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Acute myelogenous leukemia

Y Liu, T Lei, Y Shi, X Y Wang, M L Sun, W X Fan, Z N Zhang, M Jiang
Objective: To explore the expression and significance of Set gene in Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients , and to analyze its effect for the prognosis of AML. Methods: The level of Set gene expression was detected by real-time PCR in 59 AML patients and 20 heathy people. The mutations in C-kit 8/17 gene, NPM1 gene and FLT3-TKD/ITD gene in 59 AML patients were detected by direct sequencing. Results: The level of Set gene expression[1.41(0.41-3.31)]was significantly higher in 59 AML patients.The expression of Set gene was correlated with the percentage of marrow blasts and CR in AML patients ( P =0...
March 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Jianjian Zhuang, Juxin Yin, Chaojian Xu, Ying Mu, Shaowu Lv
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) are common leukemia in adults. 20(S)-GRh2 is an important bioactive substance that is present in Panax ginseng. However, there are no investigations that deal with the comparison of apoptosis, the occurrence of autophagy, and the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy after being treated with 20(S)-GRh2 in AML and CML. In this study, we explored the effect of 20(S)-GRh2 on the AML and CML (U937 and K562). Fluorescence microscopy, CCK-8, Quantitative realtime PCR, Western blot, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and flow cytometric analysis were used to detect the occurrence of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, and autophagy...
March 8, 2018: Nutrients
Cai Yuan, Candace Deberardinis, Rushang Patel, Seema M Shroff, Steven A Messina, Steven Goldstein, Shahram Mori
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, yet typically fatal complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. It is caused by reactivation of the John Cunningham (JC) virus in an immunocompromised host. This report describes an unfortunate case of PML in a recipient of an allogeneic stem cell transplant for acute myelogenous leukemia. The JC virus was undetectable in the patient's cerebrospinal fluid by PCR; however, a positive diagnosis was made after a brain biopsy. This and other published cases demonstrate that recipients of allogeneic stem cells can develop PML...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Florence Zylbersztejn, Mario Flores-Violante, Thibault Voeltzel, Franck-Emmanuel Nicolini, Sylvain Lefort, Véronique Maguer-Satta
The microenvironment (niche) governs the fate of stem cells (SC) by balancing self-renewal and differentiation. Increasing evidence indicates that the tumor niche plays an active role in cancer but its (important) properties for tumor initiation progression and resistance remain to be identified. Clinical data show that leukemic stem cells (LSC) survival is responsible for disease persistence and drug resistance probably due to their sustained interactions with the tumor niche. The Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling is a key pathway controlling stem cells and their niche, such as BMP2 and BMP4 important in both normal and cancer context...
February 22, 2018: Experimental Hematology
Jie-Gen Jiang, Yin Xu, Zhao Wu, Hongyu Ni, Eric X Wei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Tibor J Kovacsovics, Alice Mims, Mohamed E Salama, Jeremy Pantin, Narayanam Rao, Ken M Kosak, Peter Ahorukomeye, Martha J Glenn, Michael W N Deininger, Kenneth M Boucher, Linda M Bavisotto, Gerardo Gutierrez-Sanchez, Thomas P Kennedy, Stephen G Marcus, Paul J Shami
Relapses in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are a result of quiescent leukemic stem cells (LSCs) in marrow stromal niches, where they resist chemotherapy. LSCs employ CXCL12/CXCR4 to home toward protective marrow niches. Heparin disrupts CXCL12-mediated sequestration of cells in the marrow. CX-01 is a low-anticoagulant heparin derivative. In this pilot study, we combined CX-01 with chemotherapy for the treatment of AML. Induction consisted of cytarabine and idarubicin (7 + 3) with CX-01. Twelve patients were enrolled (median age, 56 years; 3 women)...
