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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107529/complement-activation-and-stat4-expression-are-associated-with-early-inflammation-in-diabetic-wounds
#1
Kenji M Cunnion, Neel K Krishna, Haree K Pallera, Angela Pineros-Fernandez, Magdielis Gregory Rivera, Pamela S Hair, Brittany P Lassiter, Ryan Huyck, Mary A Clements, Antoinette F Hood, George T Rodeheaver, Patrick S Cottler, Jerry L Nadler, Anca D Dobrian
: Diabetic non-healing wounds are a major clinical problem. The mechanisms leading to poor wound healing in diabetes are multifactorial but unresolved inflammation may be a major contributing factor. The complement system (CS) is the most potent inflammatory cascade in humans and contributes to poor wound healing in animal models. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) is a transcription factor expressed in immune and adipose cells and contributes to upregulation of some inflammatory chemokines and cytokines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099862/neutrophils-in-homeostasis-immunity-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
José Ángel Nicolás-Ávila, José M Adrover, Andrés Hidalgo
Neutrophils were among the first leukocytes described and visualized by early immunologists. Prominent effector functions during infection and sterile inflammation classically placed them low in the immune tree as rapid, mindless aggressors with poor regulatory functions. This view is currently under reassessment as we uncover new aspects of their life cycle and identify transcriptional and phenotypic diversity that endows them with regulatory properties that extend beyond their lifetime in the circulation...
January 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098193/non-pathogenic-tissue-resident-cd8-t-cells-uniquely-accumulate-in-the-brains-of-lupus-prone-mice
#3
Peter A Morawski, Chen-Feng Qi, Silvia Bolland
Severe lupus often includes psychiatric and neurological sequelae, although the cellular contributors to CNS disease remain poorly defined. Using intravascular staining to discriminate tissue-localized from blood-borne cells, we find substantial accumulation of CD8(+) T cells relative to other lymphocytes in brain tissue, which correlates with lupus disease and limited neuropathology. This is in contrast to all other affected organs, where infiltrating CD4(+) cells are predominant. Brain-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells represent an activated subset of those found in the periphery, having a resident-memory phenotype (CD69(+)CD122(-)PD1(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-)) and expressing adhesion molecules (VLA-4(+)LFA-1(+)) complementary to activated brain endothelium...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071525/additive-toxic-effect-of-deltamethrin-and-cadmium-on-hepatic-hematological-and-immunological-parameters-in-mice
#4
Hasibur Rehman, Al Thbiani Aziz, Shalini Saggu, Adam L VanWert, Nahla Zidan, Sundeep Saggu
Exposure to natural and man-made environmental toxins concurrently can pose a greater threat to multiple organs. In the present work, we investigated interactions between deltamethrin (DM) and cadmium (Cd), whose mechanisms of action in humans are poorly understood. Albino mice were randomly divided into four groups, each containing six mice: saline as control, DM-treated, cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-treated, and CdCl2 plus DM treated. After 2 weeks of treatment biochemical and hematological effects, total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, humoral-mediated immune responses, and histopathological studies were conducted...
January 1, 2017: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069966/inherited-human-irak-1-deficiency-selectively-impairs-tlr-signaling-in-fibroblasts
#5
Erika Della Mina, Alessandro Borghesi, Hao Zhou, Salim Bougarn, Sabri Boughorbel, Laura Israel, Ilaria Meloni, Maya Chrabieh, Yun Ling, Yuval Itan, Alessandra Renieri, Iolanda Mazzucchelli, Sabrina Basso, Piero Pavone, Raffaele Falsaperla, Roberto Ciccone, Rosa Maria Cerbo, Mauro Stronati, Capucine Picard, Orsetta Zuffardi, Laurent Abel, Damien Chaussabel, Nico Marr, Xiaoxia Li, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel
Most members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) families transduce signals via a canonical pathway involving the MyD88 adapter and the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) complex. This complex contains four molecules, including at least two (IRAK-1 and IRAK-4) active kinases. In mice and humans, deficiencies of IRAK-4 or MyD88 abolish most TLR (except for TLR3 and some TLR4) and IL-1R signaling in both leukocytes and fibroblasts. TLR and IL-1R responses are weak but not abolished in mice lacking IRAK-1, whereas the role of IRAK-1 in humans remains unclear...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066821/evaluation-of-receptor-ligand-mechanisms-of-dual-targeted-particles-to-an-inflamed-endothelium
#6
Catherine A Fromen, Margaret B Fish, Anthony Zimmerman, Reheman Adili, Michael Holinstat, Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
Vascular-targeted carriers (VTCs) are designed as leukocyte mimics, decorated with ligands that target leukocyte adhesion molecules (LAMs) and facilitate adhesion to diseased endothelium. VTCs require different design considerations than other targeted particle therapies; adhesion of VTCs in regions with dynamic blood flow requires multiple ligand-receptor (LR) pairs that provide particle adhesion and disease specificity. Despite the ultimate goal of leukocyte mimicry, the specificity of multiple LAM-targeted VTCs remains poorly understood, especially in physiological environments...
