Read by QxMD icon Read

Advanced airway management

Samuel Y Ash, Alejandro A Diaz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to summarize the most recent evidence related to imaging and severe asthma, both with regard to advances in imaging research and to their current and potential clinical implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work in imaging in severe asthma has principally been using computed tomography (CT) and MRI, as well as the integration of the two. Some of the most notable findings include the use of CT imaging biomarkers to create unique clusters of asthmatics, and the use of co-registration to link CT images of airways with regional variation in ventilation in MRI...
October 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Anil Gungor
Pediatric OSAS and craniofacial malformations present challenges that require innovative approaches and comprehensive treatment strategies. Synchronous airway lesions, craniofacial malformations, obstructive anomalies of the tongue base, nasal vault and choanae are commonly addressed by subspecialists from various clinical and surgical academic traditions who practice variable levels of required communication. This is not a mere social requirement but an important requisite for intelligent and effective airway management...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Chooza Moon, Cynthia H Phelan, Diane R Lauver, Lisa C Bratzke
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs), including obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea, are common among patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but clinicians often do not pay enough attention to SRBDs. The purpose of this narrative review is to update advanced practice registered nurses on the literature focusing on the relationship between SRBDs and CVD (eg, hypertension, heart failure, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and stroke) and on treatments that can improve SRBDs in patients with CVD...
November 2016: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
José E Barrera
Multilevel surgery has been established as the mainstay of treatment for the surgical management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Combined with uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, tongue-base surgeries, including the genioglossus advancement (GA), sliding genioplasty, and hyoid myotomy and suspension, have been developed to target hypopharyngeal obstruction. Total airway surgery consisting of maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) with/without GA has shown significant success. Skeletal procedures for OSA with or without a palatal procedure is a proven technique for relieving airway obstruction during sleep...
October 6, 2016: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Jodi Taylor, Sarah Black, Stephen J Brett, Kim Kirby, Jerry P Nolan, Barnaby C Reeves, Maria Robinson, Chris A Rogers, Lauren J Scott, Adrian South, Elizabeth A Stokes, Matthew Thomas, Sarah Voss, Sarah Wordsworth, Jonathan R Benger
Health outcomes after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are extremely poor, with only 7-9% of patients in the United Kingdom (UK) surviving to hospital discharge. Currently emergency medical services (EMS) use either tracheal intubation or newer supraglottic airway devices (SGAs) to provide advanced airway management during OHCA. Equipoise between the two techniques has led to calls for a well-designed randomised controlled trial. The primary objective of the AIRWAYS-2 trial is to assess whether the clinical effectiveness of the i-gel, a second-generation SGA, is superior to tracheal intubation in the initial airway management of OHCA patients in the UK...
September 30, 2016: Resuscitation
William T Harris, J Todd Boyd, Gary L McPhail, Alan S Brody, Rhonda D Szczesniak, Leslie L Korbee, Michael L Baker, John P Clancy
RATIONALE: Refractory lung function decline in association with recurrent pulmonary exacerbations is a common, yet poorly explained finding in CF. We reviewed clinically-indicated lung biopsy specimens obtained during a period of persistent decline to investigate histopathologic mechanisms of pulmonary deterioration during adolescence and early adulthood. OBJECTIVES: To determine if peribronchiolar remodeling is prominent in lung biopsy specimens obtained in CF adolescents refractory to conventional therapy...
September 29, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
David G Sweet, Virgilio Carnielli, Gorm Greisen, Mikko Hallman, Eren Ozek, Richard Plavka, Ola Didrik Saugstad, Umberto Simeoni, Christian P Speer, Máximo Vento, Gerard H A Visser, Henry L Halliday
Advances in the management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) ensure that clinicians must continue to revise current practice. We report the third update of the European Guidelines for the Management of RDS by a European panel of expert neonatologists including input from an expert perinatal obstetrician based on available literature up to the beginning of 2016. Optimizing the outcome for babies with RDS includes consideration of when to use antenatal steroids, and good obstetric practice includes methods of predicting the risk of preterm delivery and also consideration of whether transfer to a perinatal centre is necessary and safe...
September 21, 2016: Neonatology
Sharon H Gnagi, David R White
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss current modalities of endoscopic airway management beyond balloon dilation therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances continue to be made through technology and bioengineering with exciting potential in the pediatric airway. Smaller robots and instrumentation allow increased endoscopic surgical success. Biodegradable stents and bioengineered grafts are on the horizon for use in airway surgery. Dysphonia following airway reconstruction is of increasing recognition with new endoscopic treatments being performed...
September 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Andrea Vianello, Valeria Bisogni, Claudia Rinaldo, Federico Gallan, Giuseppe Maiolino, Fausto Braccioni, Luca Guarda-Nardini, Beatrice Molena, Gian P Rossi, Rosario Marchese-Ragona
Affecting a large number of middle-aged, frequently overweight subjects, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep related breathing disorder. Partial or complete upper airway (UA) collapse during sleep causing repeated apneic episodes, which is the leading pathophysiological mechanism underlying the disorder, results in arterial oxygen desaturation and recurrent arousals from sleep to re-establish airway patency. Untreated OSA is commonly associated with a range of adverse consequences, including cardiovascular complications, such as arterial and/or pulmonary hypertension, arrhythmias, stroke, as well as diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, and motor vehicle accidents...
