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Activation theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108571/dynamical-theory-of-shear-bands-in-structural-glasses
#1
Apiwat Wisitsorasak, Peter G Wolynes
The heterogeneous elastoplastic deformation of structural glasses is explored using the framework of the random first-order transition theory of the glass transition along with an extended mode-coupling theory that includes activated events. The theory involves coupling the continuum elastic theory of strain transport with mobility generation and transport as described in the theory of glass aging and rejuvenation. Fluctuations that arise from the generation and transport of mobility, fictive temperature, and stress are treated explicitly...
January 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108495/neural-representations-of-belief-concepts-a-representational-similarity-approach-to-social-semantics
#2
Anna Leshinskaya, Juan Manuel Contreras, Alfonso Caramazza, Jason P Mitchell
The present experiment identified neural regions that represent a class of concepts that are independent of perceptual or sensory attributes. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, participants viewed names of social groups (e.g. Atheists, Evangelicals, and Economists) and performed a one-back similarity judgment according to 1 of 2 dimensions of belief attributes: political orientation (Liberal to Conservative) or spiritualism (Spiritualist to Materialist). By generalizing across a wide variety of social groups that possess these beliefs, these attribute concepts did not coincide with any specific sensory quality, allowing us to target conceptual, rather than perceptual, representations...
January 19, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108449/quantification-of-fibrous-spatial-point-patterns-from-single-molecule-localization-microscopy-smlm-data
#3
Ruby Peters, Marta Benthem Muñiz, Juliette Griffié, David J Williamson, George W Ashdown, Christian D Lorenz, Dylan M Owen
MOTIVATION: Unlike conventional microscopy which produces pixelated images, SMLM produces data in the form of a list of localization coordinates - a spatial point pattern (SPP). Often, such SPPs are analyzed using cluster analysis algorithms to quantify molecular clustering within, for example, the plasma membrane. While SMLM cluster analysis is now well developed, techniques for analyzing fibrous structures remain poorly explored. RESULTS: Here, we demonstrate statistical methodology, based on Ripley's K-function to quantitatively assess fibrous structures in 2D SMLM data sets...
January 19, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108002/reduced-order-model-based-active-disturbance-rejection-control-of-hydraulic-servo-system-with-singular-value-perturbation-theory
#4
Chengwen Wang, Long Quan, Shijie Zhang, Hongjun Meng, Yuan Lan
Hydraulic servomechanism is the typical mechanical/hydraulic double-dynamics coupling system with the high stiffness control and mismatched uncertainties input problems, which hinder direct applications of many advanced control approaches in the hydraulic servo fields. In this paper, by introducing the singular value perturbation theory, the original double-dynamics coupling model of the hydraulic servomechanism was reduced to a integral chain system. So that, the popular ADRC (active disturbance rejection control) technology could be directly applied to the reduced system...
January 17, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106226/applied-taguchi-method-for-fatigue-testing-of-customized-hip-implant
#5
Mangesh R Dharme, Abhaykumar M Kuthe, Tushar R Deshmukh
PURPOSE: Human activities generate stresses, which vary with time and may result in fatigue failure of the customized hip implant. This study aims to investigate fatigue testing of customized hip implants using the minimum number of experiments by the Taguchi method, for 147 patients. This study was also useful to determine the influential geometrical parameters on the fatigue safety factor of customized hip implants. METHODS: Horizontal offset (HO), vertical offset (VO) and neck shaft angle (NSA) of the hip joint of 147 patients were measured on computed tomography (CT) scanned images...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106154/anisotropic-hydrogen-diffusion-in-%C3%AE-zr-and-zircaloy-predicted-by-accelerated-kinetic-monte-carlo-simulations
#6
Yongfeng Zhang, Chao Jiang, Xianming Bai
This report presents an accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method to compute the diffusivity of hydrogen in hcp metals and alloys, considering both thermally activated hopping and quantum tunneling. The acceleration is achieved by replacing regular KMC jumps in trapping energy basins formed by neighboring tetrahedral interstitial sites, with analytical solutions for basin exiting time and probability. Parameterized by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the accelerated KMC method is shown to be capable of efficiently calculating hydrogen diffusivity in α-Zr and Zircaloy, without altering the kinetics of long-range diffusion...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106123/visual-area-v5-hmt-contributes-to-perception-of-tactile-motion-direction-a-tms-study
#7
Tomohiro Amemiya, Brianna Beck, Vincent Walsh, Hiroaki Gomi, Patrick Haggard
Human imaging studies have reported activations associated with tactile motion perception in visual motion area V5/hMT+, primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC; Brodmann areas 7/40). However, such studies cannot establish whether these areas are causally involved in tactile motion perception. We delivered double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while moving a single tactile point across the fingertip, and used signal detection theory to quantify perceptual sensitivity to motion direction...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106007/atomic-layer-deposition-of-1d-and-2d-nickel-nanostructures-on-graphite
#8
Seung Ryu, Jaehong Yoon, Hyoung-Seok Moon, Bonggeun Shong, Hyungjun Kim, Han-Bo-Ram Lee
One-dimensional (1D) nanowires (NWs) and two-dimensional (2D) thin films of Ni were deposited on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using NH<sub>3</sub> as a counter reactant. Thermal ALD using NH<sub>3</sub> gas forms 1D NWs along step edges, while NH<sub>3</sub> plasma enables the deposition of a continuous 2D film over the whole surface. The lateral and vertical growth rates of the Ni NWs are numerically modeled as a function of the number of ALD cycles...
