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Mechanical loading

Alice C Chang, Armen H Mekhdjian, Masatoshi Morimatsu, Aleksandra Kirillovna Denisin, Beth L Pruitt, Alexander R Dunn
Integrins mediate cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix and enable the construction of complex, multicellular organisms, yet fundamental aspects of integrin-based adhesion remain poorly understood. Notably, the magnitude of the mechanical load experienced by individual integrins within living cells is unclear, due principally to limitations inherent to existing techniques. Here we use FRET-based molecular tension sensors (MTSs) to directly measure the distribution of loads experienced by individual integrins in living cells...
October 25, 2016: ACS Nano
Raziye Mohammadpour, Shahrokh Safarian, Brandon Buckway, Hamidreza Ghandehari
Polymer architecture can influence biodistribution and the mode of presentation of bioactive agents to cells. Herein delivery, loading efficiency, and mode of cellular entry of polymer conjugates of the photosensitizer Meso-Tetra (4-Carboxyphenyl) Porphyrine (MTCP) are examined when attached to hyperbranched amine terminated poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer or random coil linear N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer containing free amines in the side chains. The in vitro dark cytotoxicity and phototoxicity of MTCP and related conjugates are assessed on mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and human adenocarcinoma alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells...
October 25, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
S H Chen, T M Yue, C P Tsui, K C Chan
Inheriting amorphous atomic structures without crystalline lattices, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are known to have superior mechanical properties, such as high strength approaching the ideal value, but are susceptible to catastrophic failures. Understanding the plastic-flow dynamics of BMGs is important for achieving stable plastic flow in order to avoid catastrophic failures, especially under tension, where almost all BMGs demonstrate limited plastic flow with catastrophic failure. Previous findings have shown that the plastic flow of BMGs displays critical dynamics under compression tests, however, the plastic-flow dynamics under tension are still unknown...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhen Wang, Yuzhou Deng, Genli Shen, Sadia Akram, Ning Han, Yunfa Chen, Qi Wang
A Ce-Mn composite oxide possessing a rod-like morphology (with a fixed molar ratio of Ce/Mn=3:7) was synthesized through a hydrothermal method. Mn ions were doped into a CeO2 framework to replace Ce ions, thereby increasing the concentration of oxygen vacancies. The formation energies of O vacancies for the Ce-Mn composite oxide were calculated by applying density functional theory (DFT). The data showed that it was easier to form an O vacancy in the composite. The catalytic behavior of the Ce-Mn composite oxide for benzene degradation was researched in detail, which exhibited a higher activity than the pure phases...
October 2016: ChemistryOpen
Franklin P Tamborello, J Gregory Trafton
OBJECTIVE: A computational process model could explain how the dynamic interaction of human cognitive mechanisms produces each of multiple error types. BACKGROUND: With increasing capability and complexity of technological systems, the potential severity of consequences of human error is magnified. Interruption greatly increases people's error rates, as does the presence of other information to maintain in an active state. METHOD: The model executed as a software-instantiated Monte Carlo simulation...
October 24, 2016: Human Factors
David B MacManus, Baptiste Pierrat, Jeremiah G Murphy, Michael D Gilchrist
The brain is a complex organ made up of many different functional and structural regions consisting of different types of cells such as neurons and glia, as well as complex anatomical geometries. It is hypothesized that the different regions of the brain exhibit significantly different mechanical properties which may be attributed to the diversity of cells within individual brain regions. The regional viscoelastic properties of P56 mouse brain tissue, up to 70 μm displacement, are presented and discussed in the context of traumatic brain injury, particularly how the different regions of the brain respond to mechanical loads...
