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Mechanical loading

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822068/polyethylene-damage-increases-with-varus-implant-alignment-in-posterior-stabilized-and-constrained-condylar-knee-arthroplasty
#1
Zhichang Li, Christina I Esposito, Chelsea N Koch, Yuo-Yu Lee, Douglas E Padgett, Timothy M Wright
BACKGROUND: Implant malalignment in primary TKA has been reported to increase stresses placed on the bearing surfaces of implant components. We used a longitudinally maintained registry coupled with an implant retrieval program to consider whether preoperative, postoperative, or prerevision malalignment was associated with increased risk of revision surgery after TKA. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the relative polyethylene damage on medial and lateral compartments of the tibial plateaus from revised TKAs? (2) Does coronal TKA alignment affect implant performance, such that TKAs aligned in varus are predisposed to experience increased polyethylene damage? (3) Does TKA alignment differ between postoperative and prerevision radiographs, and if so, what does this difference suggest about the mechanical contact load placed on a knee with a TKA? METHODS: Between 2007 and 2012, we performed 18,065 primary TKAs at our institution...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822042/implementation-of-a-big-data-accessing-and-processing-platform-for-medical-records-in-cloud
#2
Chao-Tung Yang, Jung-Chun Liu, Shuo-Tsung Chen, Hsin-Wen Lu
Big Data analysis has become a key factor of being innovative and competitive. Along with population growth worldwide and the trend aging of population in developed countries, the rate of the national medical care usage has been increasing. Due to the fact that individual medical data are usually scattered in different institutions and their data formats are varied, to integrate those data that continue increasing is challenging. In order to have scalable load capacity for these data platforms, we must build them in good platform architecture...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821971/multiscale-mechanics-of-the-cervical-facet-capsular-ligament-with-particular-emphasis-on-anomalous-fiber-realignment-prior-to-tissue-failure
#3
Sijia Zhang, Vahhab Zarei, Beth A Winkelstein, Victor H Barocas
The facet capsular ligaments encapsulate the bilateral spinal facet joints and are common sources of painful injury due to afferent innervation. These ligaments exhibit architectural complexity, which is suspected to contribute to the experimentally observed lack of co-localization between macroscopic strain and microstructural tissue damage. The heterogeneous and multiscale nature of this ligament, combined with challenges in experimentally measuring its microscale mechanics, hinders the ability to understand sensory mechanisms under normal or injurious loading...
August 18, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821883/synthesis-of-pincer-type-extractants-for-selective-extraction-of-palladium-from-pgms-an-improved-liquid-liquid-extraction-approach-to-current-refining-processes
#4
Muniyappan Rajiv Gandhi, Manabu Yamada, Kazutoshi Haga, Atsushi Shibayama
SCS pincer ligands 1-4 were synthesised, and their ability to extract Pd(II) from HCl and HNO3 media was studied. The Pd(II) extraction properties of 1-4 were compared with those of commercial extractants (DOS and LIX(®)84-I) in kerosene. 1 and 2 showed superior Pd(II) extractability (E% = 99.9) relative to DOS and LIX(®)84-I from 0.1-8.0 M HCl and to DOS from 0.1-8.0 M HNO3 and mixed HCl + HNO3 media. The Pd(II) extraction rate, acid durability, the most suitable organic/aqueous (O/A) phase ratio, and Pd(II) loading capacity of extractants 1, 2, and DOS were evaluated...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821629/effects-of-spaceflight-on-the-muscles-of-the-murine-shoulder
#5
Hua Shen, Chanteak Lim, Andrea G Schwartz, Alexander Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alix C Deymier, Stavros Thomopoulos
Mechanical loading is necessary for the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Removal of loading via microgravity, paralysis, or bed rest leads to rapid loss of muscle mass and function; however, the molecular mechanisms that lead to these changes are largely unknown, particularly for the spaceflight (SF) microgravity environment. Furthermore, few studies have explored these effects on the shoulder, a dynamically stabilized joint with a large range of motion; therefore, we examined the effects of microgravity on mouse shoulder muscles for the 15-d Space Transportation System (STS)-131, 13-d STS-135, and 30-d Bion-M1 missions...
August 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821620/arjunolic-acid-a-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-agonist-regresses-cardiac-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-non-canonical-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#6
Trisha Bansal, Emeli Chatterjee, Jasdeep Singh, Arjun Ray, Bishwajit Kundu, V Thankamani, Shantanu Sengupta, Sagartirtha Sarkar
Cardiac hypertrophy and associated heart fibrosis remain a major cause of death worldwide. Phytochemicals have gained attention as alternative therapeutics for managing cardiovascular diseases. These include the extract from the plant Terminalia arjuna which is a popular cardioprotectant and may prevent or slow progression of pathological hypertrophy to heart failure. Here, we investigated the mode of action of a principal bioactive T. arjuna compound, arjunolic acid (AA) in ameliorating hemodynamic load-induced cardiac fibrosis and identified its intracellular target...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821432/effect-of-micro-strain-stress-on-proliferation-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-vitro-by-the-mapk-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#7
Bin Zhao, Zhihu Zhao, Xiaolei Sun, Yang Zhang, Yue Guo, Peng Tian, Jianxiong Ma, Xinlong Ma
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of micro strain stress on the proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells in vitro by the MAPK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, we report the effect of micro strain stress on proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vitro by loading different types of micro strain stress on EPCs. We also explore the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon. RESULTS: The results of flow cytometry show that appropriate micro strain stress can promote EPC proliferation...
