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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433118/the-role-of-public-health-in-combatting-synthetic-cannabinoid-use-in-adolescents
#1
Katherine E Warren, Shirli Tay, Leana S Wen
As the country struggles to address an epidemic of alcohol and drug overdose, a wide-ranging category of chemical substances known as synthetic drugs have provoked a new sense of public urgency over the past decade. Synthetic cannabinoids, a heterogeneous and evolving set of synthetic compounds that act on endogenous cannabinoid receptors, have become particularly popular among adolescents due to their relative ease of access and reputation as a "legal high." The Baltimore City Health Department has worked to combat the recent surge in synthetic drug use through a major public awareness campaign, legislative reform, and retailer engagement and compliance initiative...
May 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422966/taming-the-late-quaternary-phylogeography-of-the-eurasiatic-wild-ass-through-ancient-and-modern-dna
#2
E Andrew Bennett, Sophie Champlot, Joris Peters, Benjamin S Arbuckle, Silvia Guimaraes, Mélanie Pruvost, Shirli Bar-David, Simon J M Davis, Mathieu Gautier, Petra Kaczensky, Ralph Kuehn, Marjan Mashkour, Arturo Morales-Muñiz, Erich Pucher, Jean-François Tournepiche, Hans-Peter Uerpmann, Adrian Bălăşescu, Mietje Germonpré, Can Y Gündem, Mahmoud-Reza Hemami, Pierre-Elie Moullé, Aliye Ötzan, Margarete Uerpmann, Chris Walzer, Thierry Grange, Eva-Maria Geigl
Taxonomic over-splitting of extinct or endangered taxa, due to an incomplete knowledge of both skeletal morphological variability and the geographical ranges of past populations, continues to confuse the link between isolated extant populations and their ancestors. This is particularly problematic with the genus Equus. To more reliably determine the evolution and phylogeographic history of the endangered Asiatic wild ass, we studied the genetic diversity and inter-relationships of both extinct and extant populations over the last 100,000 years, including samples throughout its previous range from Western Europe to Southwest and East Asia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385460/task-selectivity-as-a-comprehensive-principle-for-brain-organization
#3
Amir Amedi, Shir Hofstetter, Shachar Maidenbaum, Benedetta Heimler
How do the anatomically consistent functional selectivities of the brain emerge? A new study by Bola and colleagues reveals task selectivity in auditory rhythm-selective areas in congenitally deaf adults perceiving visual rhythm sequences. Here, we contextualize this result with accumulating evidence from animal and human studies supporting sensory-independent task specializations as a comprehensive principle shaping brain (re)organization.
April 3, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380836/polarization-dependence-of-asymmetric-off-resonance-long-period-fiber-gratings-erratum
#4
Gilad Masri, Shir Shahal, Avi Klein, Hamootal Duadi, Moti Fridman
Correction of Fig. 3 which was taken with different conditions than stated in the text. The figure presented here is the correct version with improved resolution.
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377439/association-between-use-of-long-acting-nitrates-and-outcomes-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#5
Shir Lynn Lim, Lina Benson, Ulf Dahlström, Carolyn S P Lam, Lars H Lund
BACKGROUND: Nitrates may be beneficial in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) by enhancing cGMP signaling and improving hemodynamics, but real-world data on potential efficacy are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: We linked the Swedish Heart Failure Registry to national registries with International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision comorbidity diagnoses and demographic and socioeconomic data. In HFpEF, defined as left ventricular ejection fraction ≥40%, we derived propensity scores for nitrate use using 52 baseline variables...
April 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374900/spoligotyping-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india
#6
Suzana Shirly, Sivakumar Shanmugam, K R Uma Devi, P N Swarna Latha, Joy S Michael
OBJECTIVE: Spoligotyping is a valuable genotyping tool to study the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). The aim of this study was to analyse different spoligotype patterns of M. tb strains isolated from tuberculosis patients from different parts of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 163 M. tb isolates were spoligotyped between January 2014 and January 2015. 47% (n=77) were from patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis; of these, 10 were MDR and 7 were Pre-XDR...