October 21, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
D Maritza Contreras Gonzalez, G Spagnol, C Edvard Sverzut, A Elias Trivellato
The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical resistance of three different plates used to treat fractures of the mandibular angle: a regular 4-hole plate, a longer 4-hole plate (both positioned using the Champy technique), and a 3-dimensional plate positioned over the oblique line. Three equal groups of replicas of human dentate mandibles made out of polyurethane resin were used (n=21 in each group). The force was applied perpendicular to the occlusal plane at a rate of 2mm/minute at three different points: the first molar on the sectioned side; the first molar on the contralateral side; and between the central incisors...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Chi Ma, Fenghua Wang, Chang Zhang, Zhigang Yu, Jingjing Wei, Zhongzhu Yang, Yongqiu Li, Zihao Li, Mengying Zhu, Liuqing Shen, Guangming Zeng
The new nanophotocatalyst MgZnCr-TiO2 was prepared by co-precipitation under different molar ratio of metals (Zn:Cr) and the loaded amount of TiO2. And it was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy et al. Langmuir model fitted well the adsorption isotherm with the value of R(2) 0.9765, the maximum adsorption capacity was 526.32 mg g(-1), the adsorption followed pseudo second order kinetic by MgZnCr-TiO2 (1:1:2-0.05). The photocatalytic oxidation of Congo red was used to determine the photocatalytic performance of MgZnCr-TiO2 (1:1:2-0...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Clyde Manuel, Matthew Moore, Lee-Ann Jaykus
AIMS: Human norovirus is a major public health burden and is resistant to numerous sanitizers and disinfectants. In this study, we tested the efficacy of an antimicrobial product containing a blend of silver ions and citric acid (silver dihydrogen citrate; SDC) against GI.6 and GII.4 HuNoV. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pure(®) hard surface disinfectant (Pure Bioscience, El Cajon, CA) was evaluated using ASTM International virucidal suspension and stainless steel carrier assays...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jiangping Xu, Jun Li, Yi Yang, Ke Wang, Nan Xu, Jingyi Li, Ruijing Liang, Lei Shen, Xiaolin Xie, Juan Tao, Jintao Zhu
Although high-boiling non-solvent induced macrophase separation in emulsion droplets has been widely applied for the fabrication of polymeric capsules, precise control of their structures remains a great challenge. Herein, block copolymer capsules with tunable shell structures were fabricated by employing a non-solvent as a liquid template in emulsion droplets. The properties of the non-solvents dictate the phase separation sequence in the droplets and the capsule formation mechanism. Two different pathways for capsule formation were observed, and could be applied to predict the shell structure...
October 24, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Ezgi Yalçıntaş, Andreas C Scheinost, Xavier Gaona, Marcus Altmaier
The mechanisms for the reduction and uptake of Tc by magnetite (Fe3O4) and mackinawite (FeS) are investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS), in combination with thermodynamic calculations of the Tc/Fe systems and accurate characterization of the solution properties (pHm, pe, [Tc]). Batch sorption experiments were performed under strictly anoxic conditions using freshly prepared magnetite and mackinawite in 0.1 M NaCl solutions with varying initial Tc(vii) concentrations (2 × 10(-5) and 2 × 10(-4) M) and Tc loadings (400-900 ppm)...
October 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Shaoling Jiang, Hanchang He, Lishan Tan, Liangliang Wang, Zhengxiu Su, Yufeng Liu, Hongguo Zhu, Menghuan Zhang, Fan Fan Hou, Aiqing Li
Salt plays an essential role in the progression of chronic kidney disease and hypertension. However, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of salt-induced kidney damage remain largely unknown. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats, that underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx, a model of advanced kidney damage) or sham operation, were treated for 2 weeks with a normal or high-salt diet. We employed aTiO2 enrichment, iTRAQ labeling and liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry strategy for proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of the renal cortex...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Baomei Zhang, Yang Wang, Jiyong Liu, Guangxi Zhai
Graphene-based nanomaterials have drawn abundant interest in various fields such as biomedicine in recent years, thanks to their unique physico-chemical properties. Due to the ultra-high surface area of single-layered graphene, higher molecular loading is obtained. In addition, easy modifications are acquired because of its ample oxygen-content functional groups. Based on the above talking advantages, graphene-based nanomaterials have been widely explored as novel nano-vectors for disease theranostics. In this article, we give a comprehensive review about graphene-based nanomaterials, including introduction about different members of graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs), various modifications, toxicity and biomedical applications of graphene-based derivatives...
