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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921744/cholinergic-basal-forebrain-structures-are-not-essential-for-mediation-of-the-arousing-action-of-glutamate
#1
Zoltán Lelkes, Shamsiiat Abdurakhmanova, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen
The cholinergic basal forebrain contributes to cortical activation and receives rich innervations from the ascending activating system. It is involved in the mediation of the arousing actions of noradrenaline and histamine. Glutamatergic stimulation in the basal forebrain results in cortical acetylcholine release and suppression of sleep. However, it is not known to what extent the cholinergic versus non-cholinergic basal forebrain projection neurones contribute to the arousing action of glutamate. To clarify this question, we administered N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, into the basal forebrain in intact rats and after destruction of the cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain with 192 immunoglobulin (Ig)G-saporin...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921596/single-cocaine-exposure-does-not-alter-striatal-presynaptic-dopamine-function-in-mice-an-18-f-fdopa-pet-study
#2
D R Bonsall, M Kokkinou, M Veronese, C Coello, L A Wells, O D Howes
Cocaine is a recreational drug of abuse that binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT), preventing reuptake of dopamine into presynaptic terminals. The increased presence of synaptic dopamine results in stimulation of both pre- and postsynaptic dopamine receptors, considered an important mechanism by which cocaine elicits its reinforcing properties. However, the effects of acute cocaine administration on presynaptic dopamine function remain unclear. Non-invasive imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) have revealed impaired presynaptic dopamine function in chronic cocaine users...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920483/hydroxycamptothecin-liposomes-based-on-thermal-and-magnetic-dual-responsive-system-preparation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antitumor-activity-microdialysis-based-tumor-pharmacokinetics
#3
Hai-Mei Zhu, Jin-Hui Gu, Yi Xie, Bo Xie, Jia-Jun Ling
Due to the absence of lactone form of hydroxycamptothecin, the commercially available hydroxycamptothecin injection exhibits inefficient therapeutic effects. In this study, we constructed a novel delivery system (thermosensitive magnetic liposomes) that protects lactone form of hydroxycamptothecin from blood or water. After hydroxycamptothecin was loaded into the thermosensitive magnetic liposome(HCPT/TML),its in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity and microdialysis-based tumor pharmacokinetics were determined...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919158/a-role-for-nucleus-accumbens-glutamate-in-the-expression-but-not-the-induction-of-behavioural-sensitization-to-ethanol
#4
Christina N Nona, José N Nobrega
Mechanisms underlying differential sensitivity to behavioural sensitization to ethanol (EtOH) remain poorly understood, although accumulating evidence suggests a role for glutamatergic processes in the ventral striatum. Efforts to address this issue can benefit from the well-documented fact that in any given cohort, some of the mice (High sensitized; HS) show robust sensitization, while others (Low sensitized; LS) show little, if any, sensitization. Here, we examined whether this variability might be differentially associated with nucleus accumbens (NAc) glutamate processes...
September 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914105/bone-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-pharmacokinetics-of-vancomycin-in-total-knee-replacement-patients
#5
Mats Bue, Mikkel Tøttrup, Pelle Hanberg, Otto Langhoff, Hanne Birke-Sørensen, Theis M Thillemann, Torben L Andersson, Kjeld Søballe
Background and purpose - The incidence of orthopedic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections is increasing. Vancomycin may therefore play an increasingly important role in orthopedic perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis. Studies investigating perioperative bone and soft tissue concentrations of vancomycin are sparse and challenged by a lack of appropriate methods. We assessed single-dose plasma, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCT) and bone concentrations of vancomycin using microdialysis in male patients undergoing total knee replacement...
