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Neuropharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278747/gaba-containing-liposomes-neuroscience-applications-and-translational-perspectives-for-targeting-neurological-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Marco Antônio Peliky Fontes, Gisele Cristiane Vaz, Thais Zielke Dias Cardoso, Mariana Flávia de Oliveira, Maria José Campagnole-Santos, Robson Augusto Souza Dos Santos, Neeru M Sharma, Kaushik P Patel, Frédéric Frézard
There are multiple challenges for neuropharmacology in the future. Undoubtedly, one of the greatest challenges is the development of strategies for pharmacological targeting of specific brain regions for treatment of diseases. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and dysfunction of GABAergic mechanisms is associated with different neurological conditions. Liposomes are lipid vesicles that are able to encapsulate chemical compounds and are used for chronic drug delivery...
December 23, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274586/recent-advances-in-the-neurobiology-and-neuropharmacology-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Kushal Kumar, Ashwani Kumar, Richard M Keegan, Rahul Deshmukh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of cognitive functions. The pathological hallmarks are extracellular deposits of amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein. The cognitive deficits seen are thought to be due to synaptic dysfunction and neurochemical deficiencies. Various neurochemical abnormalities have been observed during progressive ageing, and are linked to cognitive abnormalities as seen with the sporadic form of AD...
December 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259545/neuromodulation-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-non-human-primates-by-dopaminergic-receptors-during-rule-guided-flexible-behavior-and-cognitive-control
#3
REVIEW
Susheel Vijayraghavan, Alex J Major, Stefan Everling
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is indispensable for several higher-order cognitive and executive capacities of primates, including representation of salient stimuli in working memory (WM), maintenance of cognitive task set, inhibition of inappropriate responses and rule-guided flexible behavior. PFC networks are subject to robust neuromodulation from ascending catecholaminergic systems. Disruption of these systems in PFC has been implicated in cognitive deficits associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234384/screening-of-natural-bioactive-metabolites-and-investigation-of-antioxidant-antimicrobial-antihyperglycemic-neuropharmacological-and-cytotoxicity-potentials-of-litsea-polyantha-juss-ethanolic-root-extract
#4
Nripendra Nath Biswas, Amit Kumar Acharzo, Shams Anamika, Shamsunnahar Khushi, Bishwajit Bokshi
This study was designed to identify some bioactive phytochemicals from ethanolic extract of roots of Litsea polyantha and to evaluate some of its pharmacological activities. Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of reducing sugar, combined reducing sugar, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and phenol. In the antioxidant assay using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, the IC50 value was found to be 82.31 μg/mL. Total content of phenolic compounds, flavonoid, and tannin was found to be 152...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216460/getting-a-handle-on-neuropharmacology-by-targeting-receptor-associated-proteins
#5
REVIEW
Michael P Maher, Jose A Matta, Shenyan Gu, Mark Seierstad, David S Bredt
Targeted therapy for neuropsychiatric disorders requires selective modulation of dysfunctional neuronal pathways. Receptors relevant to CNS disorders typically have associated proteins discretely expressed in specific neuronal pathways; these accessory proteins provide a new dimension for drug discovery. Recent studies show that targeting a TARP auxiliary subunit of AMPA receptors selectively modulates neuronal excitability in specific forebrain pathways relevant to epilepsy. Other medicinally important ion channels, gated by glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and acetylcholine, also have associated proteins, which may be druggable...
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209207/antiepileptic-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-oleamide-in-rat-striatum-on-kainate-induced-behavioral-seizure-and-excitotoxic-damage-via-calpain-inhibition
#6
Hye Yeon Nam, Eun Jung Na, Eunyoung Lee, Youngjoo Kwon, Hwa-Jung Kim
Oleamide was first known as a sleep-inducing fatty acid amide, and later shown to have wide range of neuropharmacological effects upon different neurochemical systems. However, the effects of oleamide on brain damage have scarcely been studied, and the molecular mechanisms and sites of its action remain elusive. Kainic acid (KA) has been used to produce an epileptic animal model that mimics human temporal lobe epilepsy and to induce calpain-activated excitotoxicity, which occurs in numerous neurodegenerative disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208493/almond-hazelnut-and-walnut-three-nuts-for-neuroprotection-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-neuropharmacological-review-of-their-bioactive-constituents
#7
REVIEW
Narjes Gorji, Reihaneh Moeini, Zahra Memariani
An increase in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder is an almost obvious issue in the world. Researches on natural products for finding effective drugs to prevent the disease are in progress. There is special attention to the three types of nuts including almond, hazelnut and walnut in manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine (PM) as the preventive agents against brainatrophy and memory loss. The purpose of this study is a pharmacological review of their bioactive constituents and introducing the value of these nuts as the effective supplements and natural medicinal foods in AD patients...