October 19, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Jayeeta Bhattacharjee, Suman Das, Ravi K Kottalanka, Tarun K Panda
The hydroamination of heterocumulenes such as carbodiimides, isocyanates, and isothiocyanates by a bis(phosphinoselenoic amide) supported titanium(iv) complex as a precatalyst is reported here. The titanium(iv) complex [{Ph2P(Se)NCH2CH2NPPh2(Se)}Ti(NMe2)2] (1) was synthesised by the reaction of tetrakis-(dimethylamido)titanium(iv) [Ti(NMe2)4] with [{Ph2P(Se)NHCH2CH2NHPPh2(Se)}] in toluene at ambient temperature. Titanium complex 1 proved to be a competent pre-catalyst for the addition of an amine N-H bond to carbodiimides, isocyanates, and isothiocyanates...
October 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Hong-Jie Peng, Dai-Wei Wang, Jia-Qi Huang, Xin-Bing Cheng, Zhe Yuan, Fei Wei, Qiang Zhang
Owing to the conversion chemistry of the sulfur cathode, the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries exhibit high theoretical energy density. However, the intrinsic mobile redox centers during the sulfur/Li2S-to-lithium polysulfides solid-to-liquid phase transition induce low sulfur utilization and poor cycling life. Herein, the Janus separator of mesoporous cellular graphene framework (CGF)/polypropylene membrane to promote the utilization of sulfur cathode is introduced. The porous polypropylene membrane serves as an insulating substrate in contact with lithium anode while CGFs that possess high electrical conductivity of 100 S cm(-1), a large mesopore volume of 3...
January 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Namrita Lall, Vivek Kumar, Debra Meyer, Nomasomi Gasa, Chris Hamilton, Motlalepula Matsabisa, Carel Oosthuizen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Natal gwarri or Natal ebony (Euclea natalensis A.DC.) is a deciduous tree found widespread throughout southern Africa, especially in Kwazulu-Natal and the southern cost. It has been widely used by indigenous communities such as the Zulus, Tsongas and Vendas for symptoms related to tuberculosis (TB). The decoctions made from the plant parts are administered for chest diseases to treat complications such as chest pains, bronchitis, pleurisy and asthma...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Xueyuan Gu, Jinyu Xie, Xiaorong Wang, Les J Evans
Due to its mobility and toxicity, chromate [Cr(VI)] partitioning in soils, especially in the vadose zone, is an important environmental concern. The aim of this study was to develop a mechanism-based multi-surface complexation model using published parameters to predict the soil/water partitioning of Cr(VI) in 12 soils (previously depleted of organic matter) from China. The retention of Cr(VI) in soils was attributed to two reactive oxide surfaces: goethite and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO); however, modeling results showed that the best prediction was obtained with goethite alone, whereas the addition of HFO resulted in an overestimation of adsorption in some soils...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Alex Hayes, Katrina Easton, Pavan Teja Devanaboyina, Jian-Ping Wu, Thomas Brett Kirk, David Lloyd
BACKGROUND: The cross-sectional area (CSA) of a material is used to calculate stress under load. The mechanical behaviour of soft tissue is of clinical interest in the management of injury; however, measuring CSA of soft tissue is challenging as samples are geometrically irregular and may deform during measurement. This study presents a simple method, using structured light scanning (SLS), to acquire a 3D model of rabbit Achilles tendon in vitro for measuring CSA of a tendon. METHOD: The Artec Spider™ 3D scanner uses structured light and stereophotogrammetry technologies to acquire shape data and reconstruct a 3D model of an object...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Sunil Rajoriya, Swapnil Bargole, Virendra Kumar Saharan
In the present study, decolorization and mineralization of a cationic dye, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G), has been carried out using hydrodynamic cavitation (HC). Two cavitating devices such as slit and circular venturi were used to generate cavitation in HC reactor. The process parameters such as initial dye concentration, solution pH, operating inlet pressure, and cavitation number were investigated in detail to evaluate their effects on the decolorization efficiency of Rh6G. Decolorization of Rh6G was marginally higher in the case of slit venturi as compared to circular venturi...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
M Xiao, Y M Chen, M N Biao, X D Zhang, B C Yang
Bio-functionalization means to endow biomaterials with bio-functions so as to make the materials or devices more suitable for biomedical applications. Traditionally, because of the excellent mechanical properties, the biomedical metals have been widely used in clinic. However, the utilized functions are basically supporting or fixation especially for the implantable devices. Nowadays, some new functions, including bioactivity, anti-tumor, anti-microbial, and so on, are introduced to biomedical metals. To realize those bio-functions on the metallic biomedical materials, surface modification is the most commonly used method...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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