March 2016: Bioeng Transl Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053618/changes-of-hematological-references-depends-on-storage-period-and-temperature-conditions-in-rats-and-dogs
#7
Jung-Min Lee, Jin Seok Kang
Because changes in rat and dog hematological parameters according to storage conditions have been poorly documented, we sought to examine such changes. Blood analysis was performed using two hematology analyzers (ADVIA 2120i and Sysmex XN-V) after storage at room temperature and in cold storage for 5, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Interassay coefficients of variation for hematological parameters analyzed with the ADVIA 2120i and the XN-V showed similar. The levels of hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and platelet (PLT) showed significant variations with time in blood samples of rats and dogs...
December 2016: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052584/activated-platelet-derived-and-leukocyte-derived-circulating-microparticles-and-the-risk-of-thrombosis-in-heparin-induced-thrombocytopenia-a-role-for-pf4-bearing-microparticles
#8
Elena Campello, Claudia M Radu, Elena Duner, Anna M Lombardi, Luca Spiezia, Raffaele Bendo, Silvia Ferrari, Paolo Simioni, Fabrizio Fabris
BACKGROUND: Though the presence of platelets-derived microparticles (MPs) have previously been described in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), the mechanism of thrombosis in HIT remains poorly understood. We aimed to asses the presence and origin of MPs in patients with HIT and their possible contribution to HIT with thrombosis (HITT). METHODS: Forty-five patients with HIT and 45 matched hospitalized patients with not confirmed HIT (HIT-negative) were enrolled...
January 3, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050203/role-of-monocyte-count-and-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-survival-of-oral-cancer-patients
#9
Saurabh Bobdey, Balasubramaniam Ganesh, Prabhashankar Mishra, Aanchal Jain
Introduction Inflammation seems to play a critical role in the development and progression of numerous cancers. Peripheral blood leukocyte count is an easily assessable parameter of systemic inflammatory response. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether the pretreatment leukocyte counts can predict the prognosis of patients with oral cavity cancer. Methods Medical records of 471 oral cavity cancer patients diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed...
January 2017: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043736/identification-of-amino-acids-in-antigen-binding-site-of-class-ii-hla-proteins-independently-associated-with-hepatitis-b-vaccine-response
#10
Aiko Sakai, Emiko Noguchi, Takashi Fukushima, Manabu Tagawa, Atsushi Iwabuchi, Masaki Kita, Keisuke Kakisaka, Akio Miyasaka, Yasuhiro Takikawa, Ryo Sumazaki
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genetic factors in class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) have been reported to be associated with inter-individual variation in hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine response. However, the mechanism underlying the associations remains elusive. In particular, the broad linkage disequilibrium in HLA region complicates the localization of the independent effects of genetic variants. Thus, the present study aimed to identify the most probable causal variations in class II HLA loci involved in the immune response to HBV vaccine...
December 30, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028174/dock8-regulates-macrophage-migration-through-cdc42-activation-and-lrap35a-interaction
#11
Akira Shiraishi, Takehito Uruno, Fumiyuki Sanematsu, Miho Ushijima, Daiji Sakata, Toshiro Hara, Yoshinori Fukui
DOCK8 is an atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42, and its mutations cause combined immunodeficiency in humans. Accumulating evidence indicates that DOCK8 regulates the migration and activation of various subsets of leukocytes, yet its regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. We herein report that DOCK8-deficient macrophages exhibit a migration defect in a two-dimensional (2D) setting. Although DOCK8 deficiency in macrophages did not affect the global Cdc42 activation induced by chemokine stimulation, rescue experiments revealed that the GEF activity of DOCK8 was required for macrophage migration...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027451/the-use-of-platelet-rich-and-platelet-poor-plasma-to-enhance-differentiation-of-skeletal-myoblasts
#12
Olga Miroshnychenko, Wen-Teh Chang, Jason L Dragoo
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to augment tissue repair and regeneration after musculoskeletal injury. However, there is increasing clinical evidence that PRP does not show a consistent clinical effect. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study aimed to compare the effects of the following non-neutrophil-containing (leukocyte-poor) plasma fractions on human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) differentiation: (1) PRP, (2) modified PRP (Mod-PRP), in which transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and myostatin (MSTN) were depleted, and (3) platelet-poor plasma (PPP)...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018086/leukocyte-poor-platelet-rich-plasma-to-treat-degenerative-meniscal-tear-a-case-report
#13
J P Betancourt, W D Murrell
A traumatic and/or degenerative meniscus lesion is thought to be a clinical manifestation of early-onset osteoarthritis (OA), which is a chronic progressive condition that can cause substantial pain and disability. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an emerging treatment option that has been reported to improve healing. Here, we present a case of a 29-year-old woman, with left anterior and medial knee pain, without history of trauma or injury. The patient was managed with leukocyte-poor PRP injections derived from her peripheral blood with high concentrations of platelets, platelet-derived growth factors, and bioactive proteins, with a total follow-up of 30 months...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013013/a-canine-model-of-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#14
Scott S Graves, Andrew Rezvani, George Sale, Diane Stone, Maura Parker, Steven Rosinski, Michele Spector, Bruce Swearingen, Leslie Kean, Rainer Storb
In long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality and a major determinant of quality of life. Chronic GVHD responds poorly to current immunosuppressive drugs, and while T cell depletion may be preventive, this gain is offset by increased relapse rates. A significant impediment to progress in treating chronic GVHD has been the limitations of existing animal models. The goal of this study was to develop a reproducible comprehensive model of chronic GVHD in the dog...
