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Neuropharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539997/interaction-between-the-cannabinoid-and-vanilloid-systems-on-anxiety-in-male-rats
#1
Nafiseh Faraji, Alireza Komaki, Iraj Salehi
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that the cannabinoid system is involved in anxiety. In addition, transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels are new targets for the development of anxiolytics. The present study investigated the possible interaction between the cannabinoid and vanilloid systems on anxiety-like behavior in rats. METHODS: Four different groups of male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal (IP) injections of (1) vehicle (DMSO+saline), (2) cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 (WIN) (1 mg/kg), (3) TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine (CPZ) (5 mg/kg), or (4) combined WIN (1 mg/kg) and CPZ (5 mg/kg) treatment 30 minutes before testing in the elevated plus maze...
March 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518109/assessment-of-neuronal-viability-using-fluorescein-diacetate-propidium-iodide-double-staining-in-cerebellar-granule-neuron-culture
#2
Lin Jiajia, Mak Shinghung, Zheng Jiacheng, Wang Jialing, Xu Dilin, Hu Shengquan, Zhang Zaijun, Wang Qinwen, Han Yifan, Cui Wei
Primary cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGNs) have been widely used as an in vitro model in neuroscience and neuropharmacology research. However, the co-existence of glial cells and neurons in CGN culture might lead to biases in the accurate assessment of neuronal viability. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and Propidium Iodide (PI) double staining has been used to measure cell viability by simultaneously evaluating the viable and dead cells. We used FDA-PI double staining to improve the sensitivities of the colorimetric assays and to evaluate neuronal viability in CGNs...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495376/gabaa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulators-modify-the-abuse-related-behavioral-and-neurochemical-effects-of-methamphetamine-in-rhesus-monkeys
#3
Laís F Berro, Monica L Andersen, Sergio Tufik, Leonard L Howell
GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators (GABAA receptor modulators) are commonly used for the treatment of insomnia. Nevertheless, the effects of these compounds on psychostimulant-induced sleep impairment are poorly understood. Because GABAA receptor modulators have been shown to decrease the abuse-related effects of psychostimulants, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of temazepam (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg) and eszopiclone (0.3, 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg), two GABAA receptor modulators, on the behavioral neuropharmacology of methamphetamine in adult rhesus macaques (n = 5)...
May 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480400/isolation-of-novel-para-pentyl-phenyl-benzoate-from-mondia-whitei-hook-f-skeels-periplocaceae-its-structure-synthesis-and-neuropharmacological-evaluation
#4
Taiwo Bamigboye J, Osasan Josephine Y, Olubiyi Olujide O, Oyemitan Idris A, Atoyebi Shakir A M, Elsegood Mark R J, Jones Raymond C F
BACKGROUND: Mondia whitei L. (Hook. F.) Skeels (Periplocaceae) is a medicinal plant used locally in managing pain, fever, loss of appetite and as aphrodiasc in the South-Western states of Nigeria. However, the fruit is consumed habitually in the South-Eastern states of Nigeria, leading to speculation that it may possess some central nervous system effect but which has not been scientifically investigated, hence this study. METHODOLOGY: Fresh fruits of Mondia whitei were collected and identified by a taxonomist...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472675/toxic-essential-oils-part-v-behaviour-modulating-and-toxic-properties-of-thujones-and-thujone-containing-essential-oils-of-salvia-officinalis-l-artemisia-absinthium-l-thuja-occidentalis-l-and-tanacetum-vulgare-l
#5
Niko S Radulović, Marija S Genčić, Nikola M Stojanović, Pavle J Randjelović, Zorica Z Stojanović-Radić, Nenad I Stojiljković
Neurotoxic thujones (α- and β-diastereoisomers) are common constituents of plant essential oils. In this study, we employed a statistical approach to determine the contribution of thujones to the overall observed behaviour-modulating and toxic effects of essential oils (Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.) containing these monoterpene ketones. The data from three in vivo neuropharmacological tests on rats (open field, light-dark, and diazepam-induced sleep), and toxicity assays (brine shrimp, and antimicrobial activity against a panel of microorganisms), together with the data from detailed chemical analyses, were subjected to a multivariate statistical treatment to reveal the possible correlation(s) between the content of essential-oil constituents and the observed effects...