February 27, 2018: Blood Advances
Kosuke Akiyama, Shohei Yamamoto, Yumiko Sugishita, Ryota Kaneko, Naoko Okamoto, Masaya Koganesawa, Sachio Fujita, Ryosuke Matsuno, Daisuke Toyama, Keiichi Isoyama
A 9-year-old girl was referred to our hospital because of facial palsy. Both physical and blood examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly and leukocytosis, respectively. A bone marrow examination demonstrated marked hypercellularity involving myeloblasts and lymphoblasts. Based on these results, we suspected mixed phenotype acute leukemia. However, her leukemic blasts expressed B-cell antigens, and a chromosomal analysis of her bone marrow cells revealed the following karyotype: 46, XX, t (9;22) (q34;q11.2). All her neutrophils were positive for the breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 fusion protein...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Mark Parta, Nirali N Shah, Kristin Baird, Hind Rafei, Katherine R Calvo, Thomas Hughes, Kristen Cole, Meg Kenyon, Bazetta Blacklock Schuver, Jennifer Cuellar-Rodriguez, Christa S Zerbe, Steven M Holland, Dennis D Hickstein
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) reverses the bone marrow failure syndrome due to GATA2 deficiency. The intensity of conditioning required to achieve reliable engraftment and prevent relapse remains unclear. Here, we describe the results of a prospective study of HSCT in 22 patients with GATA2 deficiency using a busulfan-based conditioning regimen. The study includes 2 matched related donor (MRD) recipients, 13 matched unrelated donor (URD) recipients, and 7 haploidentical related donor (HRD) recipients...
February 2, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Anjali S Advani, Hongli Li, Laura C Michaelis, Bruno C Medeiros, Michaela Liedtke, Alan F List, Kristen O'Dwyer, Megan Othus, Harry P Erba, Frederick R Appelbaum
Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and uptake sensitizes acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts to chemotherapy. A Phase 2 study of high dose pravastatin given in combination with idarubicin and cytarabine demonstrated an impressive response rate [75% complete remission (CR), CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi)]. However, this population was a favorable risk group as eligible patients had to have a CR/CRi lasting ≥3 months following their most recent chemotherapy. Therefore, the study was amended to treat patients with poor risk disease including those with CR/CRi <6 months following their last induction regimen or with refractory disease...
January 31, 2018: Leukemia Research
Prajwal Boddu, Pei-Ling Chen, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Victor G Prieto, Alex Won, Mark Chambers, Steven Kornblau
Oral fungal infections present with atypical and varied manifestations, and distinguishing them from other entities including leukemic infiltration can be diagnostically challenging. In this report, we describe a 62 year old female with acute myeloid leukemia who presented, towards the end of her second treatment cycle of decitabine in a prolonged neutropenic state, with a month of painful, necrotic-appearing marginal gingival lesions. She was duly initiated on empiric broad spectrum antifungal treatment but did not show a clinical response with the appearance of new skin lesions concerning for progressive fungemia...
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology
Kathleen N Moore, Mansoor Raza Mirza, Ursula A Matulonis
Niraparib is an oral poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor that is currently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) as well as recently approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the maintenance treatment of women with recurrent ovarian cancer who are in complete or partial response to platinum-based chemotherapy. The mechanisms of action of niraparib include inhibition of PARP enzymatic activity as well as increased formation of PARP-DNA complexes through "trapping" the PARP enzyme on damaged DNA...
January 31, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Haruko Shima, Emi Takamatsu-Ichihara, Mika Shino, Kazutsune Yamagata, Takuo Katsumoto, Yukiko Aikawa, Shuhei Fujita, Haruhiko Koseki, Issay Kitabayashi
Eradication of chemotherapy-resistant leukemia stem cells is expected to improve treatment outcomes in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). In a mouse model of AML expressing the MOZ-TIF2 fusion, we found that Ring1A and Ring1B, components of Polycomb repressive complex 1, play crucial roles in maintaining AML stem cells. Deletion of Ring1A and Ring1B ( Ring1A/B ) from MOZ-TIF2 AML cells diminished self-renewal capacity and induced the expression of numerous genes including Glis2 Overexpression of Glis2 caused MOZ-TIF2 AML cells to differentiate into mature cells, whereas Glis2 knockdown in Ring1A/B -deficient MOZ-TIF2 cells inhibited differentiation...
January 25, 2018: Blood
Hidehiko Saito, Masaharu Ito, Shunichi Kato, Yoshihisa Kodera, Shinichiro Okamoto, Shuichi Taniguchi, Minoko Takanashi, Heiwa Kanamori, Toru Masaoka, Fumimaro Takaku
The Japan Marrow Donor Program (JMDP), established in 1991, has continued to grow in its capacity to facilitate unrelated bone marrow (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) for the past 25 years in Japan. The current donor pool is 463,465 (as of 31 December 2016) and 20,237 transplants were performed with the help of the Japanese Red Cross, government, and supporters. As JMDP introduced PBSCT in 2010, the vast majority of transplants are BMT. All donors are fully typed for HLA-A, B, C, and DR...
