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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920945/neutrophils-a-cornerstone-of-liver-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury
#1
Thiago Henrique Caldeira de Oliveira, Pedro Elias Marques, Paul Proost, Mauro Martins M Teixeira
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality due to graft rejection after liver transplantation. During IRI, an intense inflammatory process occurs in the liver. This hepatic inflammation is initiated by the ischemic period but occurs mainly during the reperfusion phase, and is characterized by a large neutrophil recruitment to the liver. Production of cytokines, chemokines, and danger signals results in activation of resident hepatocytes, leukocytes, and Kupffer cells. The role of neutrophils as the main amplifiers of liver injury in IRI has been recognized in many publications...
September 18, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919492/human-platelet-antigens-are-associated-with-febrile-non-hemolytic-transfusion-reactions
#2
Ding-Ping Chen, Ying-Hao Wen, Jang-Jih Lu, Ching-Ping Tseng, Wan-Ling Chen, Su-Wei Chang
BACKGROUND: Febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR) is the most common type of transfusion reactions, and it could be reduced by transfusing patients with leukocyte-poor blood products. However, FNHTR still occur in certain patients transfused with leukocyte-poor red blood cell (LPR) products. It is examined whether human platelet antigen (HPA) could be a potential membrane antigen that plays a role in FNHTR. METHODS: A total of 120 inpatient subjects who transfused with LPR (60 in FNHTR group, 60 in control group) were typed for HPA-2, HPA-3, and HPA-15 using sequence specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) and electrophoresis...
September 14, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918487/clinical-risk-stratification-of-paediatric-renal-transplant-recipients-using-c1q-and-c3d-fixing-of-de-novo-donor-specific-antibodies
#3
Jon Jin Kim, Olivia Shaw, Chloe Martin, George Michaelides, Ramnath Balasubramaniam, Neil J Sebire, Nizam Mamode, Anthony Dorling, Robert Vaughan, Stephen D Marks
INTRODUCTION: We have previously shown that children who developed de novo donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies (DSA) had greater decline in allograft function. We hypothesised that patients with complement-activating DSA would have poorer renal allograft outcomes. METHODS: A total of 75 children developed DSA in the original study. The first positive DSA sample was subsequently tested for C1q and C3d fixing. The primary event was defined as 50% reduction from baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator...
September 16, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915215/mechanisms-involved-in-secondary-cardiac-dysfunction-in-animal-models-of-trauma-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#4
Nick M Wilson, Johanna Wall, Veena Naganathar, Karim Brohi, Henry D De'Ath
Clinical evidence reveals the existence of a trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury (TISCI) that is associated with poor patient outcomes. The mechanisms leading to TISCI in injured patients are uncertain. Conversely, animal models of trauma hemorrhage have repeatedly demonstrated significant cardiac dysfunction following injury, and highlighted mechanisms through which this might occur. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the animal studies describing TISCI and its pathophysiology.Basic science models of trauma show evidence of innate immune system activation via Toll-like receptors, the exact protagonists of which remain unclear...
October 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914433/platelet-transfusion-refractoriness-after-t-cell-replete-haploidentical-transplantation-is-associated-with-inferior-clinical-outcomes
#5
Qiang Fu, Lanping Xu, Xiaohui Zhang, Yu Wang, Yingjun Chang, Kaiyan Liu, Xiaojun Huang
Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) has been an alternative source of bone marrow for patients without human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donors. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) and clinical outcomes in the setting of haplo-SCT. Between May 2012 and March 2014, 345 patients who underwent unmanipulated haplo-SCT were retrospectively enrolled. PTR occurred in 20.6% of all patients. Patients in the PTR group experienced higher transplant-related mortality (TRM, 43...
September 13, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914200/development-of-peptide-vaccines-in-dengue
#6
Kavita Reginald, Yanqi Chan, Magdalena Plebanski, Chit Laa Poh
Dengue is one of the most important arboviral infection worldwide, infecting up to 390 million people and causing 25,000 deaths annually. Although a licensed dengue vaccine is available, it is not efficacious against dengue serotypes that infect people living in South East Asia, where dengue is an endemic disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient dengue vaccine for this region. Data from different clinical trials indicate that a successful dengue vaccine must elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cell mediated immunity...
September 13, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887808/comparison-of-reference-values-for-immune-recovery-between-event-free-patients-receiving-haploidentical-allografts-and-those-receiving-human-leukocyte-antigen-matched-sibling-donor-allografts
#7
Xuying Pei, Xiangyu Zhao, Yu Wang, Lanping Xu, Xiaohui Zhang, Kaiyan Liu, Yingjun Chang, Xiaojun Huang
To establish optimal reference values for recovered immune cell subsets, we prospectively investigated post-transplant immune reconstitution (IR) in 144 patients who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo- SCT) and without showing any of the following events: poor graft function, grades II‒IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), serious chronic GVHD, serious bacterial infection, invasive fungal infection, or relapse or death in the first year after transplantation. IR was rapid in monocytes, intermediate in lymphocytes, CD3(+) Tcells, CD8(+) T cells, and CD19(+) B cells, and very slow in CD4(+) T cells in the entire patient cohort...