May 1, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468946/novel-mode-of-antagonist-binding-in-nmda-receptors-revealed-by-the-crystal-structure-of-the-glun1-glun2a-ligand-binding-domain-complexed-to-nvp-aam077
#6
Annabel Romero-Hernandez, Hiro Furukawa
Competitive antagonists against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have played critical roles throughout the history of neuropharmacology and basic neuroscience. There are currently numerous NMDA receptor antagonists containing a variety of chemical groups. Among those compounds, a GluN2-specific antagonist, (R)-[(S)-1-(4-bromo-phenyl)-ethylamino]-(2,3-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoxalin-5-yl)-methyl]-phosphonic acid (NVP-AAM077), contains a unique combination of a dioxoquinoxalinyl ring, a bromophenyl group, and a phosphono group...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461695/a-hippocampus-to-prefrontal-cortex-neural-pathway-inhibits-food-motivation-through-glucagon-like-peptide-1-signaling
#7
T M Hsu, E E Noble, C M Liu, A M Cortella, V R Konanur, A N Suarez, D J Reiner, J D Hahn, M R Hayes, S E Kanoski
The hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are traditionally associated with regulating memory and executive function, respectively. The contribution of these brain regions to food intake control, however, is poorly understood. The present study identifies a novel neural pathway through which monosynaptic glutamatergic ventral hippocampal field CA1 (vCA1) to mPFC connectivity inhibits food-motivated behaviors through vCA1 glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). Results demonstrate that vCA1-targeted RNA interference-mediated GLP-1R knockdown increases motivated operant responding for palatable food...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458288/neuropharmacological-study-of-atp-receptors-especially-in-the-relationship-between-glia-and-pain
#8
Kazuhide Inoue
 A growing body of evidence indicates that extracellular ATP released or leaked from nonexcitable cells as well as neurons plays important roles in the regulation of neuronal and glial functions in the entire body through ATP receptors. ATP receptors (ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors) are the most abundant receptor families in living organisms. In the central nervous system, these receptors participate in the synaptic transmission and intercellular communications between neurons and glia. The glia cells are classified into three types: astrocytes; oligodendrocytes; and microglia...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454983/emerging-pharmacotherapies-for-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Barbara J Mason
The identification of different stages within the alcohol use disorder (AUD) cycle that are linked to neurocircuitry changes in pathophysiology associated with the negative emotional states of abstinence has provided a view of medication development for AUD that emphasizes changes in the brain reward and stress systems. Alcohol use disorder can be defined as a chronic relapsing disorder that involves compulsive alcohol seeking and taking, loss of control over alcohol intake, and emergence of a negative emotional state during abstinence...
April 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454981/neuropharmacological-characterization-of-the-new-psychoactive-substance-methoxetamine
#10
Laura Hondebrink, Emma E J Kasteel, Anke M Tukker, Fiona M J Wijnolts, Anouk H A Verboven, Remco H S Westerink
The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is steadily increasing. One commonly used NPS is methoxetamine (MXE), a ketamine analogue. Several adverse effects have been reported following MXE exposure, while only limited data are available on its neuropharmacological modes of action. We investigated the effects of MXE and ketamine on several endpoints using multiple in vitro models. These included rat primary cortical cells, human SH-SY5Y cells, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived iCell(®) Neurons, DopaNeurons and astrocyte co-cultures, and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells...
April 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450072/contribution-of-clinical-neuroimaging-to-the-understanding-of-the-pharmacology-of-methylphenidate
#11
REVIEW
Luc Zimmer
Methylphenidate (MPH) is currently the most widely used molecule in the pharmacologic treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although experience of its application now extends over several decades, its psychotropic nature, prolonged use in children, and chemical relation to amphetamines still raise doubts in the minds of prescribers and the families of the patients. Brain imaging has shed considerable light on the neuropharmacology of MPH. The two main in vivo neuroimaging techniques are positron-emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and these can be applied in both animal models and humans...
April 24, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416445/%C3%AE-o-conotoxin-gexiva-disulfide-bond-isomers-exhibit-differential-sensitivity-for-various-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-but-retain-potency-and-selectivity-for-the-human-%C3%AE-9%C3%AE-10-subtype
#12
Dongting Zhangsun, Xiaopeng Zhu, Quentin Kaas, Yong Wu, David J Craik, J Michael McIntosh, Sulan Luo
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes exhibit distinct neuropharmacological properties that are involved in a range of neuropathological conditions, including pain, addiction, epilepsy, autism, schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as many types of cancer. The α9α10 nAChR is a potential target in chronic pain, wound healing, the pathophysiology of the auditory system, and breast and lung cancers. αO-conotoxin GeXIVA is a potent antagonist of rat α9α10 nAChRs, with the 'bead' disulfide bond isomer displaying the lowest IC50 of the three possible isomers...
