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Activation theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926598/-if-he-could-speak-he-would-be-able-to-point-out-who-does-those-things-to-him-experiences-of-violence-and-access-to-child-protection-among-children-with-disabilities-in-uganda-and-malawi
#1
Lena Morgon Banks, Susan A Kelly, Nambusi Kyegombe, Hannah Kuper, Karen Devries
INTRODUCTION: There is growing evidence that children with disabilities face an increased risk of violence globally. While child protection mechanisms to prevent and respond to violence-including formal government systems and more informal programmes and activities run by local communities or NGOs-are slowly becoming operationalised in low- and- middle-income countries, little is known about whether existing mechanisms are disability-inclusive. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of children with disabilities' experiences of violence and their access to available child protection mechanisms in low resource settings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925703/hydrolysis-of-dimethyl-methylphosphonate-by-the-cyclic-tetramer-of-zirconium-hydroxide
#2
Igor V Schweigert, Daniel Gunlycke
We present hybrid density functional theory (DFT) calculations of hydrolysis of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) by the cyclic tetramer of zirconium hydroxide [Zr4(OH)16]. Various binding configurations of DMMP and its hydrolysis products on the tetramer as well as transition structures connecting them were explored using structure optimizations based on multiple, randomly selected initial structures. We find that DMMP can bind to the tetramer through the phosphoryl O forming either a strong hydrogen bond to a bridging hydroxyl or a coordinate bond to a coordinatively unsaturated Zr atom...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925682/role-of-proton-diffusion-in-the-nonexponential-kinetics-of-proton-coupled-electron-transfer-from-photoreduced-zno-nanocrystals
#3
Soumya Ghosh, Alexander V Soudackov, Sharon Hammes-Schiffer
Experiments have suggested that photoreduced ZnO nanocrystals transfer an electron and a proton to organic radicals through a concerted proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism. The kinetics of this process was studied by monitoring the decay of the absorbance that reflects the concentration of electrons in the conduction bands of the nanocrystals. Interestingly, this absorbance exhibited nonexponential decay kinetics that could not be explained by heterogeneities of the nanoparticles or electron content...
September 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925531/theoretical-evidences-behind-bifunctional-catalytic-activity-in-pristine-and-functionalized-al2c-monolayer
#4
Rosely Almeida, Amitava Banerjee, Sudip Chakraborty, Jailton Almeida, Rajeev Ahuja
First principles electronic structure calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) framework are performed to investigate hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on two-dimensional Al2C monolayer. The monolayer is functionalized with several dopants and four prominent doping elements are nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), boron (B) and sulphur (S). After determining the individual adsorption energy of hydrogen and oxygen on different functionalized Al2C monolayer, the adsorption free energies are predicted subsequently for each of the functionalized cases in order to predict which case of functionalization serves better for HER or OER...
September 19, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925063/the-decline-in-adult-activities-among-u-s-adolescents-1976-2016
#5
Jean M Twenge, Heejung Park
The social and historical contexts may influence the speed of development. In seven large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. adolescents 1976-2016 (N = 8.44 million, ages 13-19), fewer adolescents in recent years engaged in adult activities such as having sex, dating, drinking alcohol, working for pay, going out without their parents, and driving, suggesting a slow life strategy. Adult activities were less common when median income, life expectancy, college enrollment, and age at first birth were higher and family size and pathogen prevalence were lower, consistent with life history theory...
September 18, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924830/a-multilevel-modeling-approach-to-examining-the-implementation-effectiveness-relationship-of-a-behavior-change-intervention-for-health-care-professional-trainees
#6
Jennifer R Tomasone, Shane N Sweet, Stuart McReynolds, Kathleen A Martin Ginis
Changing Minds, Changing Lives, a seminar-mediated behavior change intervention, aims to enhance health care professionals' (HCPs') social cognitions for discussing leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with patients with physical disabilities. This study examines which seminar implementation variables (presenter characteristics, delivery components) predict effectiveness using multilevel modeling. HCP trainees (n = 564) attended 24 seminars and completed Theory of Planned Behavior-based measures for discussing LTPA at pre-, post-, 1-month post-, and 6-months post-seminar...
September 18, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924730/effects-of-the-preparation-process-on-the-properties-of-amorphous-solid-dispersions
#7
Siyuan Huang, Robert O Williams
The use of amorphous solid dispersions to improve the bioavailability of active ingredients from the BCS II and IV classifications continues to gain interest in the pharmaceutical industry. Over the last decade, methods for generating amorphous solid dispersions have been well established in commercially available products and in the literature. However, the amorphous solid dispersions manufactured by different technologies differ in many aspects, primarily chemical stability, physical stability, and performance, both in vitro and in vivo...
September 18, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923157/walter-freeman-iii-and-the-chaotic-nature-of-dreams
#8
Allan Combs, Stanley Krippner
The contributions and life of Walter Freeman III are celebrated through an understanding of the neurodynamics of the dreaming brain. Beginning with a brief review of the universal dynamics of self-organizing systems, this paper turns to an exploration of dreaming through the application of concepts from chaos theory to brain activity during REM-state dreaming. Recent studies of the electrophysiology of the brain during REM state dreaming are reviewed, such as the active inhibition of sensory stimulation and, especially in REM sleep, alterations in the brain's dominant neuromodulatory systems, bombardment of the visual cortex with bursts of PGO activity, increased limbic system activity, and a reduction of activity in the brain's prefrontal regions...
October 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923031/positive-mental-health-literacy-development-and-validation-of-a-measure-among-norwegian-adolescents
#9
Hanne Nissen Bjørnsen, Mary Elizabeth Bradley Eilertsen, Regine Ringdal, Geir Arild Espnes, Unni Karin Moksnes
BACKGROUND: Mental health literacy (MHL), or the knowledge and abilities necessary to benefit mental health, is a significant determinant of mental health and has the potential to benefit both individual and public mental health. MHL and its measures have traditionally focused on knowledge and beliefs about mental -ill-health rather than on mental health. No measures of MHL addressing knowledge of good or positive mental health have been identified. AIM: This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument measuring adolescents' knowledge of how to obtain and maintain good mental health and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the instrument...
September 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922988/erognomic-education-on-housework-for-women-with-upper-limb-repetitive-strain-injury-rsi-a-conceptual-representation-of-therapists-clinical-reasoning
#10
Therma W C Cheung, Lindy Clemson, Kate O' Loughlin, Russell Shuttleworth
BACKGROUND: Ergonomic education in housework that aims to facilitate behavior change is important for women with upper limb repetitive strain injury. Therapists usually conduct such programs based on implicit reasoning. Making this reasoning explicit is important in contributing to the profession's knowledge. AIM: To construct a conceptual representation of how occupational therapists make clinical decisions for such program. METHOD: Based on a constructivist-grounded theory methodology, data were collected through in-depth interviewing with 14 occupational therapists from a major hospital in Singapore...
September 18, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922654/student-s-perception-about-innovative-teaching-learning-practices-in-forensic-medicine
#11
Sanjay Gupta, Utsav N Parekh, Jaishree D Ganjiwale
BACKGROUND: Since decades, Forensic Medicine is mainly taught by didactic methods but in last couple of years some other teachinglearning and assessment methods are also introduced at some places which also lacks uniformity. Feedback from learners is most fundamental aspect to assess effectiveness of applied methods, but is not implemented in practice at most medical schools in India. Unfortunately, medical students are deprived of this practical empowerment and thus may not be efficient enough to contribute potentially to the justice system during their professional life...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922646/synthesis-spectral-characterization-and-computed-optical-analysis-of-potent-triazole-based-compounds
#12
Sajjad H Sumrra, Fazila Mushtaq, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Asam Raza, Muhammad Faizan Nazar, Bakhat Ali, Ataualpa A C Braga
Biologically active triazole Schiff base ligand (L) and metal complexes [Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)] are reported herein. The ligand acted as tridentate and coordinated towards metallic ions via azomethine-N, triazolic-N moiety and deprotonated-O of phenyl substituents in an octahedral manner. These compounds were characterized by physical, spectral and analytical analysis. The synthesized ligand and metal complexes were screened for antibacterial pathogens against Chromohalobacter salexigens, Chromohalobacter israelensi, Halomonas halofila and Halomonas salina, antifungal bioassay against Aspergillus niger and Aspergellus flavin, antioxidant (DPPH, phosphomolybdate) and also for enzyme inhibition [butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)] studies...
September 13, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922600/ptml-model-for-proteome-mining-of-b-cell-epitopes-and-theoretic-experimental-study-of-bm86-protein-sequences-from-colima-mexico
#13
Saúl Gabriel Martínez, Esvieta Tenorio-Borroto, Alberto Barbabosa Pliego, Hector Diaz-Albiter, Juan C Vazquez-Chagoyan, Humbert Gonzalez-Diaz
In this work, we developed a general Perturbation Theory and Machine Learning (PTML) method for data mining of proteomes, in order to discover new B-cell epitopes useful for vaccine design. The method predicts the epitope activity εq(cqj) of one query peptide (q-peptide) in a set of experimental query conditions (cqj). The method uses as input the sequence of the q-peptide. The method also uses as input information about the sequence and epitope activity εr(crj) of a peptide of reference (r-peptide) assayed on similar experimental conditions (crj)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922129/dissipativity-and-synchronization-of-generalized-bam-neural-networks-with-multivariate-discontinuous-activations
#14
Dongshu Wang, Lihong Huang, Longkun Tang
This paper is concerned with the dissipativity and synchronization problems of a class of delayed bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks in which neuron activations are modeled by discontinuous bivariate functions. First, the concept of the Filippov solution is extended to functional differential equations with discontinuous right-hand sides and mixed delays via functional differential inclusions. The global dissipativity of the Filippov solution to the considered BAM neural networks is proven using generalized Halanay inequalities and matrix measure approaches...
September 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922092/from-risky-behaviour-to-sexy-adventures-reconceptualising-young-people-s-online-sexual-activities
#15
Marijke Naezer
Western discourses about young people and sexuality centre around the concept of risk. Anxieties have been fuelled by the increasing popularity of social media and practices such as 'sexting' and watching 'sexually explicit' materials online. Research has shown however that such risk discourses mainly serve to moralise about, pathologise and police particular behaviours and children. In order to counter such paternalism, researchers advocated a reconceptualisation of youth not as passive victims, but as active agents who actively negotiate sexual experiences and discourses...
September 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922005/behavioral-activation-in-tfp-the-role-of-the-treatment-contract-in-transference-focused-psychotherapy
#16
Frank E Yeomans, Jill C Delaney, Kenneth N Levy
Transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) is a manualized evidence-based treatment for borderline and other severe personality disorders that is based on psychoanalytic object relations theory. Similar to other psychodynamic psychotherapies, TFP focuses on changing psychological structures, but also focuses on symptom and behavioral change, particularly the importance of being active (e.g., obtaining a job or involvement in similar activities). In TFP, the establishment of the treatment contract, also known as the treatment frame, is where goals such as work and other activities are agreed upon...
September 2017: Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921831/analysis-of-the-spotted-gar-genome-suggests-absence-of-causative-link-between-ancestral-genome-duplication-and-transposable-element-diversification-in-teleost-fish
#17
Domitille Chalopin, Jean-Nicolas Volff
Teleost fish have been shown to contain many superfamilies of transposable elements (TEs) that are absent from most tetrapod genomes. Since theories predict an increase in TE activity following polyploidization, such diversity might be linked to the 3R whole-genome duplication that occurred approximately 300 million years ago before the teleost radiation. To test this hypothesis, we have analyzed the genome of the spotted gar Lepisosteus oculatus, which diverged from the teleost lineage before the 3R duplication...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921757/the-neurobiological-bases-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-the-r451c-neuroligin-3-mutation-hampers-the-expression-of-long-term-synaptic-depression-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#18
Giuseppina Martella, Maria Meringolo, Laura Trobiani, Antonella De Jaco, Antonio Pisani, Paola Bonsi
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders with a complex genetic etiology. Current theories on the pathogenesis of ASDs suggest that they might arise from an aberrant synaptic transmission affecting specific brain circuits and synapses. The striatum, which is part of the basal ganglia circuit, is one of the brain regions involved in ASDs. Mouse models of ASDs have provided evidence for an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Here we investigated the expression of long-term synaptic plasticity at corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses in the dorsal striatum of the R451C-NL3 phenotypic mouse model of autism...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921684/generation-of-stable-ruthenium-iv-ketimido-complexes-via-oxidative-addition-of-oxime-esters-to-ruthenium-ii-reactivity-studies-based-on-electronic-properties-of-the-ru-n-bond
#19
Takuya Shimbayashi, Kazuhiro Okamoto, Kouichi Ohe
The reaction of an oxime ester with RuX2(PPh3)3 proceeded smoothly at room temperature to afford a stable Ru(IV)-ketimido complex as an oxidative adduct. The structure of the complex was unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis, which showed an almost linear Ru-N-C array. The electronic properties of the nitrogen atom were estimated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and results suggested the double-bond character of the Ru-N bond. Kinetic studies combined with consideration of the substituent effect on the oxime ester led to proposing the reaction mechanism involving oxidative addition, which could proceed via N,O-chelate coordination to the Ru center prior to N-O bond cleavage...
September 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921043/slow-wave-activity-and-executive-dysfunction-in-children-with-sleep-disordered-breathing
#20
Jessica A Christiansz, Chloe R Lappin, Aidan J Weichard, Gillian M Nixon, Margot J Davey, Rosemary S C Horne, Sarah N Biggs
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine slow wave activity (SWA), a marker of homeostatic regulation, as a potential mechanism linking sleep disordered breathing (SDB) with executive dysfunction in children. METHODS: Executive function domains of working memory, spatial planning, information processing, and sustained attention were assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) in children (N = 40; 5-12 years) referred for clinical diagnosis of SDB...
September 18, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
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