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Neuropharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930813/temporal-changes-in-prescription-of-neuropharmacologic-drugs-and-utilization-of-resources-related-to-neurologic-morbidity-in-mechanically-ventilated-children-with-bronchiolitis
#1
Steven L Shein, Katherine Slain, Deanne Wilson-Costello, Bryan McKee, Alexandre T Rotta
OBJECTIVES: Critically ill children with bronchiolitis may require neuropharmacologic medications and support for neuro-functional sequelae, but current practices are not well described. We aimed to describe recent trends in neuropharmacology and utilization of neuro-rehabilitation resources in mechanically ventilated children with bronchiolitis. DESIGN: Analysis of the multicenter Pediatric Health Information System database. SETTING: Forty-seven U...
September 19, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923485/functional-data-analysis-of-single-trial-auditory-evoked-potentials-recorded-in-the-awake-rat
#2
Ondrej Pokora, Jan Kolaicek, Tzai-Wen Chiu, Wei Qiu
Evoked potentials (EPs) reflect neural processing and are widely used to study sensory perception. However, methods of analyzing EP have been limited mostly to the conventional ensemble averaging of EP response trials to a repeated stimulus, and less so to single-trials analysis. Here we applied a new approach - functional data analysis (FDA) - to study auditory EP in the rat model of tinnitus, in which overdoses of salicylate (SS) are known to alter sound perception characteristically, as the same way as in humans...
September 15, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917942/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-testing-of-native-%C3%AE-conotoxins-from-the-injected-venom-of-conus-purpurascens
#3
REVIEW
Mickelene F Hoggard, Alena M Rodriguez, Herminsul Cano, Evan Clark, Han-Shen Tae, David J Adams, Tanja A Godenschwege, Frank Marí
α-Conotoxins inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and are used as probes to study cholinergic pathways in vertebrates. Model organisms, such as Drosophila melanogaster, express nAChRs in their CNS that are suitable to investigate the neuropharmacology of α-conotoxins in vivo. Here we report the paired nanoinjection of native α-conotoxin PIA and two novel α-conotoxins, PIC and PIC[O7], from the injected venom of Conus purpurascens and electrophysiological recordings of their effects on the giant fiber system (GFS) of D...
September 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916140/an-integrative-interdisciplinary-perspective-on-social-dominance-hierarchies
#4
REVIEW
Chen Qu, Romain Ligneul, Jean-Baptiste Van der Henst, Jean-Claude Dreher
In the course of evolution, social dominance has been a strong force shaping the organization of social systems in many species. Individuals with a better ability to represent social dominance relationships and to adapt their behavior accordingly usually achieve better access to resources, hence providing benefits in terms of reproduction, health, and wellbeing. Understanding how and to what extent our brains are affected by social dominance requires interdisciplinary efforts. Here, we integrate findings from social neuroscience, evolutionary biology, and developmental psychology to highlight how social hierarchies are learned and represented in primates...
September 12, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901281/review-5-ht1-5-ht2-5-ht3-and-5-ht7-receptors-and-their-role-in-the-modulation-of-pain-response-in-the-central-nervous-system
#5
Cortes-Altamirano José Luis, Olmos-Hernández Adriana, Bonilla-Jaime Herlinda, Carrillo-Mora Paul, Bandala Cindy, S Reyes-Long, Alfaro-Rodríguez Alfonso
BACKGROUND: The aim of this review was to identify the mechanisms by which serotonin receptors involved at the central level are able to modulate the nociceptive response. Pain is a defense mechanism of the body that entails physiological, anatomical, neurochemical, and psychological changes, and is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience with potential risk of tissue damage, comprising the leading cause of appointments with Physicians worldwide. Treatment for this symptom has generated several neuropharmacological lines of research, due to the different types of pain and the various drugs employed to treat this condition...
