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Qinghua Chen, Lulu Zhang, Siyao Chen, Yaqian Huang, Kun Li, Xiaoqi Yu, Huijuan Wu, Xiaoyu Tian, Chunyu Zhang, Chaoshu Tang, Junbao Du, Hongfang Jin
BACKGROUND: The study was designed to investigate if endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) was involved in cardiomyocyte autophagy and myocardial hypertrophy stimulated by angiotensin II (Ang II). METHODS: Thirty-two C57 mice were randomly divided into control, SO2, Ang II and Ang II+SO2 groups. Human myocardial cell line H9c2 was divided into four groups including control, SO2, Ang II and Ang II+SO2 groups. Blood pressure and myocardial hypertrophy of the mice were measured two weeks after Ang II administration...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Masahiro Ono, Atsumi Baden, Hiroyuki Okudaira, Masato Kobayashi, Keiichi Kawai, Shuntaro Oka, Hirokatsu Yoshimura
[(18)F]Fluciclovine (trans-1-amino-3-[(18)F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid; anti-[(18)F]FACBC), a positron emission tomography tracer used for the diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer, is transported via amino acid transporters (AATs) with high affinity (Km: 97-230 μM). However, the mechanism underlying urinary excretion is unknown. In this study, we investigated the involvement of AATs and drug transporters in renal [(18)F]fluciclovine reuptake. [(14)C]Fluciclovine (trans-1-amino-3-fluoro[1-(14)C]cyclobutanecarboxylic acid) was used because of its long half-life...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
T Dau, E V Edeleva, S A I Seidel, R A Stockley, D Braun, D E Jenne
High abundance proteins like protease inhibitors of plasma display a multitude of interactions in natural environments. Quantitative analysis of such interactions in vivo is essential to study diseases, but have not been forthcoming, as most methods cannot be directly applied in a complex biological environment. Here, we report a quantitative microscale thermophoresis assay capable of deciphering functional deviations from in vitro inhibition data by combining concentration and affinity measurements. We obtained stable measurement signals for the substrate-like interaction of the disease relevant inhibitor α-1-antitrypsin (AAT) Z-variant with catalytically inactive elastase...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jia Liu, Yaqian Huang, Selena Chen, Chaoshu Tang, Hongfang Jin, Junbao Du
Sulfur dioxide (SO2), an emerging gasotransmitter, was discovered to be endogenously generated in the cardiovascular system. Recently, the physiological effects of endogenous SO2 were confirmed. Vascular structural remodeling (VSR), an important pathological change in many cardiovascular diseases, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Here, the authors reviewed the research progress of endogenous SO2 in regulating VSR by searching the relevant data from PubMed and Medline. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and pulmonary hypertensive rats, SO2/aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) pathway was significantly altered...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Larry R Churchill
Moral virtues are the complement to ethical principles. They constitute the elements of character that drive habits and daily routines. Certain virtues are especially important in surgery, shaping surgical practice even when no big decisions are at hand. Eight virtues are described and the work they do is explored: trustworthiness, equanimity, empathy, advocacy, compassion, courage, humility, and hope.
September 17, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Nikolas Bernhard, Robert Bals, Sebastian Fähndrich
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD) and liver cirrhosis. The disease is widely underdiagnosed. The hallmarks of therapy are smoking cessation, prevention from environmental dust exposure and augmentation therapy. Findings from the recently published prospective, placebo-controlled and randomized RAPID trial proved effectiveness of AAT augmentation therapy for slowing progression of emphysema, measured by CT lung density. CT lung density may be more sensitive than forced exspiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or monoxid diffusion capacity (DLCO)...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Xiao Bao, Ming-Wei Wang, Jian-Min Luo, Si-Yang Wang, Yong-Ping Zhang, Ying-Jian Zhang
Objective: Antiangiogenesis therapy (AAT) has provided substantial benefits regarding improved outcomes and survival for suitable patients in clinical settings. Therefore, the early definition of therapeutic effects is urgently needed to guide cancer AAT. We aimed to optimize the early response monitoring and prediction of AAT efficacy, as indicated by the multi-targeted anti-angiogenic drug sunitinib in U87MG tumors, using noninvasive positron emission computed tomography (PET) molecular imaging strategies of multifactorial bioparameters...
