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Mechanical loading

A Sundaramurthy, M Skotak, E Alay, G Unnikrishnan, H Mao, X Duan, S T Williams, T H Harding, N Chandra, J Reifman
It is unclear whether combat eyewear used by U. S. Service members is protective against blast overpressures (BOPs) caused by explosive devices. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which BOP bypasses eyewear and increases eye surface pressure. We performed experiments and developed three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of a head form (HF) equipped with an advanced combat helmet (ACH) and with no eyewear, spectacles, or goggles in a shock tube at three BOPs and five head orientations relative to the blast wave...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Viviana Sampayo-Escobar, Ryan Green, Michael B Cheung, Raminder Bedi, Subhra Mohapatra, Shyam S Mohapatra
The molecular mechanisms underlying susceptibility to severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remain poorly understood. Herein, we report on the role of osteopontin (OPN) in regulation of RSV infection in human epithelial cells and how interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), a cytokine secreted soon after RSV infection, when persistently expressed can induce OPN expression leading to increased viral infection. We first compared OPN expression in two human epithelial cell lines: HEK-293 and HEp-2. In contrast to HEp-2, HEK-293 expresses low levels of pro-caspase-1 resulting in decreased IL-1β expression in response to RSV infection...
2018: PloS One
M Azari, A V Le, M Lübken, M Denecke
A mathematical model for a granular biofilm reactor for leachate treatment was validated by long-term measured data to investigate the mechanisms and drivers influencing biological nitrogen removal and microbial consortia dynamics. The proposed model, based on Activated Sludge Model (ASM1), included anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), nitrifying and heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria which can attach and grow on granular activated carbon (GAC) particles. Two kinetic descriptions for the model were proposed: with and without soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS)...
April 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Lejing Li, Lothar Wondraczek, Lihua Li, Yu Zhang, Ye Zhu, Mingying Peng, Chuanbin Mao
Mechanoluminescent (ML) materials are mechano-optical converters that can emit light under an external mechanical stimulus. All the existing ML materials can only emit light from near ultraviolet to red, which is outside the near-infrared (NIR) windows desired for biomechanical imaging. No studies have been done on doping rare earth (RE) ions with photoluminescence (PL) in the NIR region into a compound to form a ML material that emits NIR light in response to an external force. Here, we show that doping RE ions with a NIR PL into an inorganic compound does not usually result in the formation of a NIR ML material, which can only be achieved in the combination of Nd3+ ions and a CaZnOS compound among the combinations we studied...
April 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Richard Gordan, Suwakon Wongjaikam, Judith K Gwathmey, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Lai-Hua Xie
Iron overload cardiomyopathy (IOC) is a major cause of death in patients with diseases associated with chronic anemia such as thalassemia or sickle cell disease after chronic blood transfusions. Associated with iron overload conditions, there is excess free iron that enters cardiomyocytes through both L- and T-type calcium channels thereby resulting in increased reactive oxygen species being generated via Haber-Weiss and Fenton reactions. It is thought that an increase in reactive oxygen species contributes to high morbidity and mortality rates...
April 19, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Xiaoyu Liang, Jianwei Duan, Xuanling Li, Xiaowei Zhu, Youlu Chen, Xiaoli Wang, Hongfan Sun, Deling Kong, Chen Li, Jing Yang
Subunit vaccines that are designed based on recombinant antigens or peptides have shown promising potential as viable substitutes for traditional vaccines due to their better safety and specificity. However, the induction of adequate in vivo immune responses with appropriate effectiveness remains a major challenge for vaccine development. More recently, the implementation of a nanoparticle-based antigen delivery system has been considered a promising approach to improve the in vivo efficacy for subunit vaccine development...
April 20, 2018: Nanoscale
Mingtao Tao, Keming Xu, Suyun He, Hongmei Li, Li Zhang, Xuefang Luo, Wenying Zhong
A novel forky peptide was designed and synthesized. The peptide self-assembled into supramolecular hydrogels triggered by zinc ions (ZIs). The hydrogels were designed for a drug delivery system (DDS), loaded with docetaxel and applied for the therapy of prostate cancer. In this research, we have discussed the response mechanism and evaluated the anticancer effect of the DDS.
