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Yael Oran, Izhar Bar-Gad
Fast spiking interneurons (FSIs) exert powerful inhibitory control over the striatum and are hypothesized to balance the massive excitatory cortical and thalamic input to this structure. We recorded neuronal activity in the dorsolateral striatum and globus pallidus (GP) concurrently with the detailed movement kinematics of freely behaving female rats prior to and following selective inhibition of FSI activity using IEM-1460 microinjections. The inhibition led to the appearance of episodic rest tremor in the body part that depended on the somatotopic location of the injection within the striatum...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Franz Hell, Paul C J Taylor, Jan H Mehrkens, Kai Bötzel
Inhibitory control is an important executive function that is necessary to suppress premature actions and to block interference from irrelevant stimuli. Current experimental studies and models highlight proactive and reactive mechanisms and claim several cortical and subcortical structures to be involved in response inhibition. However, the involved structures, network mechanisms and the behavioral relevance of the underlying neural activity remain debated. We report cortical EEG and invasive subthalamic local field potential recordings from a fully implanted sensing neurostimulator in Parkinson's patients during a stimulus- and response conflict task with and without deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
January 4, 2018: NeuroImage
Daniel Zaldivar, Jozien Goense, Scott C Lowe, Nikos K Logothetis, Stefano Panzeri
Neural oscillations are ubiquitously observed in cortical activity, and are widely believed to be crucial for mediating transmission of information across the cortex. Yet, the neural phenomena contributing to each oscillation band, and their effect on information coding and transmission, are largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether individual frequency bands specifically reflect changes in the concentrations of dopamine, an important neuromodulator, and how dopamine affects oscillatory information processing...
December 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Sara Marceglia, Manuela Rosa, Domenico Servello, Mauro Porta, Sergio Barbieri, Elena Moro, Alberto Priori
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a novel therapy for the treatment of several movement and neuropsychiatric disorders, and may also be suitable for the treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS). The main DBS targets used to date in patients with TS are located within the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit involved in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. They include the ventralis oralis/centromedian-parafascicular (Vo/CM-Pf) nucleus of the thalamus and the nucleus accumbens. Current DBS treatments deliver continuous electrical stimulation and are not designed to adapt to the patient's symptoms, thereby contributing to unwanted side effects...
December 23, 2017: Brain Sciences
Sungmin Kang, Michael Bruyns-Haylett, Yurie Hayashi, Ying Zheng
Although electroencephalography (EEG) is widely used as a non-invasive technique for recording neural activities of the brain, our understanding of the neurogenesis of EEG is still very limited. Local field potentials (LFPs) recorded via a multi-laminar microelectrode can provide a more detailed account of simultaneous neural activity across different cortical layers in the neocortex, but the technique is invasive. Combining EEG and LFP measurements in a pre-clinical model can greatly enhance understanding of the neural mechanisms involved in the generation of EEG signals, and facilitate the derivation of a more realistic and biologically accurate mathematical model of EEG...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Pierre Quartier, Amandine Baptiste, Véronique Despert, Emma Allain-Launay, Isabelle Koné-Paut, Alexandre Belot, Laurent Kodjikian, Dominique Monnet, Michel Weber, Caroline Elie, Bahram Bodaghi
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of adalimumab on uveitis in patients with early onset, chronic, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated or idiopathic anterior uveitis and an inadequate response to topical steroids and methotrexate (MTX). METHODS: Patients aged 4 years or more with ocular inflammation quantified by laser flare photometry (LFP) ≥30 photon units/ms were double-blindly randomised (1:1) to 2 groups, one treated with placebo and one with adalimumab subcutaneously at a dose of 24 mg/m2 in patients aged <13 years, 40 mg in the others, every other week...
