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Abed Khorasani, Nargess Heydari Beni, Vahid Shalchyan, Mohammad Reza Daliri
Local field potential (LFP) signals recorded by intracortical microelectrodes implanted in primary motor cortex can be used as a high informative input for decoding of motor functions. Recent studies show that different kinematic parameters such as position and velocity can be inferred from multiple LFP signals as precisely as spiking activities, however, continuous decoding of the force magnitude from the LFP signals in freely moving animals has remained an open problem. Here, we trained three rats to press a force sensor for getting a drop of water as a reward...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Peng Jiang, Zhixin Hu, Jun Liu, Shanen Yu, Feng Wu
Big sensor data provide significant potential for chemical fault diagnosis, which involves the baseline values of security, stability and reliability in chemical processes. A deep neural network (DNN) with novel active learning for inducing chemical fault diagnosis is presented in this study. It is a method using large amount of chemical sensor data, which is a combination of deep learning and active learning criterion to target the difficulty of consecutive fault diagnosis. DNN with deep architectures, instead of shallow ones, could be developed through deep learning to learn a suitable feature representation from raw sensor data in an unsupervised manner using stacked denoising auto-encoder (SDAE) and work through a layer-by-layer successive learning process...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
Yu-Hong Cheng, Yue Zhang, Siu-Leung Chau, Samuel Kin-Man Lai, Ho-Wai Tang, Kwan-Ming Ng
Metal alloy nanoparticles (NPs) offer a new combination of unique physicochemical properties based on their pure counterparts, which can facilitate the development of novel analytical methods. Here, we demonstrated that Ag-Au alloy NPs could be utilized for optical and mass spectrometric imaging of latent fingerprints (LFPs) with improved image contrast, stability, and detection sensitivity. Upon deposition of Ag-Au alloy NPs (Ag:Au = 60:40% wt), ridge regions of the LFP became amber-coloured, while the groove regions appeared purple-blue...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Samuel A Neymotin, Zoe N Talbot, Jeeyune Q Jung, André A Fenton, William W Lytton
BACKGROUND: Correlated neuronal activity in the brain is hypothesized to contribute to information representation, and is important for gauging brain dynamics in health and disease. Due to high dimensional neural datasets, it is difficult to study temporal variations in correlation structure. NEW METHOD: We developed a multiscale method, Population Coordination (PCo), to assess neural population structure in multiunit single neuron ensemble and multi-site local field potential (LFP) recordings...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
F Vallone, E Vannini, A Cintio, M Caleo, A Di Garbo
Epilepsy is characterized by substantial network rearrangements leading to spontaneous seizures and little is known on how an epileptogenic focus impacts on neural activity in the contralateral hemisphere. Here, we used a model of unilateral epilepsy induced by injection of the synaptic blocker tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Local field potential (LFP) signals were simultaneously recorded from both hemispheres of each mouse in acute phase (peak of toxin action) and chronic condition (completion of TeNT effects)...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, Ilknur Telkes, Ashwin Viswanathan, Nuri F Ince
Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging treatment strategy for severe, medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). Thalamic (Cm-Pf) and pallidal (including globus pallidus interna, GPi) targets have been the most investigated. While the neurophysiological correlates of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN) are increasingly recognized, these patterns are not well characterized in other disease states. Recent findings indicate that the cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between beta band and high frequency oscillations (HFOs) within the STN in PD patients is pathologic...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Mahadi Shahed, Beth Jelfs, Rosa H M Chan, Ying Li
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can enhance memory and cognitive functions in both rats and humans. Studies have shown that VNS influenced decision-making in epileptic patients. However, the sites of action involved in the cognitive-enhancement are poorly understood. By employing a conscious rat model equipped with vagus nerve cuff electrode, we assess the role of chronic VNS on decision-making in rat gambling task (RGT). Simultaneous multichannel-recordings offer an ideal setup to test the hypothesis that VNS may induce alterations of in both spike-field-coherence and synchronization of theta oscillations across brain areas in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lei Zhao, Wei Wang, Weihua Hu
Various approaches have been developed to visualize latent fingerprint (LFP) for personal identification but simultaneous transfer of LFP for preservation has yet to be achieved. We herein report a novel strategy for simultaneous transfer and imaging of LFPs on a broad variety of substrates by using the interfacial separation of polydopamine (PDA) thin film, followed by electroless silver deposition. In this approach, a PDA thin film deposited on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flake is used to cover the substrate carrying LFPs and then gently peeled off...
October 11, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Maria Rubega, Roberto Fontana, Stefano Vassanelli, Giovanni Sparacino
The quantitative study of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) is a relevant issue in neuroscience. In local field potentials (LFPs), measured either in the cortex or in the hippocampus, how γ-oscillation amplitude is modulated by changes in θ-rhythms-phase is thought to be important in memory formation. Several methods were proposed to quantify CFC, but reported evidence suggests that experimental parameters affect the results. Therefore, a simulation tool to support the determination of minimal requirements for CFC estimation in order to obtain reliable results is particularly useful...
August 11, 2016: Network: Computation in Neural Systems
Manuela Rosa, Emma Scelzo, Marco Locatelli, Giorgio Carrabba, Vincenzo Levi, Mattia Arlotti, Sergio Barbieri, Paolo Rampini, Alberto Priori
OBJECTIVE: The adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) controlled by local field potentials (LFPs) is considered a promising treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The clinical research investigating aDBS functioning is currently performed using external DBS systems that require LFP recording through the temporary externalisation of DBS leads. Although research examining LFP was first undertaken more than twenty years ago, only a small number of studies concern leads' externalisation and LFP recording safety...
September 26, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Brian Kaszuba, Lucy Gee, Julia Prusik, Eric Molho, Meghan Wilock, Damian Shin, Julie G Pilitsis
OBJECTIVES: Dystonic tremor (DT) is defined as a postural/kinetic tremor occurring in the body region affected by dystonia. DT is typically characterized by focal tremors with irregular amplitudes and variable frequencies typically below 7Hz. Pharmacological treatment is generally unsuccessful and guidelines for deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting and indications are scarce. In this article, we present the outcome and neurophysiologic data of two patients with refractory, focal limb DT treated with Globus Pallidus interna (Gpi) DBS and critically review the current literature regarding surgical treatment of DT discussing stereotactic targets and treatment considerations...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Hemmings Wu, Tim Tambuyzer, Ioana Nica, Marjolijn Deprez, Kris van Kuyck, Jean-Marie Aerts, Sabine Van Huffel, Bart Nuttin
UNLABELLED: The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is implicated in anxiety and reward processing, both of which are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Specific neuronal groups in the BNST related to anxiety and reward have been identified, but quantitative data about the information carried by local field potential (LFP) signals in this area during obsession/compulsion are lacking. Here we investigate the BNST LFP in the schedule-induced polydipsia, an animal model of OCD...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Stefan Kammermeier, Damien Pittard, Ikuma Hamada, Thomas Wichmann
Deep brain stimulation of the internal globus pallidus (GPi) is a major treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease. The effects of this intervention on electrical activity patterns in targets of GPi output, specifically in the thalamus, are poorly understood. The experiments described here examined these effects using electrophysiologic recordings in two Rhesus monkeys rendered moderately parkinsonian through treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), after sampling control data in the same animals...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Yi Su, Sudhamayee Routhu, Kee S Moon, Sung Q Lee, WooSub Youm, Yusuf Ozturk
All neural information systems (NIS) rely on sensing neural activity to supply commands and control signals for computers, machines and a variety of prosthetic devices. Invasive systems achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by eliminating the volume conduction problems caused by tissue and bone. An implantable brain machine interface (BMI) using intracortical electrodes provides excellent detection of a broad range of frequency oscillatory activities through the placement of a sensor in direct contact with cortex...
2016: Sensors
Evelyn M R Lake, Paolo Bazzigaluppi, James Mester, Lynsie A M Thomason, Rafal Janik, Mary Brown, JoAnne McLaurin, Peter L Carlen, Dale Corbett, Greg J Stanisz, Bojana Stefanovic
Brain plasticity following focal cerebral ischemia has been observed in both stroke survivors and in preclinical models of stroke. Endogenous neurovascular adaptation is at present incompletely understood yet its potentiation may improve long-term functional outcome. We employed longitudinal MRI, intracranial array electrophysiology, Montoya Staircase testing, and immunofluorescence to examine function of brain vessels, neurons, and glia in addition to forelimb skilled reaching during the subacute stage of ischemic injury progression...
September 21, 2016: NeuroImage
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Xu Zhang, Xiangwei Yang, David Chun-Hei Poon, Beth Jelfs, Rosa H M Chan, Justin Che-Yuen Wu, Ying Li
There is considerable evidence to suggest early life experiences, such as maternal separation (MS), play a role in the prevalence of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairment. At the same time, optimal decision making requires functional integrity between the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and any dysfunction of this system is believed to induce decision-making deficits. However, the impact of MS on decision-making behavior and the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms have not been thoroughly studied...
September 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Bing Cao, Jun Wang, Li Mu, David Chun-Hei Poon, Ying Li
Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a key factor of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous studies have identified an enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in VH rats, which can be observed up to 7weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colonic inflammation. The induction of VH produces a change in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity at the ACC circuitry. In clinical practice, a positive link between IBS and cognitive impairments has been noted for years, but no animal model has been reported...
September 21, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Ping Wang, Geng Zhang, Zhichen Li, Wangjian Sheng, Yichi Zhang, Jiangjiang Gu, Xinsheng Zheng, Feifei Cao
Polybenzoxazine is used as a novel carbon and nitrogen source for coating LiFePO4 to obtain LiFePO4@nitrogen-doped carbon (LFP@NC) nanocomposites. The nitrogen-doped graphene-like carbon that is in situ coated on nanometer-sized LiFePO4 particles can effectively enhance the electrical conductivity and provide fast Li(+) transport paths. When used as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, the LFP@NC nanocomposite (88.4 wt % of LiFePO4) exhibits a favorable rate performance and stable cycling performance...
October 3, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Michael Bruyns-Haylett, Jingjing Luo, Aneurin J Kennerley, Sam Harris, Luke Boorman, Elizabeth Milne, Nicolas Vautrelle, Yurie Hayashi, Benjamin J Whalley, Myles Jones, Jason Berwick, Jorge Riera, Ying Zheng
It is generally recognised that event related potentials (ERPs) of electroencephalogram (EEG) primarily reflect summed post-synaptic activity of the local pyramidal neural population(s). However, it is still not understood how the positive and negative deflections (e.g. P1, N1 etc) observed in ERP recordings are related to the underlying excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic activity. We investigated the neurogenesis of P1 and N1 in ERPs by pharmacologically manipulating inhibitory post-synaptic activity in the somatosensory cortex of rodent, and concurrently recording EEG and local field potentials (LFPs)...
September 16, 2016: NeuroImage
Michael Okun
Electrophysiological data acquisition systems introduce various distortions into the signals they record. While such distortions were discussed previously, their effects are often not appreciated. Here I show that the biphasic shape of cortical spike-triggered LFP average (stLFP), reported in multiple studies, is likely an artefact introduced by high-pass filter of the neural data acquisition system when the actual stLFP has a single trough around the zero lag.
September 14, 2016: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
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