April 20, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Andréa Dolores Correia Miranda Valdivia, Monise de Paula Rodrigues, Aline Aredes Bicalho, Bart Van Meerbeek, Jos Vander Sloten, Roberto Sales E Pessoa, Carlos José Soares
PURPOSE: To evaluate the biomechanics of endodontically treated incisors restored with a fiberglass post and a CAD/CAM lithium-disilicate ceramic crown with/without a ferrule after thermal and mechanical aging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty bovine incisors were divided into two groups (n = 10): 1. Fe, with a ferrule of 2 mm, and 2. NFe, without a ferrule. After endodontic treatment, the teeth were restored using a fiberglass post (Exacto 3, Angelus) and composite core (Tetric Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
Hareklea Markides, Jane S McLaren, Neil D Telling, Noura Alom, E'atelaf A Al-Mutheffer, Richard O C Oreffo, Andrew Zannettino, Brigitte E Scammell, Lisa J White, Alicia J El Haj
The role of biomechanical stimuli, or mechanotransduction, in normal bone homeostasis and repair is understood to facilitate effective osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. Mechanotransduction has been integrated into a multitude of in vitro bone tissue engineering strategies and provides an effective means of controlling cell behaviour towards therapeutic outcomes. However, the delivery of mechanical stimuli to exogenous MSC populations, post implantation, poses a significant translational hurdle...
2018: NPJ Regenerative Medicine
Shundong Guan, Xiuli Fu, Yu Zhang, Zhijian Peng
Co-catalysis is regarded as a promising strategy to improve the hydrogen evolution performance of semiconductor-based photocatalysts. But developing a simple and effective technique to achieve the optimal synergy between co-catalysts and host photocatalysts has been a great challenge. Herein, hybrid photocatalysts consisting of β-NiS modified CdS nanowires (NiS/CdS NWs) have been synthesized via a simple and green hydrothermal route using CdS NWs as the template from thiourea and nickel acetate in the presence of sodium hypophosphite...
February 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Gary J Brouhard, Luke M Rice
Microtubules are dynamic polymers of αβ-tubulin that are essential for intracellular organization, organelle trafficking and chromosome segregation. Microtubule growth and shrinkage occur via addition and loss of αβ-tubulin subunits, which are biochemical processes. Dynamic microtubules can also engage in mechanical processes, such as exerting forces by pushing or pulling against a load. Recent advances at the intersection of biochemistry and mechanics have revealed the existence of multiple conformations of αβ-tubulin subunits and their central role in dictating the mechanisms of microtubule dynamics and force generation...
April 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Arun K Sharma, Jacek Krzeminski, Volkmar Weissig, John P Hegarty, David B Stewart
Conventional antibiotics for C. difficile infection (CDI) have mechanisms of action without organismal specificity, potentially perpetuating the dysbiosis contributing to CDI, making antisense approaches an attractive alternative. Here, three (APDE-8, CODE-9, and CYDE-21) novel cationic amphiphilic bolaamphiphiles (CABs) were synthesized and tested for their ability to form nano-sized vesicles or vesicle-like aggregates (CABVs), which were characterized based on their physiochemical properties, their antibacterial activities, and their toxicity toward colonocyte (Caco-2) cell cultures...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
Jéssica T Andrade, Felipe R S Santos, William G Lima, Carla D F Sousa, Lohanna S F M Oliveira, Rosy I M A Ribeiro, Ana J P S Gomes, Marcelo G F Araújo, José A F P Villar, Jaqueline M S Ferreira
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) affects millions of women around the world every year. Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated pathogen in women and its rapid ability to develop resistance to first and second line therapies has boosted the search for new and effective antifungal agents. In this study, we show the in vitro anti-Candida activity of fifteen synthetic chalcone analogs and their antifungal potential in an in vivo model of VVC. Chalcone 12 showed potent antifungal effects, being able to inhibit the growth of Candida spp...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
Heide Klumpp, Kerry L Kinney, Amy E Kennedy, Stewart A Shankman, Scott A Langenecker, Anand Kumar, K Luan Phan