December 5, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199918/editorial-improving-neuropharmacology-using-big-data-machine-learning-and-computational-algorithms
#8
EDITORIAL
Khader Shameer, Anuraj Nayarisseri, Francisco Xavier Romero Duran, Humberto Gonzalez-Diaz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173174/autophagy-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-can-cell-death-be-good
#9
Wing-Mann Ho, Onat Akyol, Haley Reis, Cesar Reis, Devin McBride, Claudius Thome, John Zhang
Autophagy is a prosurvival, reparative process that maintains cellular homeostasis through lysosomal degradation of selected cytoplasmic components and programmed death of old, dysfunctional, or unnecessary cytoplasmic entities. According to growing evidence, autophagy shows beneficial effects following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). SAH is considered one of the most devastating forms of stroke. Though autophagy is prosurvival and aids in repair, deregulated or excessive autophagy results in increased cell death, more brain injury, and worse outcome...
November 23, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170943/asenapine-treatment-in-pediatric-patients-with-bipolar-i-disorder-or-schizophrenia-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Ekaterina Stepanova, Bradley Grant, Robert L Findling
Asenapine, administered as a twice-daily (BID) sublingual tablet, is approved in the US as monotherapy for the acute treatment of manic and mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17 years based on the positive results of one 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study; the recommended dose is 2.5-10 mg BID. Although asenapine has been studied in pediatric patients with schizophrenia, it is not approved for this indication. Asenapine is not approved for pediatric use in bipolar I disorder or schizophrenia in other major markets...
November 23, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166935/phytochemical-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-ethanolic-extract-of-lepisanthes-rubiginosa-l-leaves
#11
Md Mahedi Hasan, Amir Hossain, Abdullah Shamim, Md Mustafizur Rahman
BACKGROUND: The current study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, antihyperglycemic, neuropharmacological and antidiarrheal activities of ethanolic extract of Lepisanthes rubiginosa L. leaves in different experimental models. METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative analysis were done by TLC (thin layer chromatography) and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay. Analgesic, antihyperglycemic and antidiarrheal activities were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing in mice, oral glucose tolerance test and castor oil induced diarrhea, respectively...
November 22, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157983/blockade-of-nmda-receptors-blocks-the-acquisition-of-cocaine-conditioned-approach-in-rats
#12
Ewa Galaj, Neal Seepersad, Zena Dakmak, Robert Ranaldi
Conditioned stimuli (CSs) exert motivational effects on both adaptive and pathological reward-related behaviors, including drug taking and seeking. We developed a paradigm that allows us to investigate the neuropharmacology by which previously neutral stimuli acquire the capacity to function as CSs and elicit (intravenous) cocaine conditioned approach and used this paradigm to test the role of NMDA receptor stimulation in the acquisition of cocaine conditioned approach. Rats were injected systemically with the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, before the start of 4 consecutive conditioning sessions, each of which consisted of 20 randomly presented light/tone (CS) presentations paired with cocaine infusion contingent upon nose pokes...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154773/neuropharmacology-of-venom-peptides
#13
EDITORIAL
David J Adams, Richard J Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146949/a-microfluidic-platform-for-the-characterisation-of-cns-active-compounds
#14
Christopher MacKerron, Graham Robertson, Michele Zagnoni, Trevor J Bushell
New in vitro technologies that assess neuronal excitability and the derived synaptic activity within a controlled microenvironment would be beneficial for the characterisation of compounds proposed to affect central nervous system (CNS) function. Here, a microfluidic system with computer controlled compound perfusion is presented that offers a novel methodology for the pharmacological profiling of CNS acting compounds based on calcium imaging readouts. Using this system, multiple applications of the excitatory amino acid glutamate (10 nM-1 mM) elicited reproducible and reversible transient increases in intracellular calcium, allowing the generation of a concentration response curve...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134962/role-of-glutamatergic-projections-from-the-ventral-ca1-to-infralimbic-cortex-in-context-induced-reinstatement-of-heroin-seeking
#15
Na Wang, Feifei Ge, Cailian Cui, Yijing Li, Xiaowei Sun, Linlin Sun, Xinjuan Wang, Shuli Liu, Haolin Zhang, Yan Liu, Meng Jia, Mingda Yang
The prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) play a role in context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking in an animal model of drug relapse. Both the PL and IL receive direct glutamatergic projections from the ventral CA1 (vCA1), which is also involved in context-induced reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking. Here we studied the role of vCA1-PL and vCA1-IL projections in context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking by using electrophysiological, neuropharmacological, chemogenetic and molecular methods...
