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Christine E Boone, Heydar Davoudi, Jon B Harrold, David J Foster
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and single-gene cause of autism spectrum disorder. The Fmr1 null mouse models much of the human disease including hyperarousal, sensory hypersensitivity, seizure activity, and hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairment. Sleep architecture is disorganized in FXS patients, but has not been examined in Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) mice. Hippocampal neural activity during sleep, which is implicated in memory processing, also remains uninvestigated in Fmr1-KO mice...
May 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Mohamed O Amin, Metwally Madkour, Entesar Al-Hetlani
We explored the applicability of different metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs; ZnO, TiO2 , Fe2 O3 , and CeO2 ) for the optical imaging and mass spectrometric determination of small drug molecules in latent fingerprints (LFPs). Optical imaging was achieved using a dry method-simply dusting the LFPs with a minute amount of NP powder-and still images were captured using a digital microscope and a smartphone camera. Mass spectrometric determination was performed using the NPs as substrates for surface-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS), which enabled the detection of small drug molecules with high signal intensities...
May 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Haruo Toda, Keisuke Kawasaki, Sho Sato, Masao Horie, Kiyoshi Nakahara, Asim K Bepari, Hirohito Sawahata, Takafumi Suzuki, Haruo Okado, Hirohide Takebayashi, Isao Hasegawa
Propagation of oscillatory spike firing activity at specific frequencies plays an important role in distributed cortical networks. However, there is limited evidence for how such frequency-specific signals are induced or how the signal spectra of the propagating signals are modulated during across-layer (radial) and inter-areal (tangential) neuronal interactions. To directly evaluate the direction specificity of spectral changes in a spiking cortical network, we selectively photostimulated infragranular excitatory neurons in the rat primary visual cortex (V1) at a supra-threshold level with various frequencies, and recorded local field potentials (LFPs) at the infragranular stimulation site, the cortical surface site immediately above the stimulation site in V1, and cortical surface sites outside V1...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Daniel Rojas-Líbano, Jonathan Wimmer Del Solar, Marcelo Aguilar-Rivera, Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Pedro Esteban Maldonado
An important unresolved question about neural processing is the mechanism by which distant brain areas coordinate their activities and relate their local processing to global neural events. A potential candidate for the local-global integration are slow rhythms such as respiration. In this article, we asked if there are modulations of local cortical processing which are phase-locked to (peripheral) sensory-motor exploratory rhythms. We studied rats on an elevated platform where they would spontaneously display exploratory and rest behaviors...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Jennifer Strand, Crystal Stinson, Larry L Bellinger, Yuan Peng, Phillip R Kramer
Orofacial pain includes neuronal pathways that project from the trigeminal nucleus to and through the thalamus. What role the ventroposterior thalamic complex (VP) has on orofacial pain transmission is not understood. To begin to address this question an inhibitory G protein (Gi) designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD) was transfected in cells of the VP using adeno-associated virus isotype 8. Virus infected cells were identified by a fluorescent tag and immunostaining. Cells were silenced after injecting the designer drug clozapine-n-oxide, which binds the designer receptor activating Gi ...
May 12, 2018: Brain Research
Yi Wang, Ke Chen, Leanne Lai Hang Chan
To study the responsive neural activities in the primary visual cortex (V1) of retinal degeneration (RD) models, experiments involving the wild type (WT) and RD rats were conducted. The neural responses in the V1 were recorded extracellularly, while a visual stimulus with varied light intensity was given to the subjects. First, the firing rate and its relationship with light intensity were compared between the WT and RD groups. Second, the mutual information (MI) between the visual stimulus and neural response was determined for every isolated unit to quantify the amount and efficiency of information transmission in the V1 for both the control and experimental groups...
May 11, 2018: Neuroscience
Guangmei Hou, Xiaoxin Ma, Qidi Sun, Qing Ai, Xiaoyan Xu, Lina Chen, Deping Li, Jinghua Chen, Hai Zhong, Yang Li, Zhibin Xu, Pengchao Si, Jinkui Feng, Lin Zhang, Fei Ding, Lijie Ci
The electrode-electrolyte interface stability is a critical factor influencing cycle performance of All-solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs). Here, we propose a LiF&Li3N-enriched artificial solid state electrolyte interphase (SEI) protective layer on metallic Lithium (Li). The SEI layer can stabilize metallic Li anode and improve the interface compatibility at the Li anode side in ASSLBs. We also developed a Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3-poly(ethylene oxide) (LAGP-PEO) concrete structured composite solid electrolyte...