September 15, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912750/current-and-emerging-technologies-for-probing-molecular-signatures-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
REVIEW
Ari Ercole, Sandra Magnoni, Gloria Vegliante, Roberta Pastorelli, Jakub Surmacki, Sarah Elizabeth Bohndiek, Elisa R Zanier
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is understood as an interplay between the initial injury, subsequent secondary injuries, and a complex host response all of which are highly heterogeneous. An understanding of the underlying biology suggests a number of windows where mechanistically inspired interventions could be targeted. Unfortunately, biologically plausible therapies have to-date failed to translate into clinical practice. While a number of stereotypical pathways are now understood to be involved, current clinical characterization is too crude for it to be possible to characterize the biological phenotype in a truly mechanistically meaningful way...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912724/abnormalities-in-the-polysomnographic-adenosine-and-metabolic-response-to-sleep-deprivation-in-an-animal-model-of-hyperammonemia
#7
Selena Marini, Olena Santangeli, Pirjo Saarelainen, Benita Middleton, Namrata Chowdhury, Debra J Skene, Rodolfo Costa, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen, Sara Montagnese
Patients with liver cirrhosis can develop hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), accompanied by pronounced daytime sleepiness. Previous studies with healthy volunteers show that experimental increase in blood ammonium levels increases sleepiness and slows the waking electroencephalogram. As ammonium increases adenosine levels in vitro, and adenosine is a known regulator of sleep/wake homeostasis, we hypothesized that the sleepiness-inducing effect of ammonium is mediated by adenosine. Eight adult male Wistar rats were fed with an ammonium-enriched diet for 4 weeks; eight rats on standard diet served as controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899912/do-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-cyclooxygenase-contribute-to-sweating-response-during-passive-heating-in-endurance-trained-athletes
#8
Tatsuro Amano, Naoto Fujii, Glen P Kenny, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Narihiko Kondo
The aim of our study was to determine if habitual endurance training can influence the relative contribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in the regulation of sweating during a passive heat stress in young adults. Ten trained athletes and nine untrained counterparts were passively heated until oral temperature (as estimated by sublingual temperature, Tor) increased by 1.5°C above baseline resting. Forearm sweat rate (ventilated capsule) was measured at three skin sites continuously perfused with either lactated Ringer's solution (Control), 10 mmol/L N(G) -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, non-selective NOS inhibitor), or 10 mmol/L ketorolac (Ketorolac, non-selective COX inhibitor) via intradermal microdialysis...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893779/pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-penetration-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-in-diabetic-patients-with-lower-limb-infections-and-healthy-adult-volunteers
#9
Marguerite L Monogue, Sean M Stainton, Arlinda Baummer-Carr, Ashley K Shepard, James F Nugent, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
Ceftolozane/tazobactam displays potent activity against gram-negative bacteria that can cause diabetic foot infections (DFI), making it an attractive treatment option when few alternatives exist. The pharmacokinetics and tissue penetration of ceftolozane/tazobactam 1.5g q8h in patients (n=10) with DFI were compared with healthy volunteers (n=6) using in vivo microdialysis. In patient participants, median (range) total plasma pharmacokinetics for ceftolozane were Cmax: 55.2 (40.9-169.3) μg/mL, half-life (T1/2): 3...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872590/synthesis-of-nitric-oxide-donors-derived-from-piloty-s-acid-and-study-of-their-effects-on-dopamine-secretion-from-pc12-cells
#10
Daniele Sanna, Gaia Rocchitta, Maria Serra, Marcello Abbondio, Pier Andrea Serra, Rossana Migheli, Lidia De Luca, Eugenio Garribba, Andrea Porcheddu
This study investigated the mechanisms and kinetics of nitric oxide (NO) generation by derivatives of Piloty's acid (NO-donors) under physiological conditions. In order to qualitatively and quantitatively measure NO release, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was carried out with NO spin trapping. In addition, voltammetric techniques, including cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry, were used to confirm NO release from Piloty's acid and its derivatives. The resulting data showed that Piloty's acid derivatives are able to release NO under physiological conditions...
September 5, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866965/perfusion-with-carbon-monoxide-does-not-affect-extracellular-glutamate-in-dialysates-of-the-hippocampus-of-freely-moving-mice
#11
Asuka Ito, Mostofa Jamal, Kiyoshi Ameno, Naoko Tanaka, Ayaka Takakura, Takanori Miki, Hiroshi Kinoshita
Carbon monoxide (CO) produces several neurological effects, including cognitive, mood, and behavioral disturbance. Glutamate is thought to play a particularly important role in learning and memory. Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the local effect of CO on the glutamate level in the hippocampus of mice using in vivo reverse microdialysis. Mice were perfused with Ringer's solution (control) or CO (60-125 μM) in Ringer's solution into the hippocampus via microdialysis probe. Dialysate samples were collected every 20 min, and then analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrochemical detector...
September 4, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865330/online-monitoring-of-astragaloside-ii-metabolism-using-a-homemade-cultural-device-coupled-with-microdialysis-and-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#12
Xue Li, Zifeng Pi, Shu Liu, Wei Wang, Zhiqiang Liu, Fengrui Song
A new system was described for the online monitoring of astragaloside II (AII) metabolism in intestinal microbial community. The system was based on a homemade cultural device coupled with microdialysis (MD) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Main improvements include a simplified anaerobic incubator enabling the experiment to be conducted in ambient atmosphere, continuous sampling, and decreased matrix effect. Importantly, our method distinctly decreases the interference of small molecules by adding 20mgml(-1) of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to the perfusion fluid...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864205/the-delta-opioid-receptor-agonist-knt-127-in-the-prelimbic-medial-prefrontal-cortex-attenuates-veratrine-induced-anxiety-like-behaviors-in-mice
#13
Akiyoshi Saitoh, Satoshi Suzuki, Akinobu Soda, Masanori Ohashi, Misa Yamada, Jun-Ichiro Oka, Hiroshi Nagase, Mitsuhiko Yamada
We previously reported that systemic administration of the selective delta opioid receptor (DOP) agonist KNT-127 produces potent anxiolytic-like effects in rats. Although a higher distribution pattern of DOPs was reported in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL-PFC) of rodents, the role of DOPs in PL-PFC and in anxiolytic-like effects have not been well examined. Recently, we demonstrated that activation of PL-PFC with the sodium channel activator veratrine increases glutamatergic neurotransmission and produces anxiety-like behaviors in mice...