2016: Theranostics
Farjana Nasrin, Katharine Rimes, Andrea Reinecke, Mike Rinck, Thorsten Barnhofer
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the behavioural activation (BA) treatments for depression unfold their effects, at least partly, through changes in approach and avoidance tendencies. However, as yet, little research has examined the cognitive effects of these interventions. AIMS: This study investigated the impact of a single session of BA on depressive symptomatology, self-reported avoidance, and behavioural approach and avoidance tendencies. METHOD: Forty-six patients with a diagnosis of Major Depression were recruited from primary care psychological therapies services and block randomized to either a single session of behavioural activation (n = 22) or waiting list control (n = 24) delivered by an unblinded therapist...
October 3, 2016: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Corinde E Wiers, Thomas E Gladwin, Vera U Ludwig, Sonja Gröpper, Heiner Stuke, Christiane K Gawron, Reinout W Wiers, Henrik Walter, Felix Bermpohl
AIMS: There is accumulating evidence that automatic processes play a large role in alcohol dependence, which may be related to alcohol craving and consumption. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between cognitive biases in alcohol-dependent patients, and how these measures relate to drinking behavior. METHODS: Thirty alcohol-dependent patients and 15 healthy controls (matched for age, intelligence and education; all male) completed three cognitive bias tasks: the Implicit Association Test (IAT: alcohol-approach association), Approach Avoidance Task (AAT: alcohol approach bias) and Dot Probe Task (DPT: alcohol attentional bias)...
September 20, 2016: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
Danae Varveri, Andreas D Flouris, Nikitas Smirnios, Elizana Pollatou, Christina Karatzaferi, Giorgos K Sakkas
We developed and validated an aquaticity assessment test (AAT) for the evaluation of human physical adequacy in the water. Forty-six volunteers (25M/21F; 20 ± 8 years) participated and performed 10 easy-to-administer and practical aquatic tasks. Group A was formed by 36 elite athletes (M/F 20/16, 24.7 ± 10yrs) from two sports categories depending on their affinity to the water environment: terrestrial (wrestling, cycling, dancing) and aquatic (swimming, synchronized swimming, free diving) sports. Group B was formed by 10 non-athlete participants (5M/5F, 14...
July 2016: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Napat Angkathunyakul, Francesca Rosini, Nigel Heaton, Pierre Foskett, Alberto Quaglia
AIMS: Both homo- and heterozygous AAT deficiency patients are risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but also of cholangiocarcinoma and combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma. We report a series of bile duct adenoma (BDA) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), in AAT deficiency adult patients, observed in our institution over a five year period. Our observational study includes a detailed investigation of their immunohistochemical profile and BRAF V600E mutation status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven biliary lesions from 5 AAT deficiency patients (6 BDAs from 3 cirrhotic patients with concurrent other liver diseases, 3 BDAs and 2 ICCs from 2 non-cirrhotic patients) were identified between 2010 and 2015 during routine histology...
September 14, 2016: Histopathology
J H Yang, Y Q Jiang, Y Sun, Q J Tang, D Xiang
Two nucleotide changes in codon 77 (ACC → AAT) of HLA-DRB1*14:05:03 result in the allele, HLA-DRB1*14:127:01.
October 2016: HLA
Mila Ljujic, Sanja Mijatovic, Mirna Z Bulatovic, Marija Mojic, Danijela Maksimovic-Ivanic, Dragica Radojkovic, Aleksandra Topic
Increased circulating alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) correlates with cancer stage/aggressiveness, but its role in cancer biology is unclear. We revealed antagonistic effect of AAT to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in prostate (PC3) and melanoma (A375) cancer cell lines. Moreover, AAT abrogated cytotoxicity of MEK inhibitor U0126 in PC3 cell line. Weaker antagonistic effect of AAT on cytotoxicity of PI3/Akt and NF-kB inhibitors was also observed. In addition, cisplatin increased AAT gene expression in transfected PC3 cells...