September 11, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893562/positive-allosteric-modulation-of-m1-and-m4-muscarinic-receptors-as-potential-therapeutic-treatments-for-schizophrenia
#6
REVIEW
Samantha E Yohn, P Jeffrey Conn
Current antipsychotic drugs provide symptomatic relief for positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but do not offer symptom management for negative and cognitive symptoms. In addition, many patients discontinue treatment due to adverse side effects. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop more effective and safe treatment options. Although the etiology of schizophrenia is unclear, considerable data from post-mortem, neuroimaging and neuropharmacology studies support a role of the muscarinic acetylcholine (mAChRs) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
September 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892789/thymoquinone-rich-fraction-nanoemulsion-tqrfne-decreases-a%C3%AE-40-and-a%C3%AE-42-levels-by-modulating-app-processing-up-regulating-ide-and-lrp1-and-down-regulating-bace1-and-rage-in-response-to-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-induced-rats
#7
Norsharina Ismail, Maznah Ismail, Nur Hanisah Azmi, Muhammad Firdaus Abu Bakar, Zhang Yida, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah, Hamidon Basri
Though the causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are yet to be understood, much evidence has suggested that excessive amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation due to abnormal amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) processing and Aβ metabolism are crucial processes towards AD pathogenesis. Hence, approaches aiming at APP processing and Aβ metabolism are currently being actively pursued for the management of AD. Studies suggest that high cholesterol and a high fat diet have harmful effects on cognitive function and may instigate the commencement of AD pathogenesis...
September 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868040/novel-psychoactive-substances-recent-progress-on-neuropharmacological-mechanisms-of-action-for-selected-drugs
#8
REVIEW
Zurina Hassan, Oliver G Bosch, Darshan Singh, Suresh Narayanan, B Vicknasingam Kasinather, Erich Seifritz, Johannes Kornhuber, Boris B Quednow, Christian P Müller
A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851615/assessing-the-role-of-dopamine-in-the-differential-neurotoxicity-patterns-of-methamphetamine-mephedrone-methcathinone-and-4-methylmethamphetamine
#9
REVIEW
John H Anneken, Mariana Angoa-Perez, Girish C Sati, David Crich, Donald M Kuhn
Methamphetamine and mephedrone are designer drugs with high abuse liability and they share extensive similarities in their chemical structures and neuropharmacological effects. However, these drugs differ in one significant regard: methamphetamine elicits dopamine neurotoxicity and mephedrone does not. From a structural perspective, mephedrone has a β-keto group and a 4-methyl ring addition, both of which are lacking in methamphetamine. Our previous studies found that methcathinone, which contains only the β-keto substituent, is neurotoxic, while 4-methylmethamphetamine, which contains only the 4-methyl ring substituent, elicits minimal neurotoxicity...
August 26, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844489/analysis-of-lipid-raft-molecules-in-the-living-brain-slices
#10
Norihiro Kotani, Takanari Nakano, Yui Ida, Rina Ito, Miki Hashizume, Arisa Yamaguchi, Makoto Seo, Tomoyuki Araki, Yasushi Hojo, Koichi Honke, Takayuki Murakoshi
Neuronal plasma membrane has been thought to retain a lot of lipid raft components which play important roles in the neural function. Although the biochemical analyses of lipid raft using brain tissues have been extensively carried out in the past 20 years, many of their experimental conditions do not coincide with those of standard neuroscience researches such as neurophysiology and neuropharmacology. Hence, the physiological methods for lipid raft analysis that can be compatible with general neuroscience have been required...
August 24, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830758/the-medicinal-chemistry-and-neuropharmacology-of-kratom-a-preliminary-discussion-of-a-promising-medicinal-plant-and-analysis-of-its-potential-for-abuse
#11
REVIEW
Andrew C Kruegel, Oliver Grundmann
The leaves of Mitragyna speciosa (commonly known as kratom), a tree endogenous to parts of Southeast Asia, have been used traditionally for their stimulant, mood-elevating, and analgesic effects and have recently attracted significant attention due to increased use in Western cultures as an alternative medicine. The plant's active alkaloid constituents, mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, have been shown to modulate opioid receptors, acting as partial agonists at mu-opioid receptors and competitive antagonists at kappa- and delta-opioid receptors...