April 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415443/3-month-parenteral-plga-microsphere-formulations-of-risperidone-fabrication-characterization-and-neuropharmacological-assessments
#13
Sundeep Chaurasia, Kuchukuntla Mounika, Vasudha Bakshi, Vure Prasad
The study aims at formulation and characterization of three months parenteral risperidone loaded polymeric microspheres (p-RLPMs) as a sustained delivery system and established their in vitro and in vivo assessments. The p-RLPMs formulations were prepared by solvent extraction and diffusion method. The optimized p-RLPMs (batch RPLGA-1) formulation demonstrated favorable different physicochemical properties such as mean particle size (104±5.34μm), percent porosity (44.56±3.11%) and percent drug loading (38...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385956/deconstructing-behavioral-neuropharmacology-with-cellular-specificity
#14
Brenda C Shields, Elizabeth Kahuno, Charles Kim, Pierre F Apostolides, Jennifer Brown, Sarah Lindo, Brett D Mensh, Joshua T Dudman, Luke D Lavis, Michael R Tadross
Behavior has molecular, cellular, and circuit determinants. However, because many proteins are broadly expressed, their acute manipulation within defined cells has been difficult. Here, we combined the speed and molecular specificity of pharmacology with the cell type specificity of genetic tools. DART (drugs acutely restricted by tethering) is a technique that rapidly localizes drugs to the surface of defined cells, without prior modification of the native target. We first developed an AMPAR antagonist DART, with validation in cultured neuronal assays, in slices of mouse dorsal striatum, and in behaving mice...
April 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377723/multiple-psychopharmacological-effects-of-the-traditional-japanese-kampo-medicine-yokukansan-and-the-brain-regions-it-affects
#15
REVIEW
Kazushige Mizoguchi, Yasushi Ikarashi
Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, has indications for use in night crying and irritability in children, as well as neurosis and insomnia. It is currently also used for the remedy of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as aggressiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. In parallel with clinical evidence, a significant amount of fundamental researches have been undertaken to clarify the neuropsychopharmacological efficacies of YKS, with approximately 70 articles, including our own, being published to date...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349209/phenytoin-a-step-by-step-insight-into-its-multiple-mechanisms-of-action-80%C3%A2-years-of-mechanistic-studies-in-neuropharmacology
#16
Jan M Keppel Hesselink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347784/a-programmable-smoke-delivery-device-for-pet-imaging-with-cigarettes-containing-11-c-nicotine
#17
Yantao Zuo, Pradeep K Garg, Rachid Nazih, Sudha Garg, Jed E Rose, Thangaraju Murugesan, Alexey G Mukhin
INTRODUCTION: PET imaging with (11)C-nicotine-loaded cigarettes is a valuable tool to directly assess fast nicotine kinetics and its neuropharmacological role in tobacco dependence. To eliminate variations among puffs inhaled by subjects, this work aimed to develop a programmable smoke delivery device (SDD) to produce highly reproducible and adjustable puffs of cigarette smoke for PET experiments. NEW METHOD: The SDD was built around a programmable syringe pump as a smoking machine to draw a puff of smoke from a (11)C-nicotine-loaded cigarette and make it available for a subject to take the smoke into the mouth and then inhale it during PET data acquisition...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259728/neurobiology-and-neuropharmacology-of-monoaminergic-systems
#18
EDITORIAL
Philippe De Deurwaerdère, Rona R Ramsay, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250733/a-new-computational-approach-for-modeling-diffusion-tractography-in-the-brain
#19
REVIEW
Harsha T Garimella, Reuben H Kraft
Computational models provide additional tools for studying the brain, however, many techniques are currently disconnected from each other. There is a need for new computational approaches that span the range of physics operating in the brain. In this review paper, we offer some new perspectives on how the embedded element method can fill this gap and has the potential to connect a myriad of modeling genre. The embedded element method is a mesh superposition technique used within finite element analysis. This method allows for the incorporation of axonal fiber tracts to be explicitly represented...
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237670/commentary-toshio-narahashi-life-and-legacy-of-the-founding-father-of-cellular-neuropharmacology
#20
Vincent L Salgado, Xilong Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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