin
Parallel global rise in pit-latrine sanitation and groundwater-supply provision is of concern due to the frequent spatial proximity of these activities. Study of such an area in Malawi has allowed understanding of risks posed to groundwater from the recent implementation of a typical developing-country pit-latrine sanitation policy to be gained. This has assisted the development of a risk-assessment framework approach pragmatic to regulatory-practitioner management of this issue. The framework involves water-supply and pit-latrine mapping, monitoring of key groundwater contamination indicators and surveys of possible environmental site-condition factors and culminates in an integrated statistical evaluation of these datasets to identify the significant factors controlling risks posed...
September 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926033/working-towards-consensus-the-need-for-coordinated-policies-to-assist-control-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-emerging-disease-threats-in-south-east-asia
#13
I W Patrick, S Sovann, S Socheat
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an important transboundary disease in South-East Asia. Its control has been a priority in the region for at least 20 years, with extensive institutional support and capacity-building being provided by the international community through the World Organisation for Animal Health. This paper describes the FMD control and eradication programme in the Mekong region (Myanmar, Thailand, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Cambodia and Vietnam) of South-East Asia and evaluates the FMD control programme in one of the region's countries, namely Cambodia...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920543/control-of-clinical-paratuberculosis-in-new-zealand-pastoral-livestock
#14
M Gautam, A Ridler, P R Wilson, C Heuer
This review summarises current control measures for clinical paratuberculosis (Johne's disease; JD) in New Zealand pastoral livestock. Most New Zealand sheep, deer, beef and dairy cattle herds and flocks are infected by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). Dairy cattle and deer are mostly infected with bovine (Type II), and sheep and beef cattle with ovine (Type I) strains. Control in all industries is voluntary. While control in sheep and beef cattle is ad hoc, the dairy and deer industries have developed resources to assist development of farm-specific programmes...
October 16, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913764/drivers-challenges-and-opportunities-of-forage-technology-adoption-by-smallholder-cattle-households-in-cambodia
#15
K Ashley, S Wilson, J R Young, H P Chan, S Vitou, S Suon, P A Windsor, R D Bush
Forage technology has been successfully introduced into smallholder cattle systems in Cambodia as an alternative feed source to the traditional rice straw and native pastures, improving animal nutrition and reducing labour requirements of feeding cattle. Previous research has highlighted the positive impacts of forage technology including improved growth rates of cattle and household time savings. However, further research is required to understand the drivers, challenges and opportunities of forage technology for smallholder cattle households in Cambodia to facilitate widespread adoption and identify areas for further improvement...
September 14, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912890/glioma-dual-targeting-nanohybrid-protein-toxin-constructed-by-intein-mediated-site-specific-ligation-for-multistage-booster-delivery
#16
Yingzhi Chen, Meng Zhang, Hongyue Jin, Dongdong Li, Fan Xu, Aihua Wu, Jinyu Wang, Yongzhuo Huang
Malignant glioma is one of the most untreatable cancers because of the formidable blood-brain barrier (BBB), through which few therapeutics can penetrate and reach the tumors. Biologics have been booming in cancer therapy in the past two decades, but their application in brain tumor has long been ignored due to the impermeable nature of BBB against effective delivery of biologics. Indeed, it is a long unsolved problem for brain delivery of macromolecular drugs, which becomes the Holy Grail in medical and pharmaceutical sciences...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888516/effects-of-animal-assisted-activities-on-biobehavioral-stress-responses-in-hospitalized-children-a-randomized-controlled-study
#17
Sandra M Branson, Lisa Boss, Nikhil S Padhye, Thea Trötscher, Alexandra Ward
PURPOSE: This study assessed the effectiveness of animal-assisted activities (AAA) on biobehavioral stress responses (anxiety, positive and negative affect, and salivary cortisol and C-reactive protein [CRP] levels) in hospitalized children. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled study. METHOD: Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to receive a 10-minute AAA (n=24) or a control condition (n=24). Anxiety, positive and negative affect, and levels of salivary biomarkers were assessed before and after the intervention...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878477/near-infrared-spectroscopy-can-reveal-increases-in-brain-activity-related-to-animal-assisted-therapy
#18
Yuka Morita, Fumio Ebara, Yoshimitsu Morita, Etsuo Horikawa
[Purpose] Previous studies have indicated that animal-assisted therapy can promote recovery of psychological, social, and physiological function in mental disorders. This study was designed as a pilot evaluation of the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to objectively identify changes in brain activity that could mediate the effect of animal-assisted therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 20 healthy students (10 males and 10 females; age 19-21 years) of the Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University...
August 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864312/why-do-the-children-pretend-play
#19
REVIEW
Angeline S Lillard
Pretend play appears to be an evolved behavior because it is universal and appears on a set schedule. However, no specific functions have been determined for pretend play and empirical tests for its functions in humans are elusive. Yet animal play fighting can serve as an analog, as both activities involve as-if, metacommunicative signaling and symbolism. In the rat and some other animals, adaptive functions of play fighting include assisting social behavior and emotion regulation. Research is presented suggesting that pretend play might serve similar functions for humans...
August 29, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859076/developmental-programming-of-somatic-growth-behavior-and-endocannabinoid-metabolism-by-variation-of-early-postnatal-nutrition-in-a-cross-fostering-mouse-model
#20
Felix Schreiner, Merle Ackermann, Michael Michalik, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Andras Bilkei-Gorzo, Ildiko Racz, Laura Bindila, Beat Lutz, Jörg Dötsch, Andreas Zimmer, Joachim Woelfle
BACKGROUND: Nutrient deprivation during early development has been associated with the predisposition to metabolic disorders in adulthood. Considering its interaction with metabolism, appetite and behavior, the endocannabinoid (eCB) system represents a promising target of developmental programming. METHODS: By cross-fostering and variation of litter size, early postnatal nutrition of CB6F1-hybrid mice was controlled during the lactation period (3, 6, or 10 pups/mother)...
2017: PloS One
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