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Clinton E Canal
Recent, well-controlled - albeit small-scale - clinical trials show that serotonergic psychedelics, including psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide, possess great promise for treating psychiatric disorders, including treatment-resistant depression. Additionally, fresh results from a deluge of clinical neuroimaging studies are unveiling the dynamic effects of serotonergic psychedelics on functional activity within, and connectivity across, discrete neural systems. These observations have led to testable hypotheses regarding neural processing mechanisms that contribute to psychedelic effects and therapeutic benefits...
March 13, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Neeraj K Sethiya, Alok Nahata, Pawan Kumar Singh, S H Mishra
OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the neuropharmacological effect of four herbs commonly identified as source of Shankhpushpi. BACKGROUND: Shankhpushpi is an Ayurvedic drug, widely used for its actions on the central nervous system, especially to improve intellect and boost memory. Four botanicals viz. Canscora decussata Schult. (CD), Clitorea ternatea Linn. (CT), Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy. (CP) and Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (EA) are considered as sources of Shankhpushpi by Indian practitioners on the basis of their morphological descriptions given in ancient texts...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Irene Aicua-Rapun, Pascal Andre, Jan Novy
Epilepsy is considered the most frequent severe neurological condition but most patients treated with medication become seizure free. The management of treatment however is highly empirical, mainly relying on observation. A closed-loop therapy for epilepsy would be very valuable for more efficient treatment regimens. Here we discuss monitoring treatment (therapeutic drug monitoring) and the potential developments in this field, as well as providing a review of potential biomarkers that could be used to monitor the disease activity...
March 8, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Damiana Scuteri, Laura Rombola, Laura Tridico, Hirokazu Mizoguchi, Chizuko Watanabe, Tsukasa Sakurada, Shinobu Sakurada, Maria TIziana Corasaniti, Giacinto Bagetta, Luigi Antonio Morrone
1.1. BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) accounts for approximately 50% of all cases of dementia and, in spite of the great effort for the development of disease-modifying drugs, a definitive treatment of cognitive impairment is not available yet. A perfect adherence to the current therapy of cognitive decline is needed for a better control of the disease and this is proven to reduce, though not completely abolish, the associated Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSDs) from occurring...
March 6, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Md Shafiullah Shajib, Ridwan B Rashid, Long C Ming, Shanta Islam, Md Moklesur R Sarker, Lutfun Nahar, Satyajit D Sarker, Bidyut K Datta, Mohammad A Rashid
Polymethoxylavones (PMFs) are known to exhibit significant anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Nicotiana plumbaginifolia , an annual Bangladeshi herb, is rich in polymethoxyflavones that possess significant analgesic and anxiolytic activities. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of polyoxygenated flavonoids namely- 3,3',5,6,7,8-hexamethoxy-4',5'-methylenedioxyflavone ( 1 ), 3,3',4',5',5,6,7,8-octamethoxyflavone (exoticin) ( 2 ), 6,7,4',5'-dimethylenedioxy-3,5,3'-trimethoxyflavone ( 3 ), and 3,3',4',5,5',8-hexamethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone ( 4 ), isolated and identified from N...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mohammad Hosein Farzaei, Zahra Shahpiri, Mohammad Reza Mehri, Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, Mahdi Rezaei, Azade Raeesdana, Roja Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative diseases are a progressive loss of structure and/or function of neurons. Weak therapeutic response and progressive nature of the diseases, as well as wide range of side effects caused by conventional therapeutic approaches, make patients seek for complementary and alternative medicine. OBJECTIVE: The aim of present paper is to discuss the neuropharmacological basis of medicinal plants and their principle phytochemicals which have been used in traditional Persian medicine for different types of neurodegenerative diseases...
March 5, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Hye-Lim Lee, Sung-Ah Lim, Hye-Won Lee, Ho-Ryong Yoo, Hyeong-Geug Kim
We evaluated neuropharmacological properties of Yuk-Mi-Jihwang-Tang (YJT) against scopolamine injection-induced memory impairment mice model. Mice were orally administered with YJT (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) or tacrine (TAC, 12.5 mg/kg) for 10 days. At the first day of Morris water maze task, scopolamine (2 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected before 30 min of it. The hippocampal memory function was determined by the Morris water maze task for 5 days consecutively. Scopolamine drastically increased escape latency and decreased time spent in target quadrant...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Joshua S Elmore, Ann M Decker, Agnieszka Sulima, Kenner C Rice, John S Partilla, Bruce E Blough, Michael H Baumann
2,5-Dimethoxyphenethylamines (2C compounds) are 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonists that induce hallucinogenic effects. N-methoxybenzylation of 2C compounds markedly increases their affinity for 5-HT2A receptors, and two such analogs, 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25C-NBOMe) and 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe), have emerged in recreational drug markets. Here, we investigated the neuropharmacology of 25C-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe in rats, as compared to their 2C analogs and the prototypical 5-HT2A/2C agonist 1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine (DOI)...
