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Microdialysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090149/multiplexed-and-fully-automated-detection-of-metabolic-biomarkers-using-microdialysis-probe
#1
Champak Das, Guochun Wang, Qian Sun, Bradley Ledden
We report here, the design and development of an automated near real-time continuous detection system for lactate, glutamate, pyruvate and glucose using microdialysis probe. The system developed can automatically push perfusate through microdialysis probe (20, 100 and 1000 kDa MWCO cutoff probe) at low to medium flow rate of 0.5-2 μL/min with almost 100% fluid recovery. The microdialysate collected from the probe is analyzed automatically for these four metabolite biomarkers. It operates in a continuous mode with measurements of all four biomarkers once every 20 min...
January 2017: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089142/bedside-monitoring-of-cerebral-energy-state-during-cardiac-surgery-a-novel-approach-utilizing-intravenous-microdialysis
#2
Simon Mölström, Troels H Nielsen, Claus Andersen, Carl H Nordström, Palle Toft
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether the lactate-to-pyruvate (LP) ratio obtained by microdialysis (MD) of the cerebral venous outflow reflected a derangement of global cerebral energy state during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). DESIGN: Interventional, prospective, randomized study. SETTING: Single-center, university teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 10 patients undergoing primary, elective coronary artery bypass grafting...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076603/extracellular-adenosine-5-triphosphate-concentrations-changes-in-rat-spinal-cord-associated-with-the-activation-of-urinary-bladder-afferents-a-microdialysis-study
#3
Jeová Nina Rocha
Objective: To determine adenosine 5'-triphosphate levels in the interstice of spinal cord L6-S1 segment, under basal conditions or during mechanical and chemical activation of urinary bladder afferents. Methods: A microdialysis probe was transversally implanted in the dorsal half of spinal cord L6-S1 segment in female rats. Microdialysate was collected at 15 minutes intervals during 135 minutes, in anesthetized animals. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate concentrations were determined with a bioluminescent assay...
October 2016: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070712/microdialysis-monitoring-in-clinical-traumatic-brain-injury-and-its-role-in-neuroprotective-drug-development
#4
Eric Peter Thelin, Keri L H Carpenter, Peter J Hutchinson, Adel Helmy
Injuries to the central nervous system continue to be vast contributors to morbidity and mortality; specifically, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of death during the first four decades of life. Several modalities are used to monitor patients suffering from TBI in order to prevent detrimental secondary injuries. The microdialysis (MD) technique, introduced during the 1990s, presents the treating physician with a robust monitoring tool for brain chemistry in addition to conventional intracranial pressure monitoring...
January 9, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064086/forced-swimming-induced-oxytocin-release-into-blood-and-brain-effects-of-adrenalectomy-and-corticosterone-treatment
#5
Luz Torner, Paul M Plotsky, Inga D Neumann, Trynke R de Jong
The oxytocin (OXT) system is functionally linked to the HPA axis in a reciprocal and complex manner. Certain stressors are known to cause the simultaneous release of OXT and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) followed by corticosterone (CORT). Furthermore, brain OXT attenuates ACTH and CORT responses. Although there are some indications of CORT influencing OXT neurotransmission, specific effects of CORT on neurohypophyseal or intra-hypothalamic release of OXT have not been studied in detail. In the present set of experiments, adult male rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham-operated and fitted with a jugular vein catheter and/or microdialysis probe targeting the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN)...
December 16, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063669/longer-term-impact-of-hemiparetic-stroke-on-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-a-pilot-study
#6
Jennifer Klaer, Anja Mähler, Nadja Scherbakov, Lars Klug, Stephan von Haehling, Michael Boschmann, Wolfram Doehner
BACKGROUND: Hemiparetic stroke leads to structural and metabolic alterations of skeletal muscle tissue, thereby contributing to functional impairment associated with stroke. In situ metabolic processes at tissue level in skeletal muscle have not been investigated. We hypothesize that muscular metabolic capacity is limited after hemiparetic stroke, and that changes affect rather the paretic than non-paretic limb. METHODS: Nine male hemiparetic stroke survivors (age, 62±8years; BMI, 28±4kg/m(2); median stroke latency, 23months ranging from 7 to 34months poststroke) underwent dynamic in situ measurements of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at fasting condition and during oral glucose tolerance testing, using bilateral microdialysis...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057524/involvement-of-presynaptic-5-ht1a-receptors-in-the-low-propensity-of-brexpiprazole-to-induce-extrapyramidal-side-effects-in-rats
#7
Cedric Mombereau, Jørn Arnt, Arne Mørk
Previous studies have shown that partial and full 5-HT1A receptor agonists reduce antipsychotic-induced catalepsy. Consequently, some antipsychotics combining balanced efficacy between dopamine (DA) D2 antagonism or partial agonism and 5-HT1A receptor agonism have a low propensity to induce extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), as reflected by low cataleptogenic activity in rodents. In the present experiments, we attempted to explore the importance of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A agonistic properties of brexpiprazole and aripiprazole in the context of neurological side-effect liabilities...
