Read by QxMD icon Read


Wendy Wood, Beth Fields, Michelle Rose, Merinda McLure
OBJECTIVE: The authors mapped the literature on animal-assisted therapies (AATs) and institutionalized adults with dementia onto the Lived Environment Life Quality (LELQ) Model as a guide for future services and research. METHOD: Refereed literature addressing AATs and institutionalized people with dementia was comprehensively gathered, described, categorized, and synthesized in this systematic mapping review. RESULTS: From 1,342 screened records, the authors included 10 research articles that incorporated dogs in therapy for institutionalized adults with dementia...
September 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Kimberly Eaton Hoagwood, Mary Acri, Meghan Morrissey, Robin Peth-Pierce
To systematically review experimental evidence about animal-assisted therapies (AAT) for children or adolescents with or at risk for mental health conditions, we reviewed all experimental AAT studies published between 2000-2015, and compared studies by animal type, intervention, and outcomes. METHODS: Studies were included if used therapeutically for children and adolescents (≤21 years) with or at risk for a mental health problem; used random assignment or a waitlist comparison/control group; and included child-specific outcome data...
2017: Applied Developmental Science
David G Parr, Beatriz Lara
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) functions primarily to inhibit neutrophil elastase, and its deficiency predisposes individuals to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The putative protective serum concentration is generally considered to be above a threshold of 11 μM/L, and therapeutic augmentation of AAT above this value is believed to retard the progression of emphysema. Several AAT preparations, all derived from human donor plasma, have been commercialized since approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1987...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Florie Borel, Qiushi Tang, Christian Mueller
This protocol describes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to specifically detect Z-alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), the most common protein variant associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. This "sandwich" ELISA relies on an anti-Z-AAT specific capture antibody and a HRP-conjugated anti-AAT detection antibody. This method would be of interest to identify and quantify Z-AAT in a variety of samples such as cell culture medium, cell or tissue lysate, animal or patient serum. Because this method is specific and sensitive, it would be particularly valuable for detection of Z-AAT in the presence of background M-AAT, for instance when quantifying silencing of Z-AAT in patients undergoing M-AAT augmentation therapy...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andrew Cox, Christian Mueller
This methods chapter elaborates on how a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used to specifically detect and quantify murine alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). As a direct ELISA, it lacks some sensitivity as compared to the "sandwich" ELISA method; however, it does reliably differentiate between samples with varying amounts of the mouse AAT protein. This protocol relies on the principle of adsorption to coat each well with sera proteins, whereas detection occurs specifically using a two-step antibody combination...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Qiushi Tang, Alisha M Gruntman, Terence R Flotte
In this chapter we describe an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantitatively measure human alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) protein levels in serum, other body fluids or liquid media. This assay can be used to measure the expression of the human AAT (hAAT) gene in a variety of gene transfer or gene downregulation experiments.A hAAT-specific capture antibody and a HRP-conjugated anti-AAT detection antibody are used in this assay. The conjugated anti-AAT used in this protocol, instead of the typical sandwich which employs an unconjugated antibody followed by a specifically conjugated IgG, makes the assay simpler and decreases variability...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Beena Krishnan, Lizbeth Hedstrom, Daniel N Hebert, Lila M Gierasch, Anne Gershenson
Well-established genetic manipulation procedures along with a fast doubling time, the ability to grow in inexpensive media, and easy scaleup make Escherichia coli (E. coli) a preferred recombinant protein expression platform. Human alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) and other serpins are easily expressed in E. coli despite their metastability and complicated topology. Serpins can be produced as soluble proteins or aggregates in inclusion bodies, and both forms can be purified to homogeneity. In this chapter, we describe an ion-exchange chromatography-based protocol that we have developed involving the use of two anion-exchange columns to purify untagged human AAT from E...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Chao Wang, Marion Bouchecareilh, William E Balch
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a protein conformational disease with the most common cause being the Z-variant mutation in alpha-1 antitrypsin (Z-AAT). The misfolded conformation triggered by the Z-variant disrupts cellular proteostasis (protein folding) systems and fails to meet the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export metrics, leading to decreased circulating AAT and deficient antiprotease activity in the plasma and lung. Here, we describe the methods for measuring the secretion and neutrophil elastase (NE) inhibition activity of AAT/Z-AAT, as well as the response to histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), a major proteostasis modifier that impacts the secretion and function of AATD from the liver to plasma...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dongtao A Fu, Martha Campbell-Thompson
Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) with diastase (PAS-D) refers to the use of the PAS stain in combination with diastase, which is an enzyme that digests the glycogen. The purpose of using the PAS-D procedure is to differentiate glycogen from other PAS-positive elements in tissue samples. The PAS-D method is also used for periportal liver staining of AAT polymer inclusions that are seen in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency disease. Here, we describe the procedure of PAS-D staining in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human liver tissues...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dongtao A Fu, Martha Campbell-Thompson