August 19, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818531/the-position-of-fluorine-in-cp-118-954-affects-ache-inhibition-potency-and-pet-imaging-quantification-for-ache-expression-in-the-rat-brain
#12
Byung Chul Lee, Byung Seok Moon, Hyun Soo Park, Jae Ho Jung, Hyun Sik Park, Do Dam Park, Modesto de Candia, Nunzio Denora, Cosimo D Altomare, Sang Eun Kim
The in vitro inhibition potency against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) of fluorinated derivatives of CP-118,954 (1) has been shown to depend upon the position of aromatic fluorine (F) substitution on the N-benzyl moiety. Indeed, the meta-F-substituted compound 3 (IC50=1.4nM) shows similar potency with the parent compound 1 (IC50=1.2nM), whereas the ortho-F derivative 2 (IC50=3.2nM) and para-F derivative 4 (IC50=10.8nM) were found to be less potent AChE inhibitors. A comparative in vivo microdialysis study in rats showed that 3 has the strongest effect on the neuropharmacological properties as AChE inhibitor...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816008/lactuca-capensis-reverses-memory-deficits-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Paula Alexandra Postu, Jaures A K Noumedem, Oana Cioanca, Monica Hancianu, Marius Mihasan, Mitica Ciorpac, Dragos Lucian Gorgan, Brindusa Alina Petre, Lucian Hritcu
We investigated the neuropharmacological effects of the methanolic extract from Lactuca capensis Thunb. leaves (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 21 days on memory impairment in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model produced by direct intraventricular delivery of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42). Behavioural assays such as Y-maze and radial arm maze test were used for assessing memory performance. Aβ1-42 decreased cognitive performance in the behavioural tests which were ameliorated by pre-treatment with the methanolic extract...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761411/the-crossed-phrenic-phenomenon
#14
REVIEW
Michael George Zaki Ghali
The cervical spine is the most common site of traumatic vertebral column injuries. Respiratory insufficiency constitutes a significant proportion of the morbidity burden and is the most common cause of mortality in these patients. In seeking to enhance our capacity to treat specifically the respiratory dysfunction following spinal cord injury, investigators have studied the "crossed phrenic phenomenon", wherein contraction of a hemidiaphragm paralyzed by a complete hemisection of the ipsilateral cervical spinal cord above the phrenic nucleus can be induced by respiratory stressors and recovers spontaneously over time...
June 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759750/neuropharmacological-and-neuroprotective-activities-of-some-metabolites-produced-by-cell-suspension-culture-of-waltheria-americana-linn
#15
Jorge Mundo, Juana Villeda-Hernández, Maribel Herrera-Ruiz, María Del Carmen Gutiérrez, Jesús Arellano-García, Ismael León-Rivera, Irene Perea-Arango
Waltheria americana is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat some nervous system disorders. The aims of the present study were to isolate and determine the neuropharmacological and neurprotective activities of metabolites produced by a cell suspension culture of Waltheria americana. Submerged cultivation of W. americana cells provided biomass. A methanol-soluble extract (WAsc) was obtained from biomass. WAsc was fractionated yielding the chromatographic fractions 4WAsc-H2O and WAsc-CH2Cl2. For the determination of anticonvulsant activity in vivo, seizures were induced in mice by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)...
October 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758584/antidepressant-potential-of-peptides-new-insights-as-future-therapeutic
#16
Haroon Khan, Sumaira Khattak, Mohammad S Mubarak, Saud S Bawazeer, Tareq Abu-Izneid, Mohammad A Kamal
The clinical depression is an unsatisfactory mood disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. The disorder is associated with a phenomenal number of suicidal attempts each year and it has been estimated 10-20 million people around the world made in an attempt of suicide in some stage of the disease. Thus, medicinal intervention is ultimately required to avoid such type of extreme outcomes. There are numerous therapeutic antidepressant options in clinical practice, however, most of them face the challenge of efficacy, side effects and patient compliance...