January 3, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057472/glutamatergic-modulation-of-noradrenaline-release-in-the-rat-median-preoptic-area
#8
Makoto Takahashi, Yasushi Hayashi, Junichi Tanaka
The present study was carried out to investigate whether glutamatergic receptor mechanisms modulate the release of noradrenaline (NA) in the region of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) using intracerebral microdialysis techniques in freely moving rats. Perfusion of N-methyl-d-asparatate (NMDA, 10 and 50μM) through the microdialysis probe significantly enhanced dialysate NA concentration in the region of the MnPO. Local perfusion of the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine (MK801, 10 and 50μM) did not change the basal release of NA in the MnPO area...
January 2, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052590/intracerebral-microdialysis-coupled-to-lc-ms-ms-for-the-determination-tramadol-and-its-major-pharmacologically-active-metabolite-o-desmethyltramadol-in-rat-brain-microdialysates
#9
Mingzhou Liu, Peng Wang, Xuming Yu, Guicheng Dong, Jiang Yue
A rapid and sensitive method involving liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) coupled to an intracerebral microdialysis technique was developed for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of tramadol and its major active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) in rat brain. The microdialysis samples were separated on a C18 column and eluted with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (50 : 50 : 0.1; v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The ESI-MS/MS spectra were performed in electrospray positive ion mode, and the analytes were detected by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transitions m/z [M + H](+) 264...
January 4, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049192/combined-memantine-and-donepezil-treatment-improves-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-like-behaviors-in-olfactory-bulbectomized-mice
#10
Yasushi Yabuki, Kazuya Matsuo, Koga Hirano, Yasuharu Shinoda, Shigeki Moriguchi, Kohji Fukunaga
Memantine, an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, and the cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, are approved in most countries for treating moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). These drugs have different molecular targets; thus, it is expected that the effects of combined treatment would be synergistic. Some reports do show memantine/donepezil synergy in ameliorating cognition in AD model animals, but their combined effects on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)-like behaviors have not been addressed...
January 4, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045949/influence-of-volatile-anesthesia-on-the-release-of-glutamate-and-other-amino-acids-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-a-rat-model-of-alcohol-withdrawal-a-pilot-study
#11
Thomas Seidemann, Claudia Spies, Rudolf Morgenstern, Klaus-Dieter Wernecke, Nicolai Netzhammer
BACKGROUND: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition, which can occur when patients with alcohol use disorders undergo general anesthesia. Excitatory amino acids, such as glutamate, act as neurotransmitters and are known to play a key role in alcohol withdrawal syndrome. To understand this process better, we investigated the influence of isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane anesthesia on the profile of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of alcohol-withdrawn rats (AWR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043834/sub-anesthetic-doses-of-ketamine-exert-antidepressant-like-effects-and-upregulate-the-expression-of-glutamate-transporters-in-the-hippocampus-of-rats
#12
Xianlin Zhu, Gang Ye, Zaiping Wang, Jie Luo, Xuechao Hao
Clinical studies on the role of the glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis of depression found that ketamine induces an antidepressant response, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study investigated the effects of sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine on the glutamate reuptake function in the rat hippocampus. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was applied to construct animal models of depression. Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups and received a different regimen of CUMS and ketamine (10, 25, and 50mg/kg) treatment...
December 30, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038309/diazepam-inhibits-electrically-evoked-and-tonic-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-reverses-the-effect-of-amphetamine
#13
Alexander Gomez-A, Amanda Maino Fiorenza, Suelen Lucio Boschen, Adam H Sugi, Danielle Beckman, Sergio T Ferreira, Kendall H Lee, Charles D Blaha, Claudio Da Cunha
Diazepam is a benzodiazepine receptor agonist with anxiolytic and addictive properties. Although most drugs of abuse increase dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, here we show that not only it causes the opposite effect but also prevents amphetamine action on increasing dopamine release. We used 20 min sampling in vivo microdialysis and subsecond fast-scan cyclic voltammetry recordings at carbon-fiber microelectrodes to show that diazepam caused a dose-dependent decrease in tonic and electrically-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of urethane anesthetized adult male Swiss mice...
December 30, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035993/brain-monitoring-in-critically-neurologically-impaired-patients
#14
REVIEW
Salazar Jones, Gary Schwartzbauer, Xiaofeng Jia
Assessment of neurologic injury and the evolution of severe neurologic injury is limited in comatose or critically ill patients that lack a reliable neurologic examination. For common yet severe pathologies such as the comatose state after cardiac arrest, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), critical medical decisions are made on the basis of the neurologic injury. Decisions regarding active intensive care management, need for neurosurgical intervention, and withdrawal of care, depend on a reliable, high-quality assessment of the true state of neurologic injury, and have traditionally relied on limited assessments such as intracranial pressure monitoring and electroencephalogram...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035612/transdermal-adhesive-patches-loaded-with-ketoprofen-evaluated-by-dynamic-detection-of-percutaneous-absorption
#15
Menglin Wang, Longwei Li, Junxia Xie, Yinghua Sun, Guixia Ling, Zhonggui He
Topical delivery has many benefits toward NSAIDs administration, and the best-selling transdermal preparation in 2015 was the NSAID patch MOHRUS®. Herein, we report a ketoprofen adhesive patch (KAP) and evaluate the penetration and absorption compared to MOHRUS®. Microdialysis sampling technique was applied to determine drug penetration in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Simultaneously, blood samples were withdrawn over time to obtain the drug absorption in plasma. The ketoprofen concentrations in the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, and plasma were compared with the commercially available patch (MOHRUS®)...
December 29, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024272/effects-of-the-combination-of-metyrapone-and-oxazepam-on-cocaine-induced-increases-in-corticosterone-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-nucleus-accumbens
#16
Courtney M Keller, Kelly N Breaux, Nicholas E Goeders
We have previously demonstrated that a combination of drugs (i.e., metyrapone and oxazepam) known to attenuate HPA-axis activity effectively decreases cocaine self-administration and cue reactivity in rats. However, we did not find changes in plasma corticosterone that matched the behavioral effects we observed, indicating that a different mechanism of action must be involved. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combination of metyrapone and oxazepam attenuates cocaine taking and seeking by decreasing cocaine-induced increases in corticosterone in the brain...
December 9, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018190/disruption-of-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-involving-astrocytes-in-an-animal-model-of-depression-for-males-and-females
#17
Virginie Rappeneau, Amanda Blaker, Jeff R Petro, Bryan K Yamamoto, Akiko Shimamoto
Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010747/using-on-line-solid-phase-extraction-for-in%C3%A2-vivo-speciation-of-diffusible-ferrous-and-ferric-iron-in-living-rat-brain-extracellular-fluid
#18
Cheng-Kuan Su, Yi-Ting Chen, Yuh-Chang Sun
Exploration of brain extracellular non-protein-bound/diffusible iron species remains a critically important issue in investigations of free radical biology and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, a facile sample pretreatment scheme, involving poly(vinyl chloride)-metal ion interactions as a selective extraction procedure, was optimized in conjunction with microdialysis (MD) sampling and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in cool-plasma mode for in vivo online monitoring of rat brain extracellular Fe(II) and Fe(III) species...
February 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009464/effect-of-melanotan-ii-on-brain-fos-immunoreactivity-and-oxytocin-neuronal-activity-and-secretion-in-rats
#19
Luis Paiva, Nancy Sabatier, Gareth Leng, Mike Ludwig
Melanocortins stimulate the central oxytocin systems which are involved in regulating social behaviours. Alterations in central oxytocin have been linked to neurological disorders such as autism, and melanocortins have been proposed for therapeutic treatment. Here, we investigated how systemic administration of melanotan-II (MT-II), a melanocortin agonist, affects oxytocin neuronal activity and secretion in rats. Our results show that intravenous (i.v.), but not intranasal, administration of MT-II markedly induced Fos expression in magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and this response was attenuated by prior intracerebroventricular (i...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007877/mechanical-reperfusion-with-leucocyte-filtered-blood-does-not-prevent-injury-following-global-cerebral-ischaemia
#20
Rickard P F Lindblom, Thomas Tovedal, Bo Norlin, Lars Hillered, Svetlana N Popova, Irina Alafuzoff, Stefan Thelin
OBJECTIVES: Prolonged global cerebral ischaemia leads to irreversible injury, often with lethal outcome. Brain injuries are partly caused by the uncontrolled reperfusion that occurs once the circulation is re-established. Recent animal experiments suggest that controlled reperfusion following lengthy ischaemia might prevent severe brain injury. This study aimed at further exploring cerebral alterations and outcome following prolonged global cerebral ischaemia and mechanically manipulated reperfusion...
December 22, 2016: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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