January 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105721/bioarchaeology-in-the-ancient-near-east-challenges-and-future-directions-for-the-southern-levant
#9
Susan Guise Sheridan
The synthesis of biological anthropology, archaeology, and social theory provides a bioarchaeological model to reconstruct nuanced aspects of demography, diet, disease, death, daily activities, and biodistance, even in the absence of discrete burials. Numerous skeletal assemblages in the southern Levant are composed of mixed and fragmented bones resulting from generational use of cemeteries, mass burial, and additional communal burial practices. Others become commingled due to taphonomic processes such as flooding, geological events, or human mediated mechanisms like looting, improper excavation, and poor curation...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105655/imperfect-de-convolution-may-introduce-spurious-psychophysiological-interactions-and-how-to-avoid-it
#10
Xin Di, Richard C Reynolds, Bharat B Biswal
Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) is a widely used regression-based method to study connectivity changes in different experimental conditions. A PPI effect is generated by point-by-point multiplication of a psychological variable (experimental design) and a physiological variable (time series of a seed region). If the psychological variable is non-centered with a constant component, the constant component will add a physiological variable to the PPI term. The physiological component would in theory be accounted for by the physiological main effect in the model...
January 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105400/discovery-of-a-novel-sn-ii-based-oxide-%C3%AE-snmoo4-for-daylight-driven-photocatalysis
#11
Hiroyuki Hayashi, Shota Katayama, Takahiro Komura, Yoyo Hinuma, Tomoyasu Yokoyama, Ko Mibu, Fumiyasu Oba, Isao Tanaka
Daylight-driven photocatalysts have attracted much attention in the context of "green" technology. Although various active materials have been reported and their applications are rapidly increasing, many are discovered after enormous experimental efforts. Herein the discovery of a novel oxide photocatalyst, β-SnMoO4, is demonstrated via a rational search of 3483 known and hypothetical compounds with various compositions and structures over the whole range of SnO-MO q/2 (M: Ti, Zr, and Hf (q = 4); V, Nb, and Ta (q = 5); Cr, Mo, and W (q = 6)) pseudobinary systems...
January 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104413/cognitive-motor-dual-task-interference-a-systematic-review-of-neural-correlates
#12
REVIEW
Leone Carmela, Peter Feys, Lousin Moumdjian, Emanuele D'Amico, Mario Zappia, Patti Francesco
Cognitive-motor interference refers to dual-tasking (DT) interference (DTi) occurring when the simultaneous performance of a cognitive and a motor task leads to a percentage change in one or both tasks. Several theories exist to explain DTi in humans: the capacity-sharing, the bottleneck and the cross-talk theories. Numerous studies investigating whether a specific brain locus is associated with cognitive-motor DTi have been conducted, but not systematically reviewed. We aimed to review the evidences on brain activity associated with the cognitive-motor DT, in order to better understand the neurological basis of the CMi...
January 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103999/-a-research-on-confucian-scholar-practicing-medicine-at-the-turn-of-the-jin-and-yuan-dynasties
#13
Y Q Li
After the rising of the Yuan Dynasty by defeating the Jin and Southern Song Dynasties, there were huge influences on the life of the Confucian scholars. A large number of Confucian scholar practiced medicine actively or passively. They practiced medicine in order to live safely in war time; or turned into the officials, with only a few of them even became senior officials. Some Confucian scholars changed their household registration by using the medical profession, and improved the identity and status in the society...
September 28, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103925/protocol-for-a-realist-review-of-workplace-learning-in-postgraduate-medical-education-and-training
#14
Anel Wiese, Caroline Kilty, Colm Bergin, Patrick Flood, Na Fu, Mary Horgan, Agnes Higgins, Bridget Maher, Grainne O'Kane, Lucia Prihodova, Dubhfeasa Slattery, Deirdre Bennett
BACKGROUND: Postgraduate medical education and training (PGMET) is a complex social process which happens predominantly during the delivery of patient care. The clinical learning environment (CLE), the context for PGMET, shapes the development of the doctors who learn and work within it, ultimately impacting the quality and safety of patient care. Clinical workplaces are complex, dynamic systems in which learning emerges from non-linear interactions within a network of related factors and activities...
