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Free radicals

Claudia Kruger, Susan J Burke, J Jason Collier, Trang-Tiffany Nguyen, J Michael Salbaum, Krisztian Stadler
Early podocyte loss is characteristic of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in obesity and diabetes. Since treatments for hyperglycemia and hypertension do not prevent podocyte loss, there must be additional factors causing podocyte depletion. The role of oxidative stress has been implicated in CKD but it is not known how exactly free radicals affect podocyte physiology. To assess this relationship, we investigated the effects of lipid radicals on podocytes, as lipid peroxidation is a major form of oxidative stress in diabetes...
March 6, 2018: Redox Biology
Yaxin Qin, Guiying Li, Yanpeng Gao, Lizhi Zhang, Yong Sik Ok, Taicheng An
With the increased concentrations and kinds of refractory organic contaminants (ROCs) in aquatic environments, many previous reviews systematically summarized the applications of carbon-based materials in the adsorption and catalytic degradation of ROCs for their economically viable and environmentally friendly behavior. Interestingly, recent studies indicated that carbon-based materials in natural environment can also mediate the transformation of ROCs directly or indirectly due to their abundant persistent free radicals (PFRs)...
March 9, 2018: Water Research
Babloo Sharma, Susanne Striegler
In an effort to develop biomimetic glycosyl transfer catalysts, a polymerization protocol was developed that is applicable to the synthesis of crosslinked microgels via UV-initiated free radical polymerization of miniemulsions at ambient temperature and below. The catalytic activity of the microgels derived from butyl acrylate, EGDMA and a catalyst-precursor ligand was established using the hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl -D-galactopyranoside as a model reaction. The microgel-catalyzed hydrolysis was up to 3 × 105-fold accelerated over the background reaction and notably 38-fold faster than the hydrolysis catalyzed by its low molecular weight analog...
March 16, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Marlena Whinton, Timothy C Hughes, Shuhua Peng, Michael A Brook
Bicontinuous microemulsions exhibit domain structures on the nanoscale (<20 nm). Normally, such fine details are lost during the conversion from a fluid microemulsion to solid elastomeric materials, as a consequence of interfacial destabilization via polymerization of either the oil phase, or of monomers in the aqueous phase. Very little is known about the polymerization of silicone microemulsions and the morphological changes that occur upon transition from a nanostructured liquid to a solid ma-trix. Silicone microemulsions polymerized by free radical (aqueous phase) and condensation (silicone phase) processes, respective-ly, were characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
March 16, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yao Yin, Wei-Zhi Weng, Jian-Guo Sun, Bo Zhang
A visible-light-promoted phosphinylation of allylic alcohols with concomitant 1,2-aryl migration is described. This transformation proceeds smoothly under metal-free and mild conditions by using an inexpensive organic dye, eosin Y, as the photocatalyst, affording various β-aryl-γ-ketophosphine oxides in moderate to good yields. Mechanistic studies suggested that the 1,2-aryl migration proceeded through a radical (neophyl) rearrangement.
March 16, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Md Moniruzzaman, Young-Won Chin, Jungsook Cho
Physalis alkekengi var. francheti is an indigenous herb well known for its anti-inflammatory, sedative, antipyretic, and expectorant properties. However, the information regarding the impacts of P. alkekengi fruits (PAF) in modulation of oxidative stress and learning memory are still unknown. This study therefore evaluated the antioxidant properties of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of PAF and its impacts on learning and memory. The antioxidant activities of PAF were evaluated in LPS-induced BV2 microglial cells...
