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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432143/focal-local-field-potential-lfp-signature-of-the-single-axon-monosynaptic-thalamocortical-connection
#1
Espen Hagen, Janne C Fossum, Klas H Pettersen, Jose-Manuel Alonso, Harvey A Swadlow, Gaute T Einevolla
Recent years have seen a resurgence in use of the extracellularly recorded local field potential (LFP) to investigate neural network activity. To probe monosynaptic thalamic activation of cortical postsynaptic target cells, so called spike-trigger-averaged LFP (stLFP) signatures have been measured. In these experiments the cortical LFP is measured by means of multielectrodes covering several cortical lamina and averaged on spontaneous spikes of thalamocortical (TC) cells. Using a well-established forward-modeling scheme, we investigate the biophysical origin of this stLFP signature with simultaneous synaptic activation of cortical layer 4 neurons, mimicking the effect of a single afferent spike from a single TC neuron...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431164/low-activity-microstates-during-sleep
#2
Hiroyuki Miyawaki, Yazan N Billeh, Kamran Diba
Study Objectives: To better understand the distinct activity patterns of the brain during sleep, we observed and investigated periods of diminished oscillatory and population spiking activity lasting for seconds during non-REM sleep, which we call "LOW" activity sleep. Methods: We analyzed spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity of hippocampal CA1 region alongside neocortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in 19 sessions from four male Long-Evans rats (262-363g) during natural wake/sleep across the 24-hr cycle, as well as data from other brain regions obtained from http://crcns...
April 18, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421552/gap-junction-modulation-of-low-frequency-oscillations-in-the-cerebellar-granule-cell-layer
#3
Jennifer Claire Robinson, C Andrew Chapman, Richard Courtemanche
Local field potential (LFP) oscillations in the granule cell layer (GCL) of the cerebellar cortex have been identified previously in the awake rat and monkey during immobility. These low-frequency oscillations are thought to be generated through local circuit interactions between Golgi cells and granule cells within the GCL. Golgi cells display rhythmic firing and pacemaking properties, and also are electrically coupled through gap junctions within the GCL. Here, we tested if gap junctions in the rat cerebellar cortex contribute to the generation of LFP oscillations in the GCL...
April 18, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407378/new-morpholinium-and-piperidinium-based-ionic-liquids-functionalized-with-ethoxyethyl-side-chains-as-electrolyte-components-in-lithium-and-lithium-ion-batteries
#4
Maria Assunta Navarra, Kanae Fujimura, Mirko Sgambetterra, Akiko Tsurumaki, Stefania Panero, Nobufumi Nakamura, Hiroyuki Ohno, Bruno Scrosati
In the present work, two ionic liquids, N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylmorpholinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (M1,2O2TFSI) and N-ethoxyethyl-N-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide (P1,2O2TFSI) have been synthesized and compared. Fundamental relevant properties, such as thermal and electrochemical stability, density and ionic conductivity were analyzed to evaluate the effects caused by the presence of the ether bond in the side chain and/or in the organic cation ring. Upon lithium salt addition, two electrolytes suitable for lithium batteries applications were found...
April 13, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406906/water-diffusion-closely-reveals-neural-activity-status-in-rat-brain-loci-affected-by-anesthesia
#5
Yoshifumi Abe, Tomokazu Tsurugizawa, Denis Le Bihan
Diffusion functional MRI (DfMRI) reveals neuronal activation even when neurovascular coupling is abolished, contrary to blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI). Here, we show that the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from DfMRI increased in specific rat brain regions under anesthetic conditions, reflecting the decreased neuronal activity observed with local field potentials (LFPs), especially in regions involved in wakefulness. In contrast, BOLD signals showed nonspecific changes, reflecting systemic effects of the anesthesia on overall brain hemodynamics status...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402663/reaction-mechanism-of-4-chlorobiphenyl-and-the-no3-radical-an-experimental-and-theoretical-study
#6
Jin Shi, Wenlong Bi, Shenmin Li, Jianmin Chen, Wenbo Dong
An experiment and theoretical chemistry calculation were conducted to elucidate the mechanism of the reaction between 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CB) and the NO3 radical. The degradation of PCBs was investigated mechanistically through transient absorption spectroscopy technology and high-accuracy theoretical calculation byusing 4-CB as the model. Laser flash photolysis (LFP) experiments were performed at 355 nm. The main intermediate was analyzed through transient absorption spectroscopy and identified to be a charge transfer complex (CTC)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390257/exploring-the-reactivity-of-retinol-radical-cation-toward-organic-and-biological-molecules-a-laser-flash-photolysis-study
#7
Ali El-Agamey, Thor B Melø, Hans-Richard Sliwka
Vitamin A (retinol) and various natural retinoids are essential for life. Under oxidative conditions, vitamin A radical cation (RET(+)) can be formed. Many deleterious effects were reported about the formation of carotenoid radical cations in biological environments, on the other hand, little is known about the consequences of the RET(+) formation in these environments. Therefore, it is important to explore the reactivity of RET(+) toward various biological substrates. Here, we employed nanosecond laser flash photolysis (LFP) to generate RET(+) (λmax=580nm in methanol) and examine its reactivity toward a wide range of biological molecules including amino acids, vitamins, carotenoids, naturally-occurring phenols, neurotransmitters such as catecholamines, wide range of phenol derivatives and some selected electron-donors...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388230/unintentional-misreporting-on-self-report-measures-of-sexually-aggressive-behavior-an-interview-study
#8
Emily Strang, Zoё D Peterson
The development of effective sexual aggression prevention programs for men relies on data garnered from studies using self-report measures of sexual aggression perpetration. However, few studies have focused on understanding and improving self-report measures of sexual aggression perpetration. The current study used open-ended interviews to explore the nature and frequency of community men's (N = 34) unintentional misreporting-including both overreporting and underreporting-on two self-report measures of sexual aggression perpetration: the Sexual Experiences Survey-Long Form Perpetration (SES-LFP; Koss et al...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359762/visual-deprivation-induce-cross-modal-enhancement-of-olfactory-perception
#9
You Zhou, Fang-Hao Fang, Ping Pan, Zhi-Rui Liu, Yong-Hua Ji
The underlying mechanisms responsible for enhanced olfactory perception of congenital blind humans remain elusive so far. Here, animal behavioral test showed that congenital visual deprivation (from postnatal day 0-28) or one-week visual deprivation during juvenile stage (from postnatal day 21-28) could reduce the latency time of food-seeking but increase the odor discrimination performance of rodents. The enhanced olfactory perception induced by one-week visual deprivation could be returned to base level when visual input was recovered...
March 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349959/organization-of-prefrontal-network-activity-by-respiration-related-oscillations
#10
Jonatan Biskamp, Marlene Bartos, Jonas-Frederic Sauer
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) integrates information from cortical and sub-cortical areas and contributes to the planning and initiation of behaviour. A potential mechanism for signal integration in the mPFC lies in the synchronization of neuronal discharges by theta (6-12 Hz) activity patterns. Here we show, using in vivo local field potential (LFP) and single-unit recordings from awake mice, that prominent oscillations in the sub-theta frequency band (1-5 Hz) emerge during awake immobility in the mPFC...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347825/brain-monoamine-levels-and-behaviour-of-young-and-adult-chickens-genetically-selected-on-feather-pecking
#11
M S Kops, J B Kjaer, O Güntürkün, K G C Westphal, G A H Korte-Bouws, B Olivier, S M Korte, J E Bolhuis
Severe feather pecking (SFP) in chickens is a detrimental behaviour with possibly neurochemical deficits at its base. Recent neurological studies depicted conflicting results on the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the development and display of feather pecking. We studied brain monoamine levels and behaviour in domestic chickens divergently genetically selected on feather pecking behaviour, the Low Feather Pecking (LFP) and High Feather Pecking (HFP) lines, both at a young age and when adult, to elucidate the role of 5-HT and DA in feather pecking...
March 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330670/layered-fibrotic-plaques-are-the-predominant-component-in-cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy-systematic-findings-and-risk-stratification-by-oct
#12
Tor Skibsted Clemmensen, Niels Ramsing Holm, Hans Eiskjær, Brian Bridal Løgstrup, Evald Høj Christiansen, Jouke Dijkstra, Trine Ørhøj Barkholt, Christian Juhl Terkelsen, Michael Maeng, Steen Hvitfeldt Poulsen
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to characterize cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) phenotypes using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to evaluate the prognostic significance of OCT-determined CAV severity. BACKGROUND: Intravascular OCT enables in vivo characterization of CAV microstructure after heart transplantation. METHODS: Sixty-two patients undergoing heart transplantation were enrolled at routine angiography from September 2013 through October 2015 and prospectively followed until censoring on May 27, 2016...
March 10, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324930/rtms-enhanced-gamma-oscillation-through-strengthened-network-connection
#13
Mengmeng Dou, Xin Tian
Gamma oscillations emerge generally in working memory to aspect of higher cognitive functions, and typically with the interaction of brain network. How is gamma oscillatory activity influenced by the functional connection in the brain'a network? How can gamma oscillations be increased by neural modulation to result in potential benefits for working memory? The present study aims to investigate the intensity of gamma oscillations modulated by low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and the possible brain network mechanism of increased gamma oscillations during working memory task in rats...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323296/new-photoheterolysis-precursors-to-study-oxenium-ions-combining-experiment-and-theory
#14
Yunfan Qiu, Arthur H Winter
The combination of theoretical calculations and laser flash photolysis experiments has aided in understanding the reactivity and properties of oxenium ions. Direct observation of the reactivity, spin configurations, and lifetimes of short-lived oxenium ions via laser flash photolysis (LFP) techniques is now possible due to the discovery of new photoprecursors to these species. These new precursors allowed the direct observation of the parent phenyloxenium ion in solution by using protonated hydroxylamine tetrafluoroborate salt...
March 21, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322553/label-free-chemical-imaging-of-latent-fingerprints-with-stimulated-raman-scattering-microscopy
#15
Benjamin Figueroa, Yikai Chen, Kyla Berry, Andrew Francis, Dan Fu
Fingerprints have long been the gold standard for personal identification in forensic investigations. Methods for cultivating and enhancing the visualization of latent fingerprints (LFPs) are continuously evolving. One important challenge is to identify suspicious chemicals present in fingerprint residues, which requires chemical imaging capability. Recently, vibrational spectroscopy has shown that LFP analysis through tape-lift, Raman mapping, and multivariate data analysis presents a useful tool for forensic investigation...
March 31, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298263/a-proof-of-principle-simulation-for-closed-loop-control-based-on-preexisting-experimental-thalamic-dbs-enhanced-instrumental-learning
#16
Ching-Fu Wang, Shih-Hung Yang, Sheng-Huang Lin, Po-Chuan Chen, Yu-Chun Lo, Han-Chi Pan, Hsin-Yi Lai, Lun-De Liao, Hui-Ching Lin, Hsu-Yan Chen, Wei-Chen Huang, Wun-Jhu Huang, You-Yin Chen
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied as an effective therapy for treating Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Several open-loop DBS control strategies have been developed for clinical experiments, but they are limited by short battery life and inefficient therapy. Therefore, many closed-loop DBS control systems have been designed to tackle these problems by automatically adjusting the stimulation parameters via feedback from neural signals, which has been reported to reduce the power consumption...
February 24, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286184/altered-functional-efficacy-of-hippocampal-interneuron-during-epileptogenesis-following-febrile-seizures
#17
Yeon Hee Yu, Kahyun Lee, Dal Sik Sin, Kyung-Ho Park, Dae-Kyoon Park, Duk-Soo Kim
Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure type in infants and young children. FS may induce functional changes in the hippocampal circuitries. Abnormality of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmissions was previously related to wide-spread seizure attack in the hippocampus following recurrent seizure onset. To clarify the involvement of expressional changes and functional alterations of hippocampal interneurons with epileptogenesis following FS, we investigated long-term effects following recurrent seizure in a hyperthermia-induced seizure animal model...
March 7, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269704/multiscale-brain-machine-interface-decoders
#18
Han-Lin Hsieh, Maryam M Shanechi
Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) have vastly used a single scale of neural activity, e.g., spikes or electrocorticography (ECoG), as their control signal. New technology allows for simultaneous recording of multiple scales of neural activity, from spikes to local field potentials (LFP) and ECoG. These advances introduce the new challenge of modeling and decoding multiple scales of neural activity jointly. Such multi-scale decoding is challenging for two reasons. First, spikes are discrete-valued and ECoG/LFP are continuous-valued, resulting in fundamental differences in statistical characteristics...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269702/predicting-seizures-from-local-field-potentials-recorded-via-intracortical-microelectrode-arrays
#19
Mehdi Aghagolzadeh, Leigh R Hochberg, Sydney S Cash, Wilson Truccolo
The need for new therapeutic interventions to treat pharmacologically resistant focal epileptic seizures has led recently to the development of closed-loop systems for seizure control. Once a seizure is predicted/detected by the system, electrical stimulation is delivered to prevent seizure initiation or spread. So far, seizure prediction/detection has been limited to tracking non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) or intracranial EEG (iEEG) signals. Here, we examine seizure prediction based on local field potentials (LFPs) from a small neocortical patch recorded via a 10×10 microelectrode array implanted in a patient with focal seizures...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269554/adaptive-decoding-using-local-field-potentials-in-a-brain-machine-interface
#20
Rosa So, Camilo Libedinsky, Kai Keng Ang, Wee Chiek Clement Lim, Kyaw Kyar Toe, Cuntai Guan
Brain-machine interface (BMI) systems have the potential to restore function to people who suffer from paralysis due to a spinal cord injury. However, in order to achieve long-term use, BMI systems have to overcome two challenges - signal degeneration over time, and non-stationarity of signals. Effects of loss in spike signals over time can be mitigated by using local field potential (LFP) signals for decoding, and a solution to address the signal non-stationarity is to use adaptive methods for periodic recalibration of the decoding model...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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