August 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821114/preparation-and-characterization-of-a-composite-biomaterial-including-starch-micro-nano-particles-loaded-chitosan-gel
#8
Dorsa Dehghan Baniani, Reza Bagheri, Atefeh Solouk
Thermosensitive Chitosan hydrogels which can be injected into defects with minimally invasive approach were prepared. Also starch micro/nano particles were synthesized via water-in-oil (W/O) miniemulsion technique. The starch particles were incorporated into the chitosan hydrogel to prepare injectable thermosensitive hydrogel composites. Tube inverting method, compression tests, swelling studies, XRD, SEM, OM, DLS, UV-vis spectroscopy were used for investigations. Results revealed that increasing crosslinker and surfactant contents and stirring rate leads to particle size reduction...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821029/effect-of-gum-arabic-modified-alginate-on-physicochemical-properties-release-kinetics-and-storage-stability-of-liquid-core-hydrogel-beads
#9
Fu-Hsuan Tsai, Yutaka Kitamura, Mito Kokawa
Different weight ratios of alginate/gum arabic (GA) solutions were prepared to serve as the wall material of liquid-core hydrogel beads (LHB) that were formulated to protect the total phenolic compounds (TP) of radish by-product juice from degradation during storage and release in simulated gastrointestinal fluid. The diameter of LHB ranged from 4.63 to 5.66mm with a sphericity lower than 0.05. LHB formulated with 25% GA (AGB0.25) exhibited the highest hardness (26.63N), and those formulated with 50% GA (AGB0...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819809/effect-of-synthetic-and-natural-derived-novel-endodontic-irrigant-solutions-on-mechanical-properties-of-human-dentin
#10
Doglas Cecchin, Vitória Soares Giaretta, Bérove Granella Cadorin, Matheus Albino Souza, Cristina de Mattos Pimenta Vidal, Ana Paula Farina
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different synthetic and natural-derived root canal irrigants (6% sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl], 6% calcium hypochlorite [Ca(OCl)2] and 6.5% grape seed extract [GSE]) on dentin mechanical properties (flexural strength, ultimate tensile strength [UTS] and fracture resistance). Rectangular-shaped beams and hourglass-shaped sections obtained from mid-coronal and root dentin were treated with 6% NaOCl, 6% Ca(OCl)2 or 6.5% GSE for 30 min. The irrigant solutions were replaced every 5 min...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819697/mechanistic-understanding-of-crystal-violet-dye-sorption-by-woody-biochar-implications-for-wastewater-treatment
#11
Awanthi Wathukarage, Indika Herath, M C M Iqbal, Meththika Vithanage
Dye-based industries, particularly small and medium scale, discharge their effluents into waterways without treatment due to cost considerations. We investigated the use of biochars produced from the woody tree Gliricidia sepium at 300 °C (GBC300) and 500 °C (GBC500) in the laboratory and at 700 °C from a dendro bioenergy industry (GBC700), to evaluate their potential for sorption of crystal violet (CV) dye. Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of pH reaction time and CV loading on the adsorption process...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819168/resistance-training-regulates-gene-expression-of-molecules-associated-with-intramyocellular-lipids-glucose-signaling-and-fiber-size-in-old-rats
#12
Manoel Benício Teixeira Ribeiro, Vinicius Guzzoni, Jeffrey M Hord, Gisele Nunes Lopes, Rita de Cássia Marqueti, Rosângela Vieira de Andrade, Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre-de-Araujo, João Luiz Q Durigan
Sarcopenia is a complex multifactorial process, some of which involves fat infiltration. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation is postulated to play a role on sarcopenia during aging, which is believed to be due alterations in glucose homeostasis in the skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia, along with intramuscular lipids, is associated with physical inactivity. Resistance training (RT) has been indicated to minimize the age-induced muscle skeletal adaptations. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of RT on mRNA levels of regulatory components related to intramyocellular lipid, glucose metabolism and fiber size in soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of aged rats...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818948/vinculin-forms-a-directionally-asymmetric-catch-bond-with-f-actin
#13
Derek L Huang, Nicolas A Bax, Craig D Buckley, William I Weis, Alexander R Dunn
Vinculin is an actin-binding protein thought to reinforce cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. However, how mechanical load affects the vinculin-F-actin bond is unclear. Using a single-molecule optical trap assay, we found that vinculin forms a force-dependent catch bond with F-actin through its tail domain, but with lifetimes that depend strongly on the direction of the applied force. Force toward the pointed (-) end of the actin filament resulted in a bond that was maximally stable at 8 piconewtons, with a mean lifetime (12 seconds) 10 times as long as the mean lifetime when force was applied toward the barbed (+) end...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818798/advances-towards-understanding-and-engineering-direct-interspecies-electron-transfer-in-anaerobic-digestion
#14
REVIEW
Sajib Barua, Bipro Ranjan Dhar
Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) is a recently discovered microbial syntrophy where cell-to-cell electron transfer occurs between syntrophic microbial species. DIET between bacteria and methanogenic archaea in anaerobic digestion can accelerate the syntrophic conversion of various reduced organic compounds to methane. DIET-based syntrophy can naturally occur in some anaerobic digester via conductive pili, however, can be engineered via the addition of various non-biological conductive materials...
