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Leukocyte rich

Richard T Amison, Shirin Jamshidi, Khondaker M Rahman, Clive P Page, Simon C Pitchford
Platelet P2Y1 receptor signaling via RhoGTPases is necessary for platelet-dependent leukocyte recruitment, where no platelet aggregation is observed. We investigated signaling cascades involved in distinct P2Y1 -dependent platelet activities in vitro, using specific inhibitors for phospholipase C (PLC) (U73122, to inhibit the canonical pathway), and RhoGTPases: Rac1 (NSC23766) and RhoA (ROCK inhibitor GSK429286). Human platelet rich plasma (for platelet aggregation) or isolated washed platelets (for chemotaxis assays) was treated with U73122, GSK429286 or NSC23766 prior to stimulation with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or the P2Y1 specific agonist MRS2365...
March 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Hee Kyoung Joo, Sunga Choi, Yu Ran Lee, Eun Ok Lee, Myoung Soo Park, Kyu Been Park, Cuk-Seong Kim, Yong Pyo Lim, Jong-Tae Park, Byeong Hwa Jeon
Anthocyanins, the most prevalent flavonoids in red/purple fruits and vegetables, are known to improve immune responses and reduce chronic disease risks. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activities of an anthocyanin-rich extract from red Chinese cabbage (ArCC) were shown based on its inhibitory effects in cultured endothelial cells and hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E -deficient mice. ArCC treatment suppressed monocyte adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated endothelial cells. This was validated by ArCC's ability to downregulate the expression and transcription of endothelial adhesion molecules, determined by immunoblot and luciferase promoter assays, respectively...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nastaran Meschi, Steffen Fieuws, Anke Vanhoenacker, Olaf Strijbos, Dominique Van der Veken, Constantinus Politis, Paul Lambrechts
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the adjunct of leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF) to root-end surgery (RES) on the patients' quality of life during the first week post RES. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients in need of RES were recruited for an open randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) with a 2 × 2 factorial design. They were randomly allocated to the test (+LPRF) and control (-LPRF) group. Each group was subsequently divided into two strata: with or without an occlusive membrane (Bio-Gide®, Geistlich Biomaterials, Switzerland; BG)...
March 9, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Sandra Huber, Tulin Karagenc, Dominic Ritler, Sven Rottenberg, Kerry Woods
Theileria annulata is an apicomplexan parasite that modifies the phenotype of its host cell completely, inducing uncontrolled proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and increased invasiveness. The infected cell thus resembles a cancer cell, and changes to various host cell signaling pathways accompany transformation. Most of the molecular mechanisms leading to Theileria-induced immortalization of leukocytes remain unknown. The parasite dissolves the surrounding host cell membrane soon after invasion and starts interacting with host proteins, ensuring its propagation by stably associating with the host cell microtubule network...
March 8, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Alica Kubesch, Mike Barbeck, Sarah Al-Maawi, Anna Orlowska, Patrick F Booms, Robert A Sader, Richard J Miron, Charles J Kirkpatrick, Joseph Choukroun, Shahram Ghanaati
Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is generated from the patients' own venous blood by a single centrifugation step without the additional use of anticoagulants. Based on the previously described LSCC (low-speed centrifugation concept), our group showed that modification of the centrifugation setting, that is, reducing the relative centrifugal force (RCF) and mildly increasing the centrifugation time, resulted in modified solid and liquid PRF-matrices with increased number of platelets, leukocytes, and growth factors' concentrations...
March 6, 2018: Platelets
Gagandeep Kaur, Prathyusha Bagam, Rakeysha Pinkston, Dhirendra P Singh, Sanjay Batra
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, life-threatening disease that causes irreversible lung damage. Cigarette smoking is the chief etiologic factor for the commencement of this condition. Despite constant efforts to develop therapeutic interventions and to ascertain the molecular mechanism leading to the pathophysiology of this disease, much remains unknown. However, pattern recognition receptor (PRRs), i.e., Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are believed to play important roles in this disease and could serve as effective therapeutic targets...
February 28, 2018: Toxicology
Pieter T J Johnson, Dana M Calhoun, Amber N Stokes, Calvin B Susbilla, Travis McDevitt-Galles, Cheryl J Briggs, Jason T Hoverman, Vasyl V Tkach, Jacobus C de Roode
1.Classical research on animal toxicity has focused on the role of toxins in protection against predators, but recent studies suggest these same compounds can offer a powerful defense against parasites and infectious diseases. 2.Newts in the genus Taricha are brightly colored and contain the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX), which is hypothesized to have evolved as a defense against vertebrate predators such as garter snakes. However, newt populations often vary dramatically in toxicity, which is only partially explained by predation pressure...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Gustavo Da Dos Santos Pinto, Suzane Cristina Pigossi, Tércio Pessoa, Lélis Gustavo Nícoli, Raphael Ferreira de Souza Bezerra Araújo, Cláudio Marcantonio, Elcio Marcantonio
PURPOSE: The aim of this case report was to demonstrate the repair of a large sinus membrane perforation related to a sinus floor augmentation procedure, using leukocyte platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF), for subsequent rehabilitation of a partially edentulous patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patient presented the absence of teeth numbers 18, 17, and 16, associated with insufficient bone height because of the maxillary sinus pneumatization. A maxillary inlay bone graft was proposed, however, during the sinus floor augmentation procedure, a large portion of the sinus membrane was ruptured...
February 16, 2018: Implant Dentistry
Lisa Baumann Kreuziger, Mark S Slaughter, Kartik Sundareswaran, Alan E Mast
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) thrombosis is a devastating complication that occurs in about 10% of patients despite anticoagulation and antiplatelet treatment. How the thrombus initiates and propagates is unknown. We pathologically and immunohistochemically examined 28 thrombi removed from 17 HeartMate II LVADs. Two groups of thrombi were found: those formed in the inlet/outlet and those on the rotor. The four thrombi found at the inlet (three inlet conduit and one inlet tube) and outlet (three at outlet elbow and one outlet graft) appeared similar and were composed of a loose meshwork of fibrin(ogen), von Willebrand factor, leukocytes, and aggregated platelets...
February 15, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Elton Carlos Pichotano, Rafael Scaf de Molon, Luiz Guilherme Freitas de Paula, Ricardo Violante de Souza, Elcio Marcantonