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Activation theory

Felix Stibany, Stine Nørgaard Schmidt, Andreas Schäffer, Philipp Mayer
The aims of the present study were (1) to develop a passive dosing approach for aquatic toxicity testing of liquid substances with very high Kow values and (2) to apply this approach to the model substance dodecylbenzene (DDB, Log Kow = 8.65). The first step was to design a new passive dosing format for testing DDB exactly at its saturation limit. Silicone O-rings were saturated by direct immersion in pure liquid DDB, which resulted in swelling of >14%. These saturated O-rings were used to establish and maintain DDB exposure exactly at the saturation limit throughout 72-h algal growth inhibition tests with green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata...
October 18, 2016: Chemosphere
Daniela Mier, Sarah Eisenacher, Franziska Rausch, Susanne Englisch, Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Vera Zamoscik, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Mathias Zink, Peter Kirsch
Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in social cognition. These impairments have been shown to go along with altered activation of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). However, studies that investigate connectivity of pSTS during social cognition in schizophrenia are sparse. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia and 22 matched healthy controls completed a social-cognitive task for functional magnetic resonance imaging that allows the investigation of affective Theory of Mind (ToM), emotion recognition and the processing of neutral facial expressions...
October 21, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Jie Gao, John L Williams, Esra Roan
Growth plate chondrocytes are responsible for bone growth through proliferation and differentiation. However, the way they experience physiological loads and regulate bone formation, especially during the later developmental phase in the mature growth plate, is still under active investigation. In this study, a previously developed multiscale finite element model of the growth plate is utilized to study the stress and strain distributions within the cartilage at the cellular level when rapidly compressed to 20 %...
October 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
T Lavender, S Wakasiaka, L McGowan, M Moraa, J Omari, W Khisa
AIM: this study aimed to gain understanding of the views of community members in relation to obstetric fistula. DESIGN AND METHOD: a qualitative, grounded theory approach was adopted. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with 45 community members. The constant comparison method enabled generation of codes and subsequent conceptualisations, from the data. SETTING: participants were from communities served by two hospitals in Kenya; Kisii and Kenyatta...
October 4, 2016: Midwifery
Amr A A Attia, Daniela Cioloboc, Alexandru Lupan, Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu
The putative initial adduct of ferrous superoxide reductase (SOR) with superoxide has been alternatively formulated as ferric-peroxo or ferrous-superoxo. The ~600-nm UV-vis absorption band proposed to be assigned to this adduct (either as sole intermediate in the SOR catalytic cycle, or as one of the two intermediates) has recently been interpreted as due to a ligand-to-metal charge transfer, involving thiolate and superoxide in a ferrous complex, contrary to an alternative assignment as a predominantly cysteine thiolate-to-ferric charge transfer in a ferric-peroxo electromer...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Richard A Manderville, Stacey D Wetmore
The formation of DNA adducts by the attack of intermediates derived from toxic substances at the C8 position of 2-deoxyguanosine (dG) is a common damaging event. Although the majority of studies on C8-dG adducts have focused on lesions containing a C8-N-C tether between the bulky moiety and the nucleobase, the formation of O-linked lesions with a similar tether topology and C-linked adducts involving direct C8-C connectivity have also been uncovered. Several studies have been done to try to better understand the structural impact and mutagenicity of O-linked and C-linked aryl C8-dG adducts, including lesions arising from unsubstituted and chloro substituted phenols, and the food mutagen ochratoxin A (OTA)...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Rachel Hirschey, Isaac Lipkus, Lee Jones, Christopher Mantyh, Richard Sloane, Wendy Demark-Wahnefried
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To test effects of gain-framed versus loss-framed mailed brochures on increasing physical activity (PA) among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors.
. DESIGN: Randomized trial with repeated measures at baseline, 1 month, and 12 months postintervention.
. SETTING: Mail recruitment from tumor registries.
. SAMPLE: 148 inactive CRC survivors who had completed primary therapy. 
. METHODS: PA and constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, and 12 months...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Ivan Ljubic, Aleksandar Sabljic, Marija Bonifacic
The reactions of α-hydroxyalkyl radicals in aqueous medium are of interest because they exhibit a rich variety of fundamentally important competing mechanisms, such as proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), hydrogen atom transfer, free radical substitutions, abstractions and additions etc. We present a theoretical study of the mechanism and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of α-hydroxyisopropyl (2-propanol) radical with four halogenated organic substrates: iodoacetate (IAc), iodoacetamide (IAm), 5-bromouracil (5-BrU), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Félix LaRoche-Johnston, Caroline Monat, Benoit Cousineau
BACKGROUND: Group II introns are catalytically active RNA and mobile retroelements present in certain eukaryotic organelles, bacteria and archaea. These ribozymes self-splice from the pre-mRNA of interrupted genes and reinsert within target DNA sequences by retrohoming and retrotransposition. Evolutionary hypotheses place these retromobile elements at the origin of over half the human genome. Nevertheless, the evolution and dissemination of group II introns was found to be quite difficult to infer...
October 20, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Anthea Burnett, Aryati Yashadhana, Maria Cabrera Aguas, Yvonne Hanni, Mitasha Yu
INTRODUCTION: A person's capability to access services and achieve good eye health is influenced by their behaviours, perceptions, beliefs and experiences. As evidence from Papua New Guinea (PNG) about people's lived experience with vision impairment is limited, the purpose of the present study was to better understand the beliefs, perceptions and emotional responses to vision impairment in PNG. METHODS: A qualitative study, using both purposive and convenience sampling, was undertaken to explore common beliefs and perceptions about vision impairment, as well as the emotional responses to vision impairment...