December 23, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Yuhui Li, Chunxiu Yu, Zhe Charles Zhou, Iain Stitt, Kristin K Sellers, John H Gilmore, Flavio Frohlich
Although oscillations during development have been characterized in a wide range of neural systems, little is known about the interaction between these network oscillations and neuronal spiking, and the interactions among different oscillation frequencies. Here we recorded the spontaneous and visual-elicited local field potential (LFP) and multi-unit activity (MUA) in the visual cortex of freely-moving juvenile ferrets before and after eye-opening. We found that both the spontaneous and visually-elicited LFP power was increased after eye-opening, especially in higher frequency bands (>30 Hz)...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Brendon O Watson, Mingxin Ding, György Buzsáki
The local field potential (LFP) is an aggregate measure of group neuronal activity and is often correlated with the action potentials of single neurons. In recent years investigators have found that action potential firing rates increase during elevations in power high-frequency band oscillations (50-200 Hz range). However action potentials also contribute to the LFP signal itself, making the spike-LFP relationship complex. Here we examine the relationship between spike rates and LFPs in varying frequency bands in rat neocortical recordings...
December 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hisayuki Osanai, Shunsuke Minusa, Takashi Tateno
Magnetic stimulation is widely used in neuroscience research and clinical treatment. Despite recent progress in understanding the neural modulation mechanism of conventional magnetic stimulation methods, the physiological mechanism at the cortical microcircuit level is not well understood due to the poor stimulation focality and large electric artifact in the recording. To overcome these issues, we used a sub-millimeter-sized coil (micro-coil) to stimulate the mouse auditory cortex in vivo. To determine the mechanism, we conducted the first direct electrophysiological recording of micro-coil-driven neural responses at multiple sites on the horizontal surface and laminar areas of the auditory cortex...
December 12, 2017: Neuroscience
Michihisa Moriguchi, Takeshi Aramaki, Hideyuki Nishiofuku, Rui Sato, Koiku Asakura, Kanji Yamaguchi, Toshihiro Tanaka, Masahiro Endo, Yoshito Itoh
Objective: To investigate the validity of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with low-dose 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin (LFP) versus sorafenib as first-line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (Vp3, Vp4). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of Child-Pugh A advanced HCC with Vp3 or Vp4 treated with LFP or sorafenib between October 2002 and December 2013. Results: There were 32 patients in the LFP group and 14 patients in the sorafenib group...
November 2017: Liver Cancer
Yang Zhou, Xiaojie Wang, Tiantian Cao, Jinshan Xu, Dejuan Wang, Diego Restrepo, Anan Li
Insulin is an important peptide hormone that regulates food intake and olfactory function. While a multitude of studies investigated the effect of insulin in the olfactory bulb and olfactory epithelium, research on how it modulates higher olfactory centers is lacking. Here we investigate how insulin modulates neural activity of pyramidal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex, a key olfactory signal processing center that plays important roles in odor perception, preference learning, and odor pattern separation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Saskia Haegens, José Vergara, Román Rossi-Pool, Luis Lemus, Ranulfo Romo
Previous work on perceptual decision making in the sensorimotor system has shown population dynamics in the beta band, corresponding to the encoding of stimulus properties and the final decision outcome. Here, we asked how oscillatory dynamics in the medial premotor cortex (MPC) contribute to supramodal perceptual decision making. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes in two monkeys trained to perform a tactile-acoustic frequency discrimination task, including both unimodal and crossmodal conditions...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dominique Martinez, Maxime Clement, Belkacem Messaoudi, Damien Gervasoni, Philippe Litaudon, Nathalie Buonviso
OBJECTIVE: Modern neuroscience research asks for electrophysiological recording of local field potentials (LFPs) in moving animals. Wireless transmission has the advantage of removing the wires between the animal and the recording equipment but is hampered by the large amount of data to be sent at a relatively high rate. APPROACH: To reduce transmission bandwidth, we propose an encoder/decoder scheme based on adaptive non-uniform quantization. Our algorithm uses the current transmitted codeword to adapt the quantization intervals to changing statistics in LFP signals...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
Moein Esghaei, Mohammad Reza Daliri, Stefan Treue
Local field potentials (LFP) have been the focus of many recent studies in systems neuroscience. However, the exact neural basis of these signals remains unclear. To address this question, we determined the relationship between LFP signals and another, much better understood, signature of neural activity: action potentials. Specifically, we focused on the relationship between the amplitude of stimulus-induced LFPs and the magnitude of spiking activity in visual cortex of non-human primates. Our trial-by-trial correlation analyses between these two components of extracellular signals in macaque visual cortex show that the spike rate is coupled to the LFP amplitude with a surprisingly long latency, typically 50 ms...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pegah Afra, Sara J Hanrahan, Spencer Sterling Kellis, Paul House
The focal and network concepts of epilepsy present different aspects of electroclinical phenomenon of seizures. Here, we present a 23-year-old man undergoing surgical evaluation with left fronto-temporal electrocorticography (ECoG) and microelectrode-array (MEA) in the middle temporal gyrus (MTG). We compare action-potential (AP) and local field potentials (LFP) recorded from MEA with ECoG. Seizure onset in the mesial-temporal lobe was characterized by changes in the pattern of AP-firing without clear changes in LFP or ECoG in MTG...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Mohammad S Islam, Khondaker A Mamun, Hai Deng
Decoding neural activities related to voluntary and involuntary movements is fundamental to understanding human brain motor circuits and neuromotor disorders and can lead to the development of neuromotor prosthetic devices for neurorehabilitation. This study explores using recorded deep brain local field potentials (LFPs) for robust movement decoding of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dystonia patients. The LFP data from voluntary movement activities such as left and right hand index finger clicking were recorded from patients who underwent surgeries for implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Zahra Fatahi, Abbas Haghparast, Abbas Khani, Mojtaba Kermani
There is a growing body of evidence showing that the anterior cingulate (ACC) and the orbitofrontal (OFC) cortex are both essential for reinforcement-guided decision making. Focusing on functional connectivity approach through coherence, we studied whether communication between the ACC and OFC through neural synchronization is a necessary stage for performing value-based decision making. We used a T-maze task with a differential reward (Large vs. small reward) and cost (long vs. short waiting time) and simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFP) from the ACC and OFC...
November 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
John B Trimper, Claire R Galloway, Andrew C Jones, Kaavya Mandi, Joseph R Manns
Neuronal oscillations in the rat hippocampus relate to both memory and locomotion, raising the question of how these cognitive and behavioral correlates interact to determine the oscillatory network state of this region. Here, rats freely locomoted while performing an object-location task designed to test hippocampus-dependent spatial associative memory. Rhythmic activity in theta, beta, slow gamma, and fast gamma frequency ranges were observed in both action potentials and local field potentials (LFPs) across four main hippocampal subregions...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
Chayaporn Reakkamnuan, Dania Cheaha, Ekkasit Kumarnsit
In the past decade, neural processing has been extensively studied in cognitive neuroscience. However, neural signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) that might clarify reward process remained to be investigated. Male Swiss albino ICR mice implanted with intracranial electrodes into the NAc and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were used for morphine administration and local field potential (LFP) recording. One-way ANOVA revealed significant increases in low (30.3-44.9 Hz) and high (60.5-95.7 Hz) gamma powers in the NAc following morphine administration (5 and 15 mg/kg, i...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Melvyn H W Yap, Martyna J Grabowska, Chelsie Rohrscheib, Rhiannon Jeans, Michael Troup, Angelique C Paulk, Bart van Alphen, Paul J Shaw, Bruno van Swinderen
Sleep is a dynamic process comprising multiple stages, each associated with distinct electrophysiological properties and potentially serving different functions. While these phenomena are well described in vertebrates, it is unclear if invertebrates have distinct sleep stages. We perform local field potential (LFP) recordings on flies spontaneously sleeping, and compare their brain activity to flies induced to sleep using either genetic activation of sleep-promoting circuitry or the GABAA agonist Gaboxadol...
November 28, 2017: Nature Communications
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