May 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lars Henning Heß, Andrea Balducci
In this work we report for the first time an investigation about the use of solvents 1,1,2,2-tetramethoxyethane, also called tetramethoxy glyoxal (TMG) and 1,1,2,2-tetraethoxyethane also called tetraethoxy glyoxal (TEG), which belong to the chemical family of carbonyl derivatives, as electrolyte components for supercapacitors (EDLCs) and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). TEG and TMG are commercial solvents displaying a good set of properties, a low toxicity and a low price. We showed that while in the case of EDLCs the use of these solvents does appear particularly appealing, their use in LIB is certainly interesting...
May 4, 2018: ChemSusChem
Stefano Ferrea, Stefan J Groiss, Saskia Elben, Christian J Hartmann, Steve B Dunnett, Anne Rosser, Carsten Saft, Alfons Schnitzler, Jan Vesper, Lars Wojtecki
BACKGROUND: Recently, therapeutic attempts to control motor choreatic hyperkinesia of Huntington's disease (HD) by means of pallidal deep brain stimulation (Gp-DBS) were successful. With respect to the clinical effects of Gp-DBS in juvenile hypokinetic-rigid HD (jHD; Westphal variant), only one single-case has been reported up to date. Oscillatory patterns of the Gp in jHD are not known. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: This work aimed to analyse pallidal local field potential oscillations (LFP) in two patients with jHD treated with Gp-DBS...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Siddhesh Salelkar, Gowri Manohari Somasekhar, Supratim Ray
Local field potential (LFP) recorded using a microelectrode reflects the activity of several neural processes, including afferent synaptic inputs, microcircuit-level computations and spiking activity. Objectively probing their contribution requires a design that allows dissociation between these potential contributors. Earlier reports have shown that the primate lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) has a higher temporal frequency (drift rate) cutoff than the primary visual cortex (V1), such that at higher drift rates, inputs into V1 from the LGN continue to persist whereas output ceases, permitting partial dissociation...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Tomislav Milekovic, Anish A Sarma, Daniel Bacher, John D Simeral, Jad Saab, Chethan Pandarinath, Brittany L Sorice, Christine Blabe, Erin M Oakley, Kathryn R Tringale, Emad Eskandar, Sydney S Cash, Jaimie M Henderson, Krishna V Shenoy, John P Donoghue, Leigh R Hochberg
Restoring communication for people with locked-in syndrome remains a challenging clinical problem without a reliable solution. Recent studies have shown that people with paralysis can use brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on intracortical spiking activity to efficiently type messages. However, due to neuronal signal instability, most intracortical BCIs have required frequent calibration and continuous assistance of skilled engineers to maintain performance. Here, an individual with locked-in syndrome due to brainstem stroke and an individual with tetraplegia secondary to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) used a simple communication BCI based on intracortical local field potentials (LFPs) for 76 and 138 days, respectively, without recalibration and without significant loss of performance...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Adriano B L Tort, Simon Ponsel, Jakob Jessberger, Yevgenij Yanovsky, Jurij Brankačk, Andreas Draguhn
Slow brain oscillations are usually coherent over long distances and thought to link distributed cell assemblies. In mice, theta (5-10 Hz) stands as one of the most studied slow rhythms. However, mice often breathe at theta frequency, and we recently reported that nasal respiration leads to local field potential (LFP) oscillations that are independent of theta. Namely, we showed respiration-coupled oscillations in the hippocampus, prelimbic cortex, and parietal cortex, suggesting that respiration could impose a global brain rhythm...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kenji Ibayashi, Naoto Kunii, Takeshi Matsuo, Yohei Ishishita, Seijiro Shimada, Kensuke Kawai, Nobuhito Saito
Restoration of speech communication for locked-in patients by means of brain computer interfaces (BCIs) is currently an important area of active research. Among the neural signals obtained from intracranial recordings, single/multi-unit activity (SUA/MUA), local field potential (LFP), and electrocorticography (ECoG) are good candidates for an input signal for BCIs. However, the question of which signal or which combination of the three signal modalities is best suited for decoding speech production remains unverified...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shunnan Ge, Xinyi Geng, Xuelian Wang, Nan Li, Lei Chen, Xinjing Zhang, Yongzhi Huang, Yang Li, Yukun Chen, Shouyan Wang, Guodong Gao