November 14, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119218/odor-cueing-during-slow-wave-sleep-benefits-memory-independently-of-low-cholinergic-tone
#16
Jens G Klinzing, Sabine Kugler, Surjo R Soekadar, Björn Rasch, Jan Born, Susanne Diekelmann
RATIONALE: Sleep-dependent memory consolidation depends on the concerted reactivation of memories in the hippocampo-neocortical system. The communication of reactivated information from the hippocampus to the neocortex is assumed to be enabled by low levels of acetylcholine, particularly during slow-wave sleep (SWS). Recent studies suggest that the reactivation of memories does not only occur spontaneously but can also be externally triggered by re-presenting learning-associated cues during sleep...
November 8, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115371/a-novel-method-of-neural-differentiation-of-pc12-cells-by-using-opti-mem-as-a-basic-induction-medium
#17
Rendong Hu, Qiaoyu Cao, Zhongqing Sun, Jinying Chen, Qing Zheng, Fei Xiao
The PC12 cell line is a classical neuronal cell model due to its ability to acquire the sympathetic neurons features when deal with nerve growth factor (NGF). In the present study, the authors used a variety of different methods to induce PC12 cells, such as Opti-MEM medium containing different concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and horse serum compared with RPMI-1640 medium, and then observed the neurite length, differentiation, adhesion, cell proliferation and action potential, as well as the protein levels of axonal growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and synaptic protein synapsin-1, among other differences...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097307/effect-fingerprinting-of-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-what-can-we-learn-from-in-vitro-data
#18
REVIEW
Laura Hondebrink, Anne Zwartsen, Remco H S Westerink
The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is increasing and currently >600 NPS have been reported. However, limited information on neuropharmacological and toxicological effects of NPS is available, hampering risk characterization. We reviewed the literature on the in vitro neuronal modes of action to obtain effect fingerprints of different classes of illicit drugs and NPS. The most frequently reported NPS were selected for review: cathinones (MDPV, α-PVP, mephedrone, 4-MEC, pentedrone, methylone), cannabinoids (JWH-018), (hallucinogenic) phenethylamines (4-fluoroamphetamine, benzofurans (5-APB, 6-APB), 2C-B, NBOMes (25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, 25I-NBOMe)), arylcyclohexylamines (methoxetamine) and piperazine derivatives (mCCP, TFMPP, BZP)...
October 30, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079885/therapeutic-potential-of-curcumin-for-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Munibah Qureshi, Ebtesam A Al-Suhaimi, Fazli Wahid, Omer Shehzad, Adeeb Shehzad
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by demyelination, neuronal injury, and breaching of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Epidemiological studies have shown that immunological, genetic, and environmental factors contribute to the progression and development of MS. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are crucial immunological participant in the pathophysiology of MS. The aberrant production of IL-17 and IL-22 by Th17 cells crosses BBB promotes its disruption and interferes with transmission of nerve signals through activation of neuroinflammation in the CNS...
October 27, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076553/reverse-and-forward-translational-neuropharmacology-in-psychiatric-drug-discovery
#20
Christopher L Shaffer
The probability of achieving marketing approval of a novel therapeutic for psychiatric indications is extremely low due largely to the inability to demonstrate durable and reproducible efficacy in phase II trials and beyond. These failures are often attributed to the lack of translation of the underlying neuropharmacology from animal model(s) to the disease population. However, how assured is such a conclusion considering the clinical efficacy path rarely meticulously parallels the preclinical experiment(s) that underwrote it?...
October 27, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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