March 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
I Antoniadou, M Kouskou, T Arsiwala, N Singh, S R Vasudevan, T Fowler, E Cadirci, G C Churchill, T Sharp
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lithium's antidepressant action may be mediated by inhibition of inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), a key enzyme in Gq protein coupled receptor signalling. Recently, the antioxidant agent ebselen was identified as an IMPase inhibitor. Here we investigated both ebselen and lithium in models of the 5-HT2A receptor, a Gq protein coupled receptor implicated in lithium's actions. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: 5-HT2A receptor function was modelled in mice by measuring the behavioural (head-twitches) and cortical immediate early gene (IEG; Arc, c-fos and Erg2 mRNA) responses to 5-HT2A receptor agonist administration...
February 27, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
P J Garcia-Ruiz, P Sanz-Cartagena, J C Martinez-Castrillo, B Ares-Pensado, I Aviles-Olmos, M Blazquez-Estrada, S Fanjul-Arbos, J Garcia-Caldentey, J Gazulla, J Gutierrez-Garcia, B Huete-Anton, C Lucas-Rodenas, M R Luquin, I Martinez-Torres, P Medialdea-Natera, A Mendoza-Rodriguez, P Mir-Rivera, I J Posada, J Ruiz-Martinez, P Sanchez-Alonso, J M Trejo-Gabriel Y Galan, L Vela, J L Pena-Segura
INTRODUCTION: Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) is a bacterial endotoxin, whose therapeutic use has had a dramatic impact on different neurological disorders, such as dystonia and spasticity. AIM: To analyze and summarize different questions about the use of BTA in our clinical practice. DEVELOPMENT: A group of experts in neurology developed a list of topics related with the use of BTA. Two groups were considered: neuropharmacology and dystonia...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Anthony G Phillips, Mark A Geyer, Trevor W Robbins
Athina Markou and others argue forcefully for the adoption of a "translational-back translational strategy" for central nervous system drug discovery involving novel application of drugs with established safety profiles in proof-of-principle studies in humans, which in turn encourage parallel studies using experimental animals to provide vital data on the neural systems and neuropharmacological mechanisms related to the actions of the candidate drugs. Encouraged by the increasing adoption of drug-development strategies involving reciprocal information exchange between preclinical animal studies and related clinical research programs, this review presents additional compelling examples related to the following: 1) the treatment of cognitive deficits that define attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; 2) the development of fast-acting antidepressants based on promising clinical effects with low doses of the anesthetic ketamine; and 3) new and effective medications for the treatment of substance misuse...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Sean J Belouin, Jack E Henningfield
The purpose of this commentary is to provide an introduction to this special issue of Neuropharmacology with a historical perspective of psychedelic drug research, their use in psychiatric disorders, research-restricting regulatory controls, and their recent emergence as potential breakthrough therapies for several brain-related disorders. It begins with the discovery of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its promising development as a treatment for several types of mental illnesses during the 1940s. This was followed by its abuse and stigmatization in the 1960s that ultimately led to the placement of LSD and other psychedelic drugs into the most restrictively regulated drug schedule of the United States Controlled Substances Act (Schedule I) in 1970 and its international counterparts...
February 21, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Alessandro Serra, Clara G Chisari, Manuela Matta
Multiple sclerosis (MS) commonly causes eye movement abnormalities that may have a significant impact on patients' disability. Inflammatory demyelinating lesions, especially occurring in the posterior fossa, result in a wide range of disorders, spanning from acquired pendular nystagmus (APN) to internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), among the most common. As the control of eye movements is well understood in terms of anatomical substrate and underlying physiological network, studying ocular motor abnormalities in MS provides a unique opportunity to gain insights into mechanisms of disease...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Charles S Bockman, Wanyun Zeng, Jamie Hall, Beth Mittelstet, Liz Schwarzkopf, Dustin J Stairs
RATIONALE: Individuals vary in sensitivity to the behavioral effects of nicotine, resulting in differences in vulnerability to nicotine addiction. The role of rearing environment in determining individual sensitivity to nicotine is unclear. The neuropharmacological mechanisms mediating the effect of rearing environment on the behavioral actions of nicotine are also poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The contribution of rearing environment in determining the sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of nicotine was determined in rats reared in isolated conditions (IC) or enriched conditions (EC)...