August 31, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860508/targeted-metabolome-profiling-by-dual-probe-microdialysis-sampling-and-treatment-using-gardenia-jasminoides-for-rats-with-type-2-diabetes
#14
Lu Wang, Zifeng Pi, Shu Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Fengrui Song
Diabetes causes a variety of end-stage organ complications, including diabetic nephropathy. Metabolomics offers an approach for characterizing biofluid metabolic changes, but studies focusing on diabetic nephropathy are limited due to the loss of tissue-specific metabolic information. A microdialysis application for the sampling of intact endogenous metabolites has been developed, utilizing two probes simultaneously inserted into the kidney tissues and jugular vein of rats with type 2 diabetes. The comprehensive and quantitative analysis of 20 diagnostic biomarkers closely realated to type 2 diabetes and its complications were performed...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860170/effects-of-vehicle-microdialysis-solutions-on-cutaneous-vascular-responses-to-local-heating
#15
Caroline J Smith, Daniel H Craighead, Lacy M Alexander
Microdialysis is a minimally invasive technique often paired with laser Doppler flowmetry to examine cutaneous microvascular function, yet presents with several challenges, including incompatibility with perfusion of highly lipophilic compounds. The present study addresses this methodological concern, with an emphasis on the independent effects of commonly used vehicle dialysis solutions to improve solubility of pharmacological agents with otherwise low aqueous solubility. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the ventral forearm of eight subjects (4 men, 4 women; 25 ± 1 years) with sites randomized to serve as 1) control (lactated Ringer's), 2) Sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer administered at physiological pH (SCB-HCL; pH 7...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858415/effects-of-pair-bonding-on-parental-behavior-and-dopamine-activity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-male-prairie-voles
#16
K Lei, Y Liu, A S Smith, J S Lonstein, Z Wang
Male parental care is a vital behavior for the development as well as the physical and mental well-being of the young. However, little is known about the neurochemical regulation of male parental behavior, mainly due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In the present study, we used the socially monogamous male prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) to investigate the effect of pair bonding experience on paternal behavior and dopamine (DA) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in the brain. We compared sexually naïve males with males that were pair-bonded with a female for two weeks...
August 31, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858384/reduced-levels-of-mglu2-receptors-within-the-prelimbic-cortex-not-associated-with-elevated-glutamate-transmission-or-high-alcohol-drinking
#17
Zheng-Ming Ding, Cynthia M Ingraham, Sheketha R Hauser, Amy W Lasek, Richard L Bell, William J McBride
BACKGROUND: A Grm2 cys407* stop codon mutation, which results in a loss of the metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptor protein, was identified as being associated with high alcohol drinking by alcohol preferring (P) rats. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of reduced levels of mGlu2 receptors on glutamate transmission and alcohol drinking. METHODS: Quantitative no-net-flux microdialysis was used to test the hypothesis that basal extracellular glutamate levels in the prelimbic (PL) cortex and nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh) will be higher in P than Wistar rats...
August 31, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857746/purinergic-regulation-of-brain-catecholamine-neurotransmission-in-vivo-electrophysiology-and-microdialysis-study-in-rats
#18
Eliyahu Dremencov, Lubica Lacinova, Gunnar Flik, Joost Ha Folgering, Thomas Ifh Cremers, Ben Hc Westerink
It was previously reported that adenosine-2A (A2A) receptors interact with dopamine-2 (D2) receptors on a molecular level. The aim of the current study was to investigate the functional output of this interaction. In vivo microdialysis was used to assess the effects of an antagonist of A2A receptors, ZM 241385, and an antagonist of D2 receptors haloperidol, either alone or in combination, on brain catecholamine levels. It was found that ZM 241385 did not alter catecholamine levels by its own, but potentiated haloperidol-induced dopamine and norepinephrine release in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, respectively...
August 31, 2017: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851920/excessive-spinal-glutamate-transmission-is-involved-in-oxaliplatin-induced-mechanical-allodynia-a-possibility-for-riluzole-as-a-prophylactic-drug
#19
Shota Yamamoto, Soichiro Ushio, Nobuaki Egashira, Takehiro Kawashiri, Shohei Mitsuyasu, Hitomi Higuchi, Nana Ozawa, Ken Masuguchi, Yuko Ono, Satohiro Masuda
Oxaliplatin, a chemotherapy medication, causes severe peripheral neuropathy. Although oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting toxicity, a therapeutic strategy against its effects has not been established. We previously reported the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and their intracellular signalling pathway in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in rats. The aim of this study was to clarify the involvement of spinal glutamate transmission in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849453/ethanol-induced-taurine-elevation-in-the-rat-dorsal-striatum
#20
Lisa Ulenius, Louise Adermark, Bo Söderpalm, Mia Ericson
In the search for the primary mechanism underlying the dopamine elevating properties of ethanol we have established that raised levels of taurine in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) is pivotal. In the nAc, the release of taurine appears to be connected to osmoregulation, and neither taurine nor dopamine is increased if ethanol is administered in a hypertonic saline solution. However, even though the nAc is important for drug-reinforcement, manifestation of addiction has been postulated to recruit the more dorsal parts of the striatum (DS)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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