December 21, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012213/antibody-dependent-and-independent-uptake-of-hbsag-across-human-leukocyte-subsets-is-similar-between-individuals-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-healthy-donors
#15
Hugo Tharinger, Indrani Rebbapragada, Dharmaraj Samuel, Nikolai Novikov, Mindie Nguyen, Robert Jordan, Christian R Frey, Stefan Pflanz
Maintaining detectable levels of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum, i.e. HBsAg sero-conversion, is the key clinical endpoint indicative of recovery from infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV-infected hepatocytes secrete HBsAg sub-viral particles in vast excess over HBV virions. Therefore, detectable hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) titers imply complete elimination of HBV virions as well as HBsAg particles. Although intrahepatic phagocytes, e.g. Kupffer cells, are thought to mediate clearance of HBsAg via antibody (Ab)-dependent and -independent mechanisms, the relative contributions of circulating phagocytic cell types to HBsAg elimination are poorly characterized...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003814/the-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulator-raloxifene-inhibits-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-formation
#16
Roxana Flores, Simon Döhrmann, Christina Schaal, Abdul Hakkim, Victor Nizet, Ross Corriden
Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator typically prescribed for the prevention/treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Although raloxifene is known to have anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on human neutrophils, the primary phagocytic leukocytes of the immune system, remain poorly understood. Here, through a screen of pharmacologically active small molecules, we find that raloxifene prevents neutrophil cell death in response to the classical activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a compound known to induce formation of DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000132/biomarkers-of-glycocalyx-injury-are-associated-with-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-case-series-supporting-a-new-hypothesis
#17
Josh D Bell, Shawn G Rhind, Alex P Di Battista, R Loch Macdonald, Andrew J Baker
BACKGROUND: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) contributes to morbidity following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage; however, its etiology remains poorly understood. DCI is not only a consequence of angiographic vasospasm, but also involves microthrombosis and neuroinflammation, two events with unexplained phenomenology. The vascular endothelial glycocalyx mediates platelet aggregation and endothelial cell-leukocyte interactions and may play an important role in DCI pathogenesis. METHODS: We present a case series in which we conducted multiplex and singlet enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of endothelial, glycocalyx, inflammatory, and neuroinjury proteins in both CSF and plasma in three patients during active DCI following SAH...
December 20, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995243/nano-layered-magnesium-fluoride-reservoirs-on-biomaterial-surfaces-strengthen-polymorphonuclear-leukocyte-resistance-to-bacterial-pathogens
#18
Geyong Guo, Huaijuan Zhou, Qiaojie Wang, Jiaxing Wang, Jiaqi Tan, Jinhua Li, Ping Jin, Hao Shen
Biomaterial-related bacterial infections cause patient suffering, mortality and extended periods of hospitalization, imposing a substantial burden on medical systems. In this context, understanding of nanomaterials-bacteria-cells interactions is of both fundamental and clinical significance. Herein, nano-MgF2 films were deposited on titanium substrate via magnetron sputtering. Using this platform, the antibacterial behavior and mechanism of the nano-MgF2 films were investigated in vitro and in vivo. It was found that, for S...
December 20, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983876/risk-factors-of-poor-outcomes-after-admission-for-a-copd-exacerbation-multivariate-logistic-predictive-models
#19
Juan Luis García-Rivero, Cristina Esquinas, Miriam Barrecheguren, Marc Bonnin-Vilaplana, Patricia García-Sidro, Alberto Herrejón, Carlos Martinez-Rivera, Rosa Malo de Molina, Pedro Jorge Marcos, Sagrario Mayoralas, Elsa Naval, Jose Antonio Ros, Manuel Valle, Marc Miravitlles
The aim of this study was to identify a multivariate model to predict poor outcomes after admission for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).  We performed a multicenter, observational, prospective study. Patients admitted to hospital for COPD were followed up for 3 months. Relevant clinical variables at admission were selected. For each variable, the best cut-offs for the risk of poor outcome were identified using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Finally, a stepwise logistic regression model was performed...
December 16, 2016: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979857/endothelial-cell-signaling-and-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-vili-molecular-mechanisms-genomic-analyses-therapeutic-targets
#20
Ting Wang, Christine Gross, Ankit Desai, Evgeny Zemskov, Xiaomin Wu, Alexander N Garcia, Jeffrey R Jacobson, Jason X-J Yuan, Joe G N Garcia, Stephen M Black
Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention in critically ill patients with respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Paradoxically, mechanical ventilation also creates excessive mechanical stress that directly augments lung injury, a syndrome known as ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The pathobiology of VILI and ARDS shares many inflammatory features including increases in lung vascular permeability due to loss of endothelial cell barrier integrity resulting in alveolar flooding...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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