Accumulating data suggest attentional control capability varies across psychiatric diagnostic boundaries. The Attentional Control Scale (ACS) assesses self-reported trait attentional control (TAC) and tracks the anterior attention system. Greater TAC is associated with less negative affect, however, its mechanisms in anxiety and depression are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined whether individual differences in TAC modulated top-down mechanisms in a clinical sample. During fMRI, 104 patients with social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and/or major depression and 34 healthy participants completed a validated attentional control paradigm comprising strings of letters superimposed on threatening and neutral face distractors...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Najib Ben Messaoud, Mariana Emilia Ghica, Cherif Dridi, Mounir Ben Ali, Christopher M A Brett
A novel and simple biosensor for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) based on xanthine oxidase (XOD) enzymatic inhibition has been developed. The biosensor was prepared from xanthine oxidase immobilised by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde, with hypoxanthine as enzyme substrate, and was successfully applied to the determination of BPA using fixed potential amperometry. Biosensor performance was optimised with respect to the applied potential, influence of pH of the electrolyte solution, XOD loading and the substrate concentration...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Gina Prado-Prone, Phaedra Silva-Bermudez, Argelia Almaguer-Flores, Jorge A García-Macedo, Victor I García, Sandra E Rodil, Clemente Ibarra, Cristina Velasquillo
ZnO and Zn acetate nanoparticles were embedded in polycaprolactone coaxial-fibers and uniaxial-fibers matrices to develop potential antibacterial nanocomposite wound dressings. Morphology, composition, wettability, crystallinity and fiber structure of mats were characterized. Antibacterial properties of mats were tested against E. coli and S. aureus by turbidity and MTT assays. The effect of UVA illumination (prior to bacteria inoculation) on mats' antibacterial activity was also studied. Results showed that a coaxial-fibers design maintained nanoparticles distributed in the outer shell of fibers and, in general, enhanced the antibacterial effect of the mats, in comparison to conventional uniaxial-fibers mats...
April 16, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Ryan T Lewinson, Ryan Madden, Anthony Killick, John W Wannop, J Preston Wiley, Victor M Y Lun, Chirag Patel, Jeremy M LaMothe, Darren J Stefanyshyn
The relationship between static foot structure characteristics and knee joint biomechanics during walking, or the biomechanical response to wedged insoles are currently unknown. In this study, 3D foot scanning, dual X-ray absorptiometry and gait analysis methods were used to determine structural parameters of the foot and assess their relation to knee joint loading and biomechanical response to wedged insoles in 30 patients with knee osteoarthritis. In multiple linear regression models, foot fat content, height of the medial longitudinal arch and static hind foot angle were not associated with the magnitude of the knee adduction moment (R2  = 0...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Zhixia Huo, Qianhong Wan, Lei Chen
Polymethylsilsesquioxanes (PMSQ) are potentially useful materials for liquid chromatography owing to their unique chemical, electrical and mechanical properties. Surprisingly however, no systematic studies on the use of spherical PMSQ particles as chromatographic packing have been reported. Accordingly, we present a comprehensive study aimed to characterize the chromatographic properties of this material in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and to compare them with those observed on methyl (C1 ) bonded silica phase under comparable conditions...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ruili Wang, Eric Habib, X X Zhu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the packing properties of uniform silica particles and their mixture with secondary particles yielding maximally loaded dental composites. We intend to verify the difference between the idealized models (the close-packed structures and the random-packed structures) and the actual experimental results, in order to provide guidance for the preparation of dental composites. The influence of secondary particle size and the resin composition on the physical-mechanical properties and the rheological properties of the experimental dental composites was also investigated...
April 16, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Xianqin Zeng, Rong Guo, Mei Dong, Julia Zheng, Huili Lin, Huixia Lu
BACKGROUND: Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a typical character of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), is related to atherogenesis. However, the role of IH on atherosclerosis (AS) progression and the mechanisms involved remains poorly understood. METHODS: In the present study, high-fat fed ApoE-/- mice were treated with recombinant shRNA-TLR4 lentivirus and exposed to IH. Atherosclerotic lesions on the en face aorta and cross-sections of aortic root were examined by Oil-Red O staining...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
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