February 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Bo Zhang, Xin Wang, Yan Li, Min Wu, Shu-Yan Wang, Shao Li
Comprehensively understanding pharmacological functions of natural products is a key issue to be addressed for the discovery of new drugs. Unlike some single-target drugs, natural products always exert diverse therapeutic effects through acting on a "network" that consists of multiple targets, making it necessary to develop a systematic approach, e.g., network pharmacology, to reveal pharmacological functions of natural products and infer their mechanisms of action. In this work, to identify the "network target" of a natural product, we perform a functional analysis of matrine, a marketed drug in China extracted from a medical herb Ku-Shen (Radix Sophorae Flavescentis)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Paolo Bellavite, Clara Bonafini, Marta Marzotto
Gelsemium sempervirens L. (Gelsemium) is traditionally used for its anxiolytic-like properties and its action mechanism in laboratory models are under scrutiny. Evidence from rodent models was reported suggesting the existence of a high sensitivity of central nervous system to anxiolytic power of Gelsemium extracts and Homeopathic dilutions. In vitro investigation of extremely low doses of this plant extract showed a modulation of gene expression of human neurocytes. These studies were criticized in a few commentaries, generated a debate in literature and were followed by further experimental studies from various laboratories...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Enhua Shao, Seth D Scheetz, Wenting Xie, Edward A Burton
Optokinetic reflex (OKR) responses provide a convenient means to evaluate visual, integrative and oculomotor function in larval zebrafish. We measured multiple aspects of the OKR response in zebrafish exposed systemically to compounds altering signaling at GABAA receptors in order to derive quantitative concentration-response relationships. The GABAA antagonist picrotoxin caused concentration-dependent decreases in reflex gain, saccade velocity, saccade amplitude, interocular concordance and interocular gain...
February 2, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
João Ronielly Campêlo Araújo, José de Maria Albuquerque de Melo Júnior, Marina de Barros Mamede Vidal Damasceno, Sacha Aubrey Alves Rodrigues Santos, Antônio Eufrásio Vieira-Neto, Marina Duarte Pinto Lobo, Adriana Rolim Campos, Renato de Azevedo Moreira, Ana Cristina de Oliveira Monteiro-Moreira
In this study we evaluated the effect of frutalin (FTL) on mouse behavior. Mice (n = 6/group) were treated (i.p.) with FTL (0.25; 0.5 or 1 mg/kg) or vehicle and submitted to several tests (hole-board/HBT, elevated plus maze/PMT, open field/OFT, tail suspension/TST, or forced swimming/FST). Yohimbine, ketamine, l-NAME, aminoguanidine, 7-NI, methylene blue, l-arginine or dl-serine was administered 30 min before FTL (0.5 mg/kg). To evaluate the subchronic effect, animals were injected with FTL or vehicle for 7 days and submitted to the FST...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Richard W Olsen
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission and the gene products involved were discovered during the mid-twentieth century. Historically, myriad existing nervous system drugs act as positive and negative allosteric modulators of these proteins, making GABA a major component of modern neuropharmacology, and suggesting that many potential drugs will be found that share these targets. Although some of these drugs act on proteins involved in synthesis, degradation, and membrane transport of GABA, the GABA receptors Type A (GABAA R) and Type B (GABABR) are the targets of the great majority of GABAergic drugs...
January 30, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Xenia Steinbach, Sabine Maasen
In the mass media, the hormone Oxytocin is currently being debated as the biochemical basis of sociability and a powerful neuropharmacological solution for (re-)establishing societal cohesion. Given its beginning as a 'bodyhormone' early in the 20th century, this article will trace the extraordinary career of Oxytocin from a regulator of birth to a regulator of society. What makes so strong a claim intelligible and acceptable? Our analysis of the scientific discourse on Oxytocin (1906-1990), the mass media discourse since the 1990s, and its repercussions for the scientific discourse during the same period, suggest a series of re-configurations of scientific theories and practices, as well as of the conception of the substance itself...
February 5, 2018: NTM
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