August 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818692/suppression-of-irrelevant-sounds-during-auditory-working-memory
#15
Jyrki Ahveninen, Larry J Seidman, Wei-Tang Chang, Matti Hämäläinen, Samantha Huang
Auditory working memory (WM) processing in everyday acoustic environments depends on our ability to maintain relevant information online in our minds, and to suppress interference caused by competing incoming stimuli. A challenge in communication settings is that the relevant content and irrelevant inputs may emanate from a common source, such as a talkative conversationalist. An open question is how the WM system deals with such interference. Will the distracters become inadvertently filtered before processing for meaning because the primary WM operations deplete all available processing resources? Or are they suppressed post perceptually, through an active control process? We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring magnetoencephalography (MEG), EEG, and functional MRI (fMRI) during a phonetic auditory continuous performance task...
August 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817976/an-open-source-model-and-solution-method-to-predict-co-contraction-in-the-finger
#16
Alexander R MacIntosh, Peter J Keir
A novel open-source biomechanical model of the index finger with an electromyography (EMG)-constrained static optimization solution method are developed with the goal of improving co-contraction estimates and providing means to assess tendon tension distribution through the finger. The Intrinsic model has four degrees of freedom and seven muscles (with a 14 component extensor mechanism). A novel plugin developed for the OpenSim modelling software applied the EMG-constrained static optimization solution method...
August 17, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817384/engineering-the-mechanical-and-biological-properties-of-nanofibrous-vascular-grafts-for-in-situ-vascular-tissue-engineering
#17
Jeffrey J D Henry, Jian Yu, Aijun Wang, Randall Lee, Jun Fang, Song Li
Synthetic small diameter vascular grafts have a high failure rate, and endothelialization is critical for preventing thrombosis and graft occlusion. A promising approach is in situ tissue engineering, whereby an acellular scaffold is implanted and provides stimulatory cues to guide the in situ remodeling into a functional blood vessel. An ideal scaffold should have sufficient binding sites for biomolecule immobilization and a mechanical property similar to native tissue. Here we developed a novel method to blend low molecular weight (LMW) elastic polymer during electrospinning process to increase conjugation sites and to improve the mechanical property of vascular grafts...
August 17, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817244/key-developments-that-impacted-the-field-of-mechanobiology-and-mechanotransduction
#18
Michelle Wall, David Butler, Alicia El Haj, Josephine C Bodle, Elizabeth G Loboa, Albert J Banes
Advances in mechanobiology have evolved through insights from multiple disciplines including structural engineering, biomechanics, vascular biology, and orthopaedics. In this paper, we reviewed the impact of key reports related to the study of applied loads on tissues and cells and the resulting signal transduction pathways. We addressed how technology has helped advance the burgeoning field of mechanobiology (over 33,600 publications from 1970-2016). We analyzed the impact of critical ideas and then determined how these concepts influenced the mechanobiology field by looking at the citation frequency of these reports as well as tracking how the overall number of citations within the field changed over time...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816907/a-little-bit-of-immobilization-goes-a-long-way-commentary-on-an-article-by-christopher-l-camp-md-et-al-timing-of-postoperative-mechanical-loading-affects-healing-following-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-analysis-in-a-murine-model
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816898/timing-of-postoperative-mechanical-loading-affects-healing-following-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-analysis-in-a-murine-model
#20
Christopher L Camp, Amir Lebaschi, Guang-Ting Cong, Zoe Album, Camila Carballo, Xiang-Hua Deng, Scott A Rodeo
BACKGROUND: Following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, the mechanical loading of the tissues has a significant impact on tendon-to-bone healing. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the timing of the initiation of mechanical loading on healing of a tendon graft in a bone tunnel. METHODS: ACL reconstruction using a flexor tendon autograft was performed in 56 mice randomized to 4 groups with differing times to initiation of postoperative mechanical loading: (1) immediate, (2) 5 days, (3) 10 days, or (4) 21 days following surgery...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
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