April 4, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373485/identification-and-characterization-of-a-novel-dgat1-missense-mutation-associated-with-congenital-diarrhea
#7
Nina L Gluchowski, Chandramohan Chitraju, Joseph A Picoraro, Niklas Mejhert, Shirly Pinto, Winnie Xin, Daniel S Kamin, Harland S Winter, Wendy K Chung, Tobias C Walther, Robert V Farese
Acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 and -2 (DGAT1 and DGAT2) catalyze triglyceride biosynthesis in humans. Biallelic loss of function mutations in human DGAT1 result in severe congenital diarrhea and protein-losing enteropathy. Additionally, pharmacologic inhibition of DGAT1 led to dose- related diarrhea in human clinical trials. Here we identify a previously unknown DGAT1 mutation in identical twins of South Asian descent. These male patients developed watery diarrhea shortly after birth, with protein-losing enteropathy and failure to thrive...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344758/no-evidence-of-early-head-circumference-enlargements-in-children-later-diagnosed-with-autism-in-israel
#8
Ilan Dinstein, Shlomi Haar, Shir Atsmon, Hen Schtaerman
BACKGROUND: Large controversy exists regarding the potential existence and clinical significance of larger brain volumes in toddlers who later develop autism. Assessing this relationship is important for determining the clinical utility of early head circumference (HC) measures and for assessing the validity of the early overgrowth hypothesis of autism, which suggests that early accelerated brain development may be a hallmark of the disorder. METHODS: We performed a retrospective comparison of HC, height, and weight measurements between 66 toddlers who were later diagnosed with autism and 66 matched controls...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334849/icf-specific-dnmt3b-dysfunction-interferes-with-intragenic-regulation-of-mrna-transcription-and-alternative-splicing
#9
Sole Gatto, Miriam Gagliardi, Monica Franzese, Sylwia Leppert, Mariarosaria Papa, Marco Cammisa, Giacomo Grillo, Guillame Velasco, Claire Francastel, Shir Toubiana, Maurizio D'Esposito, Claudia Angelini, Maria R Matarazzo
Hypomorphic mutations in DNA-methyltransferase DNMT3B cause majority of the rare disorder Immunodeficiency, Centromere instability and Facial anomalies syndrome cases (ICF1). By unspecified mechanisms, mutant-DNMT3B interferes with lymphoid-specific pathways resulting in immune response defects. Interestingly, recent findings report that DNMT3B shapes intragenic CpG-methylation of highly-transcribed genes. However, how the DNMT3B-dependent epigenetic network modulates transcription and whether ICF1-specific mutations impair this process remains unknown...
March 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322768/unintended-pregnancies-among-women-serving-in-the-israeli-military
#10
Misgav Rottenstreich, Limor Loitner, Shir Dar, Ron Kedem, Noam Smorgick, Zvi Vaknin
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of and variables associated with unintended pregnancy among young, unmarried women serving in the Israeli military. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of unmarried women drafted by the Israeli military between 2013 and 2015 at the age of 18years. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between unintended pregnancy and women's education, IQ, immigration status, country of origin, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and history of psychiatric illness...
March 16, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280406/development-and-implementation-of-a-registry-of-patients-attending-multidisciplinary-pain-treatment-clinics-the-quebec-pain-registry
#11
M Choinière, M A Ware, M G Pagé, A Lacasse, H Lanctôt, N Beaudet, A Boulanger, P Bourgault, C Cloutier, L Coupal, Y De Koninck, D Dion, P Dolbec, L Germain, V Martin, P Sarret, Y Shir, M-C Taillefer, B Tousignant, A Trépanier, R Truchon
The Quebec Pain Registry (QPR) is a large research database of patients suffering from various chronic pain (CP) syndromes who were referred to one of five tertiary care centres in the province of Quebec (Canada). Patients were monitored using common demographics, identical clinical descriptors, and uniform validated outcomes. This paper describes the development, implementation, and research potential of the QPR. Between 2008 and 2013, 6902 patients were enrolled in the QPR, and data were collected prior to their first visit at the pain clinic and six months later...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258898/prospective-qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-real-time-peer-review-quality-assurance-rounds-incorporating-direct-physical-examination-for-head-and-neck-cancer-radiation-therapy
#12
Carlos E Cardenas, Abdallah S R Mohamed, Randa Tao, Andrew J R Wong, Mussadiq J Awan, Shirly Kuruvila, Michalis Aristophanous, G Brandon Gunn, Jack Phan, Beth M Beadle, Steven J Frank, Adam S Garden, William H Morrison, Clifton D Fuller, David I Rosenthal
PURPOSE: Our department has a long-established comprehensive quality assurance (QA) planning clinic for patients undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. Our aim is to assess the impact of a real-time peer review QA process on the quantitative and qualitative radiation therapy plan changes in the era of intensity modulated RT (IMRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Prospective data for 85 patients undergoing head and neck IMRT who presented at a biweekly QA clinic after simulation and contouring were collected...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254227/unexpected-epithelial-ovarian-cancers-arising-from-presumed-endometrioma-a-10-year-retrospective-analysis
#13
Hsin-Hong Kuo, Chen-Ying Huang, Shir-Hwa Ueng, Kuan-Gen Huang, Chyi-Long Lee, Chih-Feng Yen
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence and prognosis of unexpected epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) occurring in presumed benign endometrioma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent primary surgery at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between November 2003 and October 2013 were searched with the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine code followed by chart review. RESULTS: The incidence of unexpected EOCs in presumed ovarian endometrioma was 0...