December 2016: Minerva Medica
Ali Cheaito, Areti Tillou, Catherine Lewis, Henry Cryer
INTRODUCTION: Tracheobronchial injury is a recognized, yet uncommon, result of blunt trauma to the thorax. Often the diagnosis and treatment are delayed, resulting in attempted surgical repair months or even years after the injury. PRESENTATION OF THE CASE: We present a case report of a 31-year old female who suffered a left main bronchus transection after a motor vehicle accident. The diagnostic, management issues, and clinical findings surrounding this injury are reviewed...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Michael C Peters, Michelle-Linh T Nguyen, Eleanor M Dunican
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decade, the most important advance in the field of asthma has been the widespread recognition that asthma is a heterogeneous disease driven by multiple molecular processes. RECENT FINDINGS: The most well-established molecular mechanism in asthma is increased airway type-2 inflammation, and consequently, non-invasive biomarkers of increased airway type-2 inflammation, such as blood eosinophil counts or blood periostin levels, have proven important in stratifying asthma patients in clinical trials of type-2 cytokine inhibitors...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Su-Ling Loo, Peter A B Wark
This review highlights the important articles published in the area of asthma research from January 2015 to July 2016. In basic science, significant advances have been made in understanding the link between the innate immune response and type II acquired immune responses in asthma and the role of the airway epithelium. Novel information continues to emerge with regard to the pathogenesis and heterogeneity of severe asthma. There have been important translational clinical trials in the areas of childhood asthma, treatment of allergy to improve asthma outcomes, and improving drug delivery to optimize the management of asthma...
2016: F1000Research
S N Rogers, L Russell, D Lowe
A temporary tracheostomy is commonly done in patients who have reconstruction after the ablation of advanced oral cancer to provide easy access to a secure airway in case a haematoma forms or the patient needs a return to theatre. Although relatively simple to do, we know little about the patients' experience, and to find out, we designed a three-stage study. First, we conducted semi-structured interviews to identify items related to the functional, emotional, and social impacts of the tracheostomy, on the ward and on removal (n=15 patients)...
September 2, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Ghassan Idris, Barbara Galland, Christopher J Robertson, Mauro Farella
BACKGROUND: Sleep-Disordered Breathing (SDB) varies from habitual snoring to partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway and can be found in up to 10% of children. SDB can significantly affect children's wellbeing, as it can cause growth disorders, educational and behavioral problems, and even life-threatening conditions, such as cardiorespiratory failure. Adenotonsillectomy represents the primary treatment for pediatric SDB where adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy is indicated. For those with craniofacial anomalies, or for whom adenotonsillectomy or other treatment modalities have failed, or surgery is contra-indicated, mandibular advancement splints (MAS) may represent a viable treatment option...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Denis E O'Donnell, Amany F Elbehairy, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Donald A Mahler
Activity-related dyspnoea is often the most distressing symptom experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and can persist despite comprehensive medical management. It is now clear that dyspnoea during physical activity occurs across the spectrum of disease severity, even in those with mild airway obstruction. Our understanding of the nature and source of dyspnoea is incomplete, but current aetiological concepts emphasise the importance of increased central neural drive to breathe in the setting of a reduced ability of the respiratory system to appropriately respond...
September 2016: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
Lisa J Strug, Tanja Gonska, Gengming He, Katherine Keenan, Wan Ip, Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Fan Lin, Naim Panjwani, Jiafen Gong, Weili Li, David Soave, Bowei Xiao, Elizabeth Tullis, Harvey Rabin, Michael D Parkins, April Price, Peter C Zuberbuhler, Harriet Corvol, Felix Ratjen, Lei Sun, Christine E Bear, Johanna M Rommens
Cystic fibrosis is realizing the promise of personalized medicine. Recent advances in drug development that target the causal CFTR directly result in lung function improvement, but variability in response is demanding better prediction of outcomes to improve management decisions. The genetic modifier SLC26A9 contributes to disease severity in the CF pancreas and intestine at birth and here we assess its relationship with disease severity and therapeutic response in the airways. SLC26A9 association with lung disease was assessed in individuals from the Canadian and French CF Gene Modifier consortia with CFTR-gating mutations and in those homozygous for the common Phe508del mutation...
August 29, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
François-Xavier Duchateau, Matthew Beardmore, Tobias Gauss, Sebastian Pease
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
William M Mendenhall, Roi Dagan, Curtis M Bryant, Robert J Amdur, Anthony A Mancuso
BACKGROUND: Depending on the extent of disease, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the glottis is managed with surgery, radiotherapy (RT), or a combination of these modalities. Patients with advanced disease may receive concomitant chemotherapy in conjunction with definitive or postoperative RT. METHODS: The treatment policies of the University of Florida and patient outcomes are reviewed. RESULTS: The likelihood of cure after RT for carcinoma in situ (Tis) to T2 glottic SCC varies from 70% to 94% depending on tumor stage...
July 2016: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
F Gerbe, P Jay
Epithelial tuft cells (also known as "brush" cells in the airway) were first identified morphologically, almost six decades ago in the trachea and gastro-intestinal tract, but their function remained mysterious until three almost simultaneous reports recently revealed their essential role in the initiation of immune type 2 responses. This is a new and exciting example of cooperation between the epithelial and haematopoietic compartments for the management of enteric parasite infections. Here we review tuft cell functions and markers, and anchors epithelial tuft cells within the current paradigm of type 2 immune responses...
November 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Stuart G MacKay, Lyndon Chan
Surgery in adult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has undergone significant advancement in recent years and continues to evolve. It is a modality of treatment used in the context of failed device use, specifically, failed continuous positive airway pressure or mandibular advancement splint. In this context, the role of surgery is either as salvage therapy or to facilitate better tolerance of device use. Other treatments such as weight loss, adjuvant nasal therapy (medical ± prephase nasal surgery) and positional devices may be combined with airway surgery...
September 2016: Sleep Medicine Clinics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"