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a powerful immunology-based method that is used to study the location of proteins in cells and tissues. There have been numerous advancements in IHC technology that continually increase the sensitivity and specificity through which this method can be used to generate new discoveries. Similarly, Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) IHC can be used to study AAT protein expression within the human liver or exogenous AAT that is delivered through gene therapy. Here, we describe a highly sensitive method to detect the AAT antigen in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human or mouse tissues...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mariam Aghajan, Shuling Guo, Brett P Monia
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a serum protease inhibitor, mainly expressed in and secreted from hepatocytes, important for regulating neutrophil elastase activity among other proteases. Various mutations in AAT cause alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), a rare hereditary disorder that results in liver disease due to accumulation of AAT aggregates and lung disease from excessive neutrophil elastase activity. PiZ transgenic mice contain the human AAT genomic region harboring the most common AATD mutation, the Glu342Lys (Z) point mutation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Stuart Milstein, Kun Qian, Linying Zhang, Alfica Sehgal
RNAi is a powerful tool that can be used to probe gene function as well as for therapeutic intervention. We describe a workflow and methods to identify screen and select potent and specific siRNAs in vitro and in vivo using qPCR-based methods as well as an AAT activity assay. We apply these techniques to a set of siRNAs targeting rat AAT, and use this set to exemplify the cell-based and in vivo data that can be generated using these methods.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Florie Borel, Christian Mueller
This protocol describes the design, cloning, and in vitro screening of artificial microRNAs (miRNAs) to silence alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). This method would be of interest to silence AAT in a variety of in vitro or in vivo models, and prevalidated sequences against human AAT are provided. This simple 5-day protocol may more generally be used to design artificial miRNAs against any transcript.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Alisha M Gruntman
The most common alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) mutant variant is a missense mutation (E342K), commonly referred to as PiZ. A transgenic mouse model exists that expresses the mutant human PiZ AAT gene. This protocol outlines the procedure used to extract DNA from and genotype AAT transgenic (PiZ) mice.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Irene Belmonte, Luciana Montoto, Francisco Rodríguez-Frías
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) genotyping is useful to confirm the clinical diagnosis of AAT deficiency and determine the specific allelic variant. Genotyping is the reference standard procedure for identifying rare allelic variants and characterizing new variants. It is also useful when there is a discrepancy between the patients' AAT levels and their phenotypes. AAT genotype is determined by an allele-specific genotyping assay for the S, Z, and Mmalton variants and by exome sequencing.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dina N Greene, M C Elliott-Jelf, David G Grenache
Isoelectric focusing (IEF) electrophoresis is considered to be the gold standard test for determining an individual's AAT phenotype. IEF electrophoresis is a technique used to separate proteins by differences in their isoelectric point (pI). Testing is performed on serum that is applied to an agarose gel containing ampholytes which create a pH gradient ranging from 4.2 to 4.9. Variants of AAT are therefore separated from each other and, after visualization of the focused protein bands using immunochemical techniques, can be identified and an AAT phenotype determined...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Leslie J Donato, Melissa R Snyder, Dina N Greene
Deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is caused by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene that results in low concentrations of AAT in circulation. The low AAT concentration can result in uninhibited neutrophil elastase activity in the lung, leading to pulmonary tissue damage and lung disease. Clinical evaluation for possible AAT deficiency includes two critical components: measuring AAT concentration in serum and identification of AAT deficiency alleles. In this chapter the methods by which AAT concentration can be measured in the clinical laboratory are described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Michael Kalfopoulos, Kaitlyn Wetmore, Mai K ElMallah
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an inherited disorder characterized by low serum levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT). Loss of AAT disrupts the protease-antiprotease balance in the lungs, allowing proteases, specifically neutrophil elastase, to act uninhibited and destroy lung matrix and alveolar structures. Destruction of these lung structures classically leads to an increased risk of developing emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially in individuals with a smoking history...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
K P C Kuypers, R de la Torre, Farre, N Pizarro, L Xicota, J G Ramaekers
BACKGROUND: MDMA has been shown to induce feelings of sociability, a positive emotional bias and enhanced empathy. While previous research has used only visual emotional stimuli, communication entails more than that single dimension and it is known that auditory information is also crucial in this process. In addition, it is, however, unclear what the neurobiological mechanism underlying these MDMA effects on social behaviour is. Previously, studies have shown that MDMA-induced emotional excitability and positive mood are linked to the action on the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor...
July 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
Sebastian Fähndrich, Nikolas Bernhard, Philipp M Lepper, Claus Vogelmeier, Martina Seibert, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Robert Bals
BACKGROUND: Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic disorder that is associated with a higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. The annual declines in lung function (FEV1) and transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) predict all-cause mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated the longitudinal follow-up data over 11 years (mean follow-up period of 4.89 years) from the German AATD registry and analyzed the relationship between annual loss of FEV1 and TLCO and sex, age, body mass index (BMI), nicotine consumption, occupational dust exposure, St...
August 2017: Respiratory Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"