July 31, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748237/total-synthesis-of-kainic-acid-and-allo-kainic-acid-through-smi2-mediated-intramolecular-coupling-between-allyl-chloride-and-an-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-unsaturated-ester
#17
Junya Suzuki, Natsumi Miyano, Shunpei Yashiro, Taiki Umezawa, Fuyuhiko Matsuda
A 3,4-disubstituted pyrrolidine ring was effectively cyclized through SmI2-mediated reductive coupling between allyl chloride and an α,β-unsaturated ester, although little has been reported about SmI2-promoted C-C bond formation of an allyl chloride with an α,β-unsaturated ester. Selection of either the 3,4-cis- or 3,4-trans-selective cyclization can be accomplished simply by changing the additives from NiI2 to HMPA during reductive cyclization conducted in H2O-THF. Total synthesis of (-)-kainic acid and (+)-allo-kainic acid, which are pyrrolidine alkaloids used in neuroscience and neuropharmacology as useful molecular probes, was successfully achieved by using the stereo-complementary ring closure reactions promoted by SmI2 for the construction of the 2,3,4-trisubsituted pyrrolidine scaffold of kainoids...
August 9, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747660/4-dimensional-functional-profiling-in-the-convulsant-treated-larval-zebrafish-brain
#18
Matthew J Winter, Dylan Windell, Jeremy Metz, Peter Matthews, Joe Pinion, Jonathan T Brown, Malcolm J Hetheridge, Jonathan S Ball, Stewart F Owen, Will S Redfern, Julian Moger, Andrew D Randall, Charles R Tyler
Functional neuroimaging, using genetically-encoded Ca(2+) sensors in larval zebrafish, offers a powerful combination of high spatiotemporal resolution and higher vertebrate relevance for quantitative neuropharmacological profiling. Here we use zebrafish larvae with pan-neuronal expression of GCaMP6s, combined with light sheet microscopy and a novel image processing pipeline, for the 4D profiling of chemoconvulsant action in multiple brain regions. In untreated larvae, regions associated with autonomic functionality, sensory processing and stress-responsiveness, consistently exhibited elevated spontaneous activity...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730280/evidence-for-the-involvement-of-the-gabaergic-but-not-serotonergic-transmission-in-the-anxiolytic-like-effect-of-bisabolol-in-the-mouse-elevated-plus-maze
#19
Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini Tabari, Mohammad Amir Bagherpour Tehrani
Bisabolol (α-(-)-bisabolol) is a sesquiterpene which is a part of the essential oil of a variety of plants, but its common source is German chamomile. Several bioactivities including anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and anti-tumor effects were attributed to bisabolol. However, the neuropharmacological properties of bisabolol have not yet been reported. The present study evaluated behavioral effects of bisabolol using elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), and rotarod test. Moreover, this study also examined whether the 5-HT1A and GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor systems are involved in the anxiolytic-like effects of bisabolol...
July 20, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694764/2-pyrazoline-derivatives-in-neuropharmacology-synthesis-adme-prediction-molecular-docking-and-in-vivo-biological-evaluation
#20
Savita Upadhyay, Avinash C Tripathi, Sarvesh Paliwal, Shailendra K Saraf
A novel series of 1,3,5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazoline derivatives (PFC-1 to PFC-16) were synthesized in a three step reaction using conventional and microwave assisted green chemistry approach. The synthesized derivatives were characterized and their chemical structures were established by various physicochemical methods such as IR, Mass, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were tested for their neuropharmacological potential. The compounds exhibited significant antidepressant and anti-anxiety activities against various behavioral in vivo models...
2017: EXCLI journal
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