October 2016: Rural and Remote Health
Urszula K Komarnicka, Radosław Starosta, Agnieszka Kyzioł, Michał Płotek, Małgorzata Puchalska, Małgorzata Jeżowska-Bojczuk
In this paper we present lomefloxacin's (HLm, 2nd generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent) organic and inorganic derivatives: aminomethyl(diphenyl)phosphine (PLm), its oxide as well as new copper(I) iodide or copper(I) thiocyanate complexes with PLm and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) or 2,2'-biquinoline (bq) as the auxiliary ligands. The synthesized compounds were fully characterised by NMR, UV-Vis and luminescence spectroscopies. Selected structures were analysed by theoretical DFT (density functional theory) methods...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Gergő Orbán, Pietro Berkes, József Fiser, Máté Lengyel
Neural responses in the visual cortex are variable, and there is now an abundance of data characterizing how the magnitude and structure of this variability depends on the stimulus. Current theories of cortical computation fail to account for these data; they either ignore variability altogether or only model its unstructured Poisson-like aspects. We develop a theory in which the cortex performs probabilistic inference such that population activity patterns represent statistical samples from the inferred probability distribution...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
William Severa, Ojas Parekh, Conrad D James, James B Aimone
The dentate gyrus forms a critical link between the entorhinal cortex and CA3 by providing a sparse version of the signal. Concurrent with this increase in sparsity, a widely accepted theory suggests the dentate gyrus performs pattern separation-similar inputs yield decorrelated outputs. Although an active region of study and theory, few logically rigorous arguments detail the dentate gyrus's (DG) coding. We suggest a theoretically tractable, combinatorial model for this action. The model provides formal methods for a highly redundant, arbitrarily sparse, and decorrelated output signal...
October 20, 2016: Neural Computation
Andrew C Patterson, Gerry Veenstra
OBJECTIVES: Intersectionality theory proposes that each combination of social categories derived from gender, race and nationality, such as immigrant White man or native-born Black woman, is associated with unique social experiences. We tested the potential of intersectionality theory for explicating racial inequalities in Canada by investigating whether Black-White health inequalities are conditioned by gender and immigrant status in a synergistic way. METHODS: Our dataset comprised 10 cycles (2001-2013) of the Canadian Community Health Survey...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Ling Xue, Nick Holford, Xiao-Liang Ding, Zhen-Ya Shen, Chen-Rong Huang, Hua Zhang, Jing-Jing Zhang, Zhe-Ning Guo, Cheng Xie, Ling Zhou, Zhi-Yao Chen, Lin-Sheng Liu, Li-Yan Miao
AIMS: The aims of this study are to apply a theory based mechanistic model to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of S- and R-warfarin. METHODS: Clinical data were obtained from 264 patients. Total concentrations for S- and R-warfarin were measured by ultra-high performance liquid tandem mass spectrometry. Genotypes were measured using pyrosequencing. A sequential population pharmacokinetic parameter with data method was used to describe the international normalized ratio (INR) time course...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Cynthia Formosa, Ryan Muscat
BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify the nature and extent of diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices in people living with type 2 diabetes who attend primary-care clinics and to determine whether a correlation between the two exists. METHODS: In a nonexperimental prospective study, the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire and the Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities were used to assess knowledge and self-management in 50 patients. RESULTS: The mean diabetes knowledge score was 14...
September 2, 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Markus Ostarek, Gabriella Vigliocco
Previous research has shown that processing words with an up/down association (e.g., bird, foot) can influence the subsequent identification of visual targets in congruent location (at the top/bottom of the screen). However, as facilitation and interference were found under similar conditions, the nature of the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. We propose that word comprehension relies on the perceptual simulation of a prototypical event involving the entity denoted by a word in order to provide a general account of the different findings...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Cercis Morera-Boado, Marco Martínez González, Ramon Alain Miranda-Quintana, Margarita Suarez, Roberto Martinez-Alvarez, Nazario Martín, Jose M Garcia de la Vega
The retro-cycloaddition thermal reaction of isoxazolino[4,5:1,2][60]fullerenes to pristine fullerene seems to be guided by the electronic nature of the substituted nitrile oxide 1,3-dipole in the isoxazoline ring. Trapping experiments proved that the reaction mechanism occurs by thermal removal of the nitrile oxide 1,3-dipole in a process that is favored in the presence of a big excess of a highly efficient dipolarophile, such as maleic anhydride. Theoretical gas phase calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) and M06-2X/6-31G(d) levels of theory underpin the experimental findings and predict that compound 1c, bearing the p-(CH3)2N-Ph substituent on the isoxazoline ring and with an experimental remarkable conversion efficiency in just 12 hours, showed the lowest activation energies...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Gisella Orsini
This article aims to shed light on the self-perceptions of people with eating disorders in Malta and Italy through a deep understanding of their narratives. In contrast to the biomedical perception of the phenomenon and in opposition with the prevalent feminist theories on the subject, I consider eating disorders as the result of self-transformative processes. I suggest that anorexics, bulimics and binge eaters are actively and deliberately engaged in a project of moral self-transformation that is culturally defined...
October 19, 2016: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
Scott Ferrenberg, Alexander S Martinez, Akasha M Faist
BACKGROUND: Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces...
2016: PeerJ
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