OBJECTIVES: The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to regulate the motivation and underlie addictive behaviors, and the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) is involved in several psychiatric disorders. Our study aimed to explore the functions of NAc and ALIC electrophysiologically. METHODS: The local field potentials (LFPs) of the NAc and ALIC were recorded from 7 heroin addicts treated with deep brain stimulation. Correlation analysis was made between LFP powers in various frequency bands and the subjects' neuropsychological test scores; coherence was calculated for the LFPs in NAc and ALIC...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Yan Chen, Xinyu Liu, Shan Li, Hong Wan
Recent studies indicate that the local field potential (LFP) carries information about an animal's behavior, but issues regarding whether there are any relationships between the LFP functional networks and behavior tasks as well as whether it is possible to employ LFP network features to decode the behavioral outcome in a single trial remain unresolved. In this study, we developed a network-based method to decode the behavioral outcomes in pigeons by using the functional connectivity strength values among LFPs recorded from the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL)...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Aviv D Mizrahi-Kliger, Alexander Kaplan, Zvi Israel, Hagai Bergman
Slow oscillations of neuronal activity alternating between firing and silence are a hallmark of slow-wave sleep (SWS). These oscillations reflect the default activity present in all mammalian species, and are ubiquitous to anesthesia, brain slice preparations, and neuronal cultures. In all these cases, neuronal firing is highly synchronous within local circuits, suggesting that oscillation-synchronization coupling may be a governing principle of sleep physiology regardless of anatomical connectivity. To investigate whether this principle applies to overall brain organization, we recorded the activity of individual neurons from basal ganglia (BG) structures and the thalamocortical (TC) network over 70 full nights of natural sleep in two vervet monkeys...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ivan Skelin, Scott Kilianski, Bruce L McNaughton
Memory consolidation is a gradual process through which episodic memories become incorporated into long-term 'semantic' representations. It likely involves reactivation of neural activity encoding the recent experience during non-REM sleep. A critical prerequisite for memory consolidation is precise coordination of reactivation events between the hippocampus and cortical/subcortical structures, facilitated by the coupling of local field potential (LFP) oscillations (slow oscillations, sleep spindles and sharp wave/ripples) between these structures...
April 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Simeng Zhang, Allison T Connolly, Lauren Madden, Jerrold L Vitek, Matthew D Johnson
Local field potential (LFP) recordings along a deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead can provide useful feedback for titrating DBS therapy. However, conventional DBS leads with four cylindrical macroelectrodes likely undersample the spatial distribution of sinks and sources in a given brain region. In this study, we investigated the spectral power and spatial feature sizes of LFP activity in non-human primate subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus using chronically implanted 32-channel directional DBS arrays.
 Approach: Subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus LFP signals were recorded from directional DBS arrays in the resting state and during a reach-and-retrieval task in two non-human primates in naïve and parkinsonian conditions...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Liangliang Gao, Yi Jin, Xiaofang Liu, Ming Xu, Xiaokang Lai, Jianglan Shui
High volumetric energy and power densities are crucial for Li-ion batteries, which are however hindered by the loose structure and/or insufficient conductivity of conventional electrode laminates. Herein, an efficiently conductive framework of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and graphene (G) is rationally constructed to wrap LiFePO4 (LFP) into a binder-free dense electrode by a coupling technique of spray deposition and vacuum filtration. The spray ensures a uniform mixing of LFP, G and GNRs, meanwhile the vacuum filtration leads to a dense packing of the mixture...
April 13, 2018: Nanoscale
Edgar Bermudez-Contreras, Sergey Chekhov, Jianjun Sun, Jennifer Tarnowsky, Bruce L McNaughton, Majid H Mohajerani
Simultaneous recording of optical and electrophysiological signals from multiple cortical areas may provide crucial information to expand our understanding of cortical function. However, the insertion of multiple electrodes into the brain may compromise optical imaging by both restricting the field of view and interfering with the approaches used to stabilize the specimen. Existing methods that combine electrophysiological recording and optical imaging in vivo implement either multiple surface electrodes, silicon probes, or a single electrode for deeper recordings...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
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