March 15, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Jesús Emilo Quintero Ojeda, Maribel Aguilar-Medina, Vicente Olimón-Andalón, Rosa Alicia García Jau, Alfredo Ayala Ham, José Geovanni Romero Quintana, Erika de Lourdes Silva-Benítez, Guzmán Sanchez-Schmitz, Rosalío Ramos-Payán
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by persistent high levels of glucose in plasma. Chronic hyperglycemia is thought to increase oxidative stress and the formation of free radicals that in turn damage cells. Thus, we decided to determine the frequency of nuclear abnormalities in epithelial cells from cheek and tongue mucosa of DM patients with type 1 (DM1, treated only with insulin) and type 2 (DM2, treated with metformin) using the buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt) assay. Micronuclei frequency in cheek epithelial cells was higher in both DM1 (0...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jiawang Wei, Huixia Feng, Weiwei Xiao, Qiaoxuan Wang, Bo Qiu, Shiliang Liu, Meiling Deng, Lixia Lu, Hui Chang, Yuanhong Gao
Objective: Stage N2-3 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) shows a high risk of distant metastasis, which will finally cause death. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) of various cycles before radical radiotherapy on distant metastasis and survival of patients with stage N2-3 diseases. Methods: In this study, a total of 1,164 consecutive patients with non-metastatic N2-3 NPC were recruited and prospectively observed. Then 231 patients who received NACT of 4 cycles (NACT=4 group) were matched 1:2:1 to 462 patients treated with NACT of 2 cycles (NACT=2 group) and 231 patients treated without NACT (NACT=0 group), according to age, histological subtype, N stage and NACT regimen...
February 2018: Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, Chung-kuo Yen Cheng Yen Chiu
Dicson Sheeja Malar, Venkatesan Suryanarayanan, Mani Iyer Prasanth, Sanjeev Kumar Singh, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan, Kasi Pandima Devi
Amyloid beta (Aβ) formation is one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), further leading to the alteration of several signalling pathways. In the present study, vitexin has been evaluated for its neuroprotective activity against Aβ25-35 induced toxicity in Neuro-2a cells. Results of cell free studies indicated that vitexin significantly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ25-35 . Studies in Neuro-2a cells revealed that Aβ25-35 significantly affected the cell viability by inducing ROS mediated toxicity and apoptosis...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Iram Iqbal Hejazi, Rashmin Khanam, Syed Hassan Mehdi, Abdul Roouf Bhat, M Moshahid Alam Rizvi, Sonu Chand Thakur, Fareeda Athar
Plant phytoconstituents have been a valuable source of clinically important anticancer agents. Antioxidant and anticancerous activity of plant Curculigo orchioides Gaertn were explored In vitro antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity of oxidatively stressed tissue, and cell culture studies on human cancer cell lines HepG2, HeLa and MCF-7 were carried out. Active plant fractions were subjected to GC-MS analysis and compounds selected on the basis of their abundance were screened in silico with the help of Auto Dock 4...
March 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Philip A Fontenot, Brian D Barnes, William P Parker, Hadley Wyre, Eugene K Lee, Jeffrey M Holzbeierlein
OBJECTIVES: To compare complication rates, perioperative outcomes, and survival after radical cystectomy (RC) in patients with prior abdominal and/or pelvic radiation therapy (RT) versus those without an RT history. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing RC for urothelial carcinoma (UC) between January 2008 and January 2016. Patients were stratified by receipt of RT, and differences in complications (any, minor, and major) at 30 and 90 days, as well as, estimated blood loss, length of surgery, length of hospital stay, and pathologic stage were compared...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Mariola A Dietrich, Piotr Hliwa, Mikołaj Adamek, Dieter Steinhagen, Halina Karol, Andrzej Ciereszko
The environmental temperature affects plasma biochemical indicators, antioxidant status and hematological and immunological parameters in fish. So far, only single blood proteins have been identified in response to temperature changes. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of carp blood plasma from males acclimated to warm (30 °C) and cold (10 °C) temperatures by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 47 spots were found to be differentially regulated by temperature (>1...