January 19, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103723/scholar-outcomes-for-dental-internship-research-program-in-saudi-arabia-a-qualitative-evaluation
#15
Laila A Bahammam, Amal I Linjawi
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential, challenges and needs for internship research activities in achieving scholar outcomes among graduates. METHODS: A qualitative general needs assessment and evaluation of an internship research program was conducted at King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry (KAUFD), KSA, from December 2014 to February 2015 using focus groups and interviews. The participants included: administrates, faculty, and internship students. Data were transcribed and analyzed following the grounded theory...
January 20, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103510/exo-organoplasty-interventions-a-brief-review-of-past-present-and-future-directions-for-advance-heart-failure-management
#16
REVIEW
Waqas Nawaz, Farhan Ullah Khan, Muhammad Zahid Khan, Wang Gang, Mengqi Yang, Xiaoqian Liao, Li Zhang, Awais Ullah Ihsan, Amjad Khan, Lei Han, Xiaohui Zhou
Heart failure (HF) is a debilitating disease in which abnormal function of the heart leads to imbalance of blood demand to tissues and organs. The pathogenesis of HF is very complex and various factors can contribute including myocardial infarction, ischemia, hypertension and genetic cardiomyopathies. HF is the leading cause of death and its prevalence is expected to increase in parallel with the population age. Different kind of therapeutic approaches including lifestyle modification, medication and pacemakers are used for HF patients in NYHA I-III functional class...
January 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103503/sedative-hypnotic-like-effect-and-molecular-docking-of-di-naphthodiospyrol-from-diospyros-lotus-in-an-animal-model
#17
Abdur Rauf, Taibi Ben Hadda, Ghias Uddin, José P Cerón-Carrasco, Jorge Peña-García, Horacio Pérez-Sánchez, Haroon Khan, Saud Bawazeer, Seema Patel, Mohammad S Mubarak, Tareq Abu-Izneid, Yahia Nasser Mabkhot
BACKGROUND: Diospyros lotus Linn commonly known as date-plum, or Caucasian persimmon has multiple uses in folk medicine. Various parts of this plant is used for alleviating lumbago, dysponea, hemorrhage, insomnia, and hiccup. The plant extracts possess a variety of biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, sedative, febrifuge, anti-microbial, vermifuge, and anti-hypertensive. AIM/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the present work is to investigate the sedative-hypnotic effect of a rare dimeric napthoquione 1 obtained from the chloroform soluble fraction of D...
January 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103235/real-time-multiplicative-memory-amplification-mediated-by-whole-cell-scaling-of-synaptic-response-in-key-neurons
#18
Iris Reuveni, Sourav Ghosh, Edi Barkai
Intense spiking response of a memory-pattern is believed to play a crucial role both in normal learning and pathology, where it can create biased behavior. We recently proposed a novel model for memory amplification where the simultaneous two-fold increase of all excitatory (AMPAR-mediated) and inhibitory (GABAAR-mediated) synapses in a sub-group of cells that constitutes a memory-pattern selectively amplifies this memory. Here we confirm the cellular basis of this model by validating its major predictions in four sets of experiments, and demonstrate its induction via a whole-cell transduction mechanism...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103207/determination-of-factors-affecting-physical-activity-status-of-university-students-on-a-health-sciences-campus
#19
Ayfer Dayi, Ayla Acikgoz, Guven Guvendi, Levent Bayrak, Burcu Ersoy, Cagri Gur, Omer Ozmen
Upon graduation, students studying in departments related to health will work in the health sector and will guide and enlighten people with their knowledge and behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the physical activity (PA) conditions of university students on a health sciences campus. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 706 students in a Turkish university. The data was obtained from a survey prepared by the researchers. The 26-question survey aimed to discover the students' socio-demographic characteristics and their awareness and practices concerning PA...
January 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103040/strain-engineered-oxygen-vacancies-in-camno3-thin-films
#20
Ravini U Chandrasena, Weibing Yang, Qingyu Lei, Mario Ulises Delgado-Jaime, Kanishka D Wijesekara, Maryam Golalikhani, Bruce Davidson, Elke Arenholz, Keisuke Kobayashi, Masaaki Kobata, Frank M F de Groot, Ulrich Aschauer, Nicola A Spaldin, Xiaoxing Xi, Alexander X Gray
We demonstrate a novel pathway to control and stabilize oxygen vacancies in complex transition-metal oxide thin films. Using atomic layer-by-layer pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from two separate targets, we synthesize high-quality single-crystalline CaMnO3 films with systematically varying oxygen vacancy defect formation energies as controlled by coherent tensile strain. The systematic increase of the oxygen vacancy content in CaMnO3 as a function of applied in-plane strain is observed and confirmed experimentally using high-resolution soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in conjunction with bulk-sensitive hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES)...
January 19, 2017: Nano Letters
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