February 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252959/microscale-high-throughput-experimentation-as-an-enabling-technology-in-drug-discovery-application-in-the-discovery-of-piperidinyl-pyridinyl-1h-benzimidazole-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-1-inhibitors
#14
Tim Cernak, Nathan J Gesmundo, Kevin Dykstra, Yang Yu, Zhicai Wu, Zhi-Cai Shi, Petr Vachal, Donald Sperbeck, Shuwen He, Beth Ann Murphy, Lisa Sonatore, Steven Williams, Maria Madeira, Andreas Verras, Maud Reiter, Claire Heechoon Lee, James Cuff, Edward C Sherer, Jeffrey Kuethe, Stephen Goble, Nicholas Perrotto, Shirly Pinto, Dong-Ming Shen, Ravi Nargund, James Balkovec, Robert J DeVita, Spencer D Dreher
Miniaturization and parallel processing play an important role in the evolution of many technologies. We demonstrate the application of miniaturized high-throughput experimentation methods to resolve synthetic chemistry challenges on the frontlines of a lead optimization effort to develop diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) inhibitors. Reactions were performed on ∼1 mg scale using glass microvials providing a miniaturized high-throughput experimentation capability that was used to study a challenging SNAr reaction...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224043/pleiotropic-effect-of-a-novel-mutation-in-gcnt2-causing-congenital-cataract-and-a-rare-adult-i-blood-group-phenotype
#15
Sek-Shir Cheong, Sarah Hull, Benjamin Jones, Ravinder Chana, Nicole Thornton, Vincent Plagnol, Anthony T Moore, Alison J Hardcastle
Mutations in GCNT2 have been associated with the rare adult i blood group phenotype with or without congenital cataract. We report a novel homozygous frameshift mutation c.1163_1166delATCA, p.(Asn388Argfs*20) as the cause of congenital cataract in two affected siblings. Blood group typing confirmed that both affected males have the rare adult i phenotype, supporting the hypothesis that the partial association of I/i phenotype and congenital cataract is due to the differential expression of GCNT2 isoforms.
2017: Human Genome Variation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208932/spontaneous-rupture-of-the-main-pancreatic-duct-synchronous-with-a-multi-focal-microscopic-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-a-case-report
#16
Shirly Shohat, Katerina Shulman, Boris Kessel, Oren Gal, Abdel Rauf Zeina
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal types of malignant tumours, commonly diagnosed at an advanced stage. The only curative treatment for this fatal disease is surgery and early diagnosis is the key to a better outcome and prognosis. In this case report we present a 57-year-old woman presenting to the emergency room with abdominal pain and weight loss. Computer Tomography (CT) imaging showed a rupture of the main pancreatic duct and a peri-pancreatic fluid collection with no evidence of a pancreatic mass...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193868/dopamine-in-the-medial-amygdala-network-mediates-human-bonding
#17
Shir Atzil, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Tali Rudy, Stephanie Salcedo, Ruth Feldman, Jacob M Hooker, Bradford C Dickerson, Ciprian Catana, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers' dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the "medial amygdala network") that supports social functioning...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157853/long-period-fiber-gratings-with-off-resonance-spectral-response-based-on-mechanical-oscillations
#18
Shir Shahal, Avi Klein, Gilad Masri, Hamootal Duadi, Moti Fridman
We present long period fiber gratings with off-resonance spectral response. Our long period fiber gratings are created by the periodic structure of large perturbations in the fiber diameter. These perturbations result in unique spectral response, even in off-resonance frequencies. Writing these long period fiber gratings is based on utilizing the mechanical vibrations of tapered fibers during the tapering process. This writing method is simple and robust; it has high efficiency, high reproducibility, and low polarization dependency; and it enables real-time tunability of the periodicity, efficiency, and length of the grating...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157325/deposition-and-characterization-of-roughened-surfaces
#19
Hagit Aviv, Shirly Berezin, Ortal Agai, Miri Sinwani, Yaakov R Tischler
Phase separation occurs whenever a solvent leaves a solution of strongly incompatible polymers. This can happen in bulk and in films. Films can be tailored as substrates for multiple applications such as solar cells, surface catalysis, and antireflection coatings. In this study, polystyrene (PS) was dissolved with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) in different ratios using chlorobenzene as the solvent. Thin films of different ratios of PS and PVAc were deposited on glass via spin coating. The deposited films were investigated for their morphology, strain, surface area, and Raman scattering...
February 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150850/chewing-versus-swallowing-ticagrelor-to-accelerate-platelet-inhibition-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-the-cheers-study-for-the-platis-platelets-and-thrombosis-in-sheba-study-group
#20
Elad Asher, Shir Frydman, Moshe Katz, Ehud Regev, Avi Sabbag, Israel Mazin, Arsalan Abu-Much, Andrew Kukuy, Anna Mazo, Aharon Erez, Anat Berkovitch, Michael Narodistky, Israel Barbash, Amit Segev, Roy Beigel, Shlomi Matetzky
It was the study objective to evaluate whether chewing a 180 mg loading dose of ticagrelor versus an equal dose of traditional oral administration, enhances inhibition of platelet aggregation 1 hour (h) after administering a ticagrelor loading dose in non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients. Dual anti-platelet therapy represents standard care for treating NSTEMI patients. Ticagrelor is a direct acting P2Y12 inhibitor and, unlike clopidogrel and prasugrel, does not require metabolic activation...
April 3, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
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