September 8, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880279/live-cell-confocal-microscopy-and-quantitative-4d-image-analysis-of-anchor-cell-invasion-through-the-basement-membrane-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Laura C Kelley, Zheng Wang, Elliott J Hagedorn, Lin Wang, Wanqing Shen, Shijun Lei, Sam A Johnson, David R Sherwood
Cell invasion through basement membrane (BM) barriers is crucial in development, leukocyte trafficking and the spread of cancer. The mechanisms that direct invasion, despite their importance in normal and disease states, are poorly understood, largely because of the inability to visualize dynamic cell-BM interactions in vivo. This protocol describes multichannel time-lapse confocal imaging of anchor-cell invasion in live Caenorhabditis elegans. Methods presented include outline-slide preparation and worm growth synchronization (15 min), mounting (20 min), image acquisition (20-180 min), image processing (20 min) and quantitative analysis (variable timing)...
October 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874572/dendritic-space-filling-requires-a-neuronal-type-specific-extracellular-permissive-signal-in-drosophila
#9
Amy R Poe, Lingfeng Tang, Bei Wang, Yun Li, Maria L Sapar, Chun Han
Neurons sometimes completely fill available space in their receptive fields with evenly spaced dendrites to uniformly sample sensory or synaptic information. The mechanisms that enable neurons to sense and innervate all space in their target tissues are poorly understood. Using Drosophila somatosensory neurons as a model, we show that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) Dally and Syndecan on the surface of epidermal cells act as local permissive signals for the dendritic growth and maintenance of space-filling nociceptive C4da neurons, allowing them to innervate the entire skin...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855279/telomere-length-dynamics-in-early-life-the-blood-and-muscle-model
#10
Sanjeev Sabharwal, Simon Verhulst, George Guirguis, Jeremy D Kark, Carlos Labat, Natalie E Roche, Kristina Martimucci, Krunal Patel, Debra S Heller, Masayuki Kimura, Donald Chuang, Anne Chuang, Athanase Benetos, Abraham Aviv
Telomere length (TL) trajectories in somatic tissues during human growth and development are poorly understood. We examined a blood-and-muscle model during early life, focusing on TL trajectories in leukocytes, representing the highly proliferative hematopoietic system, and skeletal muscle, a minimally proliferative tissue. Leukocyte TL (LTL) and skeletal muscle TL (MTL) were measured in 28 fetuses and 73 children. LTL and MTL were highly variable across individuals (sd: fetal LTL = 0.72 kb, MTL = 0.72 kb; children LTL = 0...
August 29, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855224/dha-rich-n-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-decreases-dna-methylation-in-blood-leukocytes-the-omegad-study
#11
Mohsen Karimi, Inger Vedin, Yvonne Freund Levi, Hans Basun, Gerd Faxén Irving, Maria Eriksdotter, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Marianne Schultzberg, Erik Hjorth, Tommy Cederholm, Jan Palmblad
Background: Dietary fish oils, rich in long-chain n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) [e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)], modulate inflammatory reactions through various mechanisms, including gene expression, which is measured as messenger RNA concentration. However, the effects of long-term treatment of humans with DHA and EPA on various epigenetic factors-such as DNA methylation, which controls messenger RNA generation-are poorly described.Objective: We wanted to determine the effects of 6 mo of dietary supplementation with an n-3 FA preparation rich in DHA on global DNA methylation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the relation to plasma EPA and DHA concentrations in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients...
August 30, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851983/new-insights-into-tenocyte-immune-cell-interplay-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-inflammation
#12
Meaghan Stolk, Franka Klatte-Schulz, Aysha Schmock, Susann Minkwitz, Britt Wildemann, Martina Seifert
Inflammation plays an important role in the development and resolution of tendon diseases, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We therefore aimed to analyze the response of human tenocytes to inflammatory stimuli and to uncover their interplay with macrophages in vitro. Tenocytes from human ruptured supraspinatus tendons (n = 10) were treated for three days with a stimulation mixture derived from activated mononuclear cells isolated from healthy human peripheral blood. Significantly increased expression levels of selected adhesion- and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-molecules, and enhanced interleukin (IL)-6 release were detected by flow cytometry...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851918/atp6ap2-ablation-in-adult-mice-impairs-viability-through-multiple-organ-deficiencies
#13
Olivia Wendling, Marie-France Champy, Solène Jaubert, Guillaume Pavlovic, Aline Dubos, Loic Lindner, Hugues Jacobs, Manuel Mark, Roy Combe, Isabelle Goncalves Da Cruz, Hervé Luche, John S Mudgett, Thomas Rosahl, Tania Sorg, Marie Malissen, Patrick T Reilly, Yann Hérault
ATP6AP2 codes for the (pro)renin receptor and is an essential component of vacuolar H+ ATPase. Activating (pro)renin for conversion of Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin makes ATP6AP2 attractive for drug intervention. Tissue-specific ATP6AP2 inactivation in mouse suggested a strong impact on various organs. Consistent with this, we found that embryonic ablation of Atp6ap2 resulted in both male hemizygous lethality and female haploinsufficiency. Next, we examined the phenotype of an induced inactivation in the adult animal, most akin to detect potential effect of functional interference of ATP6AP2 through drug therapy...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844019/the-functional-roles-of-the-mdm2-splice-variants-p2-mdm2-10-and-mdm2-%C3%A2-5-in-breast-cancer-cells
#14
Johanna Huun, Liv B Gansmo, Bård Mannsåker, Gjertrud T Iversen, Jan Sommerfelt-Pettersen, Jan Inge Øvrebø, Per E Lønning, Stian Knappskog
BACKGROUND: MDM2 is a negative regulator of p53 and is upregulated in numerous human cancers. While different MDM2 splice variants have been observed in both normal tissues and malignant cells, their functions are poorly understood. METHODS: We evaluated the effect of MDM2 splice variants by overexpression in MCF-7 cells and analyses of expression of downstream genes (qPCR and Western blot), subcellular localization (immunofluorescence), cell cycle assays (Nucleocounter3000), apoptosis analysis (Annexin V detection), and induction of senescence (β-galactosidase analysis)...