March 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Felix A Blyakhman, Nikita A Buznikov, Tatyana F Sklyar, Alexander P Safronov, Elizaveta V Golubeva, Andrey V Svalov, Sergey Yu Sokolov, Grigory Yu Melnikov, Iñaki Orue, Galina V Kurlyandskaya
Hydrogels are biomimetic materials widely used in the area of biomedical engineering and biosensing. Ferrogels (FG) are magnetic composites capable of functioning as magnetic field sensitive transformers and field assisted drug deliverers. FG can be prepared by incorporating magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) into chemically crosslinked hydrogels. The properties of biomimetic ferrogels for multifunctional biosensor applications can be set up by synthesis. The properties of these biomimetic ferrogels can be thoroughly controlled in a physical experiment environment which is much less demanding than biotests...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Jonathan L Kuo, Chris Lorenc, Janine M Abuyuan, Jack R Norton
Radical cyclizations are most often achieved in the presence of a radical initiator and Bu3 SnH, but environmental considerations demand that alternative reagents be developed - ones that can serve as a synthetic equivalents to the hydrogen atom. We have revisited [CpV(CO)3 H]- , a known replacement for Bu3 SnH, and found that it can be used catalytically under H2 in the presence of a base. We have carried out the tin-free and catalytic radical cyclization of alkyl iodide substrates. The reactions are atom-efficient and the conditions are mild, with broad tolerance for functional groups...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Haiguo Hu, Hong Gao, Lili Gao, Feng Li, Na Xu, Xuefeng Long, Yiping Hu, Jun Jin, Jiantai Ma
This work developed a simple and efficient method to covalently functionalize black phosphorus nanoflakes (BPNFs) with carbon free radicals from azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN) molecules. BPNFs after successful modification (BPNFs-AIBN) not only had good stability in air and aqueous solution, but also still maintained good optical properties.
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Xiaju Cheng, Xiaohu Ni, Renfei Wu, Yu Chong, Xingfa Gao, Cuicui Ge, Jun-Jie Yin
AIM: To develop the potential application of carbon nanomaterials as antioxidants calls for better understanding of how the specific structure affects their antioxidant activity. MATERIALS & METHODS: Several typical carbon nanomaterials, including graphene quantum dots and fullerene derivatives were characterized and their radical scavenging activities were evaluated; in addition, the in vitro and in vivo radioprotection experiments were performed. RESULTS: These carbon nanomaterials can efficiently scavenge free radicals in a structure-dependent manner...
March 15, 2018: Nanomedicine
S Kharchoufi, J Gomez, C Lasanta, R Castro, F Sainz, M Hamdi
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the beneficial health effects of certain fruits, such as pomegranate, and their by-products, like vinegar. Vinegars contain antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, which can scavenge free radicals in the body. In this study, the antioxidant properties (ABTS and DPPH scavenging capacities) and global polyphenolic composition of a new functional product, namely a pomegranate vinegar produced in the laboratory from the Gabsi variety, were evaluated and compared with those of commercial wine vinegars (Sherry and Rioja red wine Spanish vinegars)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Purabi Sarkar, Ananya Bhowmick, Sofia Banu
Enhanced oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression and onset of diabetes and its complications. Strategies or efforts meant to reduce the oxidative stress are needed which may mitigate these pathogenic processes. The present study aims to investigate the in vitro ameliorative potential of nine antioxidant molecules in L6 myotubes under oxidative stress condition induced by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and also to comprehend the gene expression patterns of oxidative stress genes upon the supplementation of different antioxidants in induced stress condition...
March 14, 2018: Cytotechnology
Ren-You Gan, Kin-Weng Kong, Hua-Bin Li, Kao Wu, Ying-Ying Ge, Chak-Lun Chan, Xian-Ming Shi, Harold Corke
The red sword bean ( Canavalia gladiata ) is an underutilized edible bean cultivated in China. It was previously found to have the highest content of antioxidant polyphenols among 42 edible beans, mainly gallic acid, and gallotannins in its red bean coat, an apparently unique characteristic among edible beans. In this study, the main phenolic compounds in red sword bean coats were further separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and identified by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore, the FRAP and ABTS antioxidant activities and antibacterial activity (diameter of inhibition zone, DIZ) of main gallotannin-rich fractions were tested...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Cuimei Zhang, Shangli Shi
Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant) and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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