September 12, 2016: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
S Vañó-Galván, P Fernández-Crehuet, R Grimalt, M J Garcia-Hernandez, R Rodrigues-Barata, S Arias-Santiago, A Molina-Ruiz, E Garcia-Lora, J Dominguez-Cruz, A Brugues, J Ferrando, C Serrano-Falcón, S Serrano, J Paoli, F Camacho
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata totalis (AAT) and universalis (AAU) pose a therapeutic challenge. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features, therapeutic response and prognostic factors in a large series of patients diagnosed with AAT and AAU. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study included patients diagnosed with AAT/AAU with a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Response was assessed based on the regrowth of scalp hair...
October 6, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Jang-Hee Cho, Hye-Myung Ryu, Eun-Joo Oh, Ju-Min Yook, Ji-Sun Ahn, Hee-Yeon Jung, Ji-Young Choi, Sun-Hee Park, Yong-Lim Kim, Ihm Soo Kwak, Chan-Duck Kim
Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through regulating the activity of serine proteinases. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of AAT against the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) mice and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. C57BL/6 mice with induced UUO were injected intraperitoneally with AAT (80 mg/Kg) or vehicle for 7 days. MDCK cells were treated with TGF-β1 (2 ng/mL) for 48 hours to induce EMT, and co-treated with AAT (10 mg/mL) to inhibit the EMT...
2016: PloS One
Guadalupe Ortiz-Munoz, David Couret, Bertrand Lapergue, Eric Bruckert, Elena Meseguer, Pierre Amarenco, Olivier Meilhac
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: HDL-cholesterol concentration is a reliable negative risk factor for acute cerebral infarction (ACI). Beyond quantitative aspects, our aim was to determine whether lipoprotein profiles and HDL functionality were altered at the acute phase of ischemic stroke. METHODS: Blood was taken from ACI patients within 4.5 h of symptom onset. Lipoproteins were separated by electrophoresis for determination of particle size. HDLs were isolated from plasma of patients (n = 10) and controls (n = 10) by ultracentrifugation...
October 2016: Atherosclerosis
K B Miska, R H Fetterer
Coccidiosis in chickens is caused by infection of gut epithelial cells with protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria This disease causes losses to the poultry industry since infected birds fail to gain weight as rapidly as non-infected birds and efficiency of feed conversion is compromised. For the present study the effect of Eimeria on expression of components of amino acid and sugar uptake mechanisms was determined. Broiler chicks were infected with Eimeria maxima, which infects the jejunum; Eimeria acervulina, which infects the duodenum; or Eimeria tenella, which infects the ceca...
September 2, 2016: Poultry Science
J Sardos, X Perrier, J Doležel, E Hřibová, P Christelová, I Van den Houwe, A Kilian, N Roux
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dessert and cooking bananas are vegetatively propagated crops of great importance for both the subsistence and the livelihood of people in developing countries. A wide diversity of diploid and triploid cultivars including AA, AB, AS, AT, AAA, AAB, ABB, AAS and AAT genomic constitutions exists. Within each of this genome groups, cultivars are classified into subgroups that are reported to correspond to varieties clonally derived from each other after a single sexual event...
September 1, 2016: Annals of Botany
Nuray Yozbatiran, Zafer Keser, Matthew Davis, Argyrios Stampas, Marcia K O'Malley, Catherine Cooper-Hay, Joel Frontera, Felipe Fregni, Gerard E Francisco
BACKGROUND: After cervical spinal cord injury, current options for treatment of upper extremity motor functions have been limited to traditional approaches. However, there is a substantial need to explore more rigorous alternative treatments to facilitate motor recovery. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate whether anodal-primary motor cortex (M1) excitability enhancement (with cathodal-supra orbital area) (atDCS) combined with robot-assisted arm training (R-AAT) will provide greater improvement in contralateral arm and hand motor functions compared to sham stimulation (stDCS) and R-AAT in patients with chronic, incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (iCSCI)...
July 15, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
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