August 24, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843224/survival-in-good-performance-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-patients-prognostic-factors-and-predictors-of-response
#15
Mohamed Rahouma, Hala Aziz, Galal Ghaly, Mohamed Kamel, Iman Loai, Abdelrahman Mohamed
Purpose: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has a poor prognosis in general. Here we sought to evaluate prognostic factors and predictors of response to chemotherapy in good performance (PS=0-I) patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our database and enrolled patients with MPM who received platinum containing chemotherapy (2012-2014). Clinico-pathological and laboratory data were retrieved and Cox and logistic regression multivariate analyses (MVA) were respectively used to identify predictors of survival and response to chemotherapy...
August 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841456/resveratrol-improves-smooth-muscle-carcinogenesis-in-the-progression-of-chronic-prostatitis-via-the-downregulation-of-c-kit-scf-by-activating-sirt1
#16
Yi He, Huizhi Zeng, Yang Yu, Jiashu Zhang, Xingping Duan, Qi Liu, Bo Yang
PURPOSE: Bladder smooth muscle cell death accompanied by hyperplasia and hypertrophy, as induced by inflammation, is the primary cause for poor bladder function. There are emerging evidences on the role of chronic inflammation as a factor involved in carcinogenesis and progression. We aim to determine the bladder smooth muscle pathological changes and dysfunction in chronic prostatitis (CP), to investigate whether resveratrol can improve the urinary dysfunction and the role of c-kit/SCF pathway, that has been associated with the smooth muscle carcinogenesis...
August 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840841/upregulation-of-cytokine-mrna-in-circulating-leukocytes-during-human-endotoxemia
#17
Petra Jilma-Stohlawetz, Tuende Kliegel, Irene Kantner-Schlifke, Claudia Strasser-Marsik, Florian B Mayr, Bernd Jilma
Endotoxemia induces pronounced changes in leukocyte count and enhances the release of many cytokines. However, the molecular regulation of this cytokine release is poorly characterized in humans. The time course of mRNA expression of 24 cytokines in circulating leukocytes was studied in a well-standardized model of human endotoxemia (2 ng/kg). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to quantify the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible mRNA levels of leukocytes from 16 healthy volunteers in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
March 1, 2017: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834593/characterization-of-purine-rich-element-binding-protein-b-as-a-novel-biomarker-in-acute-myelogenous-leukemia-prognostication
#18
Robert J Kelm, Gurpreet S Lamba, Jamie E Levis, Chris E Holmes
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)(1) is an aggressive hematologic cancer characterized by infiltration of proliferative, clonal, abnormally differentiated cells of myeloid lineage in the bone marrow and blood. Malignant cells in AML often exhibit chromosomal and other genetic or epigenetic abnormalities that are useful in prognostic risk assessment. In this study, the relative expression and novel single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding function of purine-rich element binding proteins A and B (Purα and Purβ) were systematically evaluated in established leukemia cell lines and in lineage committed myeloid cells isolated from patients diagnosed with a hematologic malignancy...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832353/allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-myelofibrosis
#19
Noa Lavi, Jacob M Rowe, Tsila Zuckerman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative therapy for myelofibrosis. The number of HSCTs performed for this indication has been steadily increasing over the past years, even after the approval of the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, ruxolitinib. This increase may be attributed to improved patient selection based on new prognostic molecular markers, more frequent use of matched unrelated donors, secondary to better (high-resolution) human leukocyte antigen typing and supportive care...
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830822/human-microglia-and-astrocytes-express-cgas-sting-viral-sensing-components
#20
Austin M Jeffries, Ian Marriott
While microglia and astrocytes are known to produce key inflammatory and anti-viral mediators following infection with replicative DNA viruses, the mechanisms by which these cell types perceive such threats are poorly understood. Recently, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) has been identified as an important cytosolic sensor for DNA viruses and retroviruses in peripheral leukocytes. Here we confirm the ability of human microglial and astrocytic cell lines and primary human glia to respond to foreign intracellular double stranded DNA...
August 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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