January 24, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Hui Li, Na Lu, Xiaoxuan Yu, Xiao Liu, Po Hu, Yu Zhu, Le Shen, Jingyan Xu, Zhiyu Li, Qinglong Guo, Hui Hui
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a complicated cytokine which is involved in proliferation and differentiation of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells through a poorly understood mechanism. Mechanistic studies indicate that TNFα induced binding of PI3K subunit p85α to N-terminal truncated nuclear receptor RXRα (tRXRα) proteins, and activated AKT. The activated PI3K/AKT pathway negatively regulated differentiation of AML cells through the up-regulation of c-Myc. In addition, TNFα also induced activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), a nuclear transcription factor which was shown to promote cell proliferation...
January 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
David G Li, Cristina Thomas, Gil S Weintraub, Arash Mostaghimi
Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) is a cutaneous drug reaction characterized by erythema over the buttocks, thighs, groin, and flexural regions most commonly associated with the use of beta-lactam antibiotics. Although the exact pathophysiology of this disease remains unknown, it is theorized to be the result of a delayed hypersensitivity response presenting as a cutaneous eruption days to weeks after exposure to the drug. The treatment involves discontinuation of the suspected medication, symptomatic control of pruritus, and topical steroid therapy...
November 10, 2017: Curēus
Zuhal Keskin Yildirim, Mustafa Buyukavci
BACKGROUND: Cancer survival rates and longevity of patients after therapy have significantly improved during the last few decades. Therefore, lasting protection against infections should be provided. PROCEDURE: A total of 162 children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and Hodgkin lymphoma were enrolled in the study. Antibody levels against hepatitis B virus was assessed both at the time of diagnosis and within 6 months after completion of chemotherapy...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Shivtia Trop-Steinberg, Yehudit Azar
The proto-oncogene Myc serves as a paradigm for understanding the dynamics of transcriptional regulation. Myc protein has been linked to immune dysfunction, cancer development and neoplastic transformation. We review recent research regarding functions of Myc as an important modulator in immune disorders, postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and several cancers. Myc overexpression has been repeatedly linked to immune disorders and specific cancers, such as myasthenia gravis, psoriasis, pemphigus vulgaris, atherosclerosis, long-term allogeneic survival among HSCT patients, (primary) inflammatory breast cancer, (primary) ovarian carcinoma and hematological malignancies: acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma...
January 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Lauren Herschbein, Jane L Liesveld
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway is amplified in 60-80% of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Since this complex pathway is crucial to cell functions such as growth, proliferation, and survival, inhibition of this pathway would be postulated to inhibit leukemia initiation and propagation. Inhibition of the mTORC1 pathway has met with limited success in AML due to multiple resistance mechanisms including direct insensitivity of the mTORC1 complex, feedback activation of the PI3k/Akt signaling network, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) activation of PI3K, and others...
December 2, 2017: Blood Reviews
Jessica Lee, Soraya Azzawi, Michael J Peluso, Aaron Richterman, Haiyan Ramirez Batlle, Maria A Yialamas
We report the case of a 51-year-old woman presenting with a targetoid rash and pancytopenia after a tick bite. Initial evaluation was notable for severe neutropenia on the complete blood cell count differential, a positive Lyme IgM antibody, and a peripheral blood smear demonstrating atypical lymphocytes. While her pancytopenia was initially attributed to tick-borne illness, peripheral flow cytometry showed 7% myeloblasts, and a bone marrow biopsy confirmed 60% blasts. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia, in addition to early, localized Lyme disease...
December 22, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Lance Bodily, Jenny Yu, Dante Sorrentino, Barton Branstetter
Purpose: Orbital apex syndrome due to spread of infectious sinusitis is a serious disease, often with an insidious presentation with few ophthalmic signs and symptoms. Failure to recognize and treat infectious orbital apex syndrome early portends a grave prognosis, including profound, permanent visual loss and potentially death. Herein we describe a representative case and discuss the relevant aspects of prompt diagnosis and treatment. Observations: An unusual case of infectious orbital apex syndrome due to contiguous spread of Streptococcus viridans sphenoethmoiditis in a hospitalized, immunosuppressed patient with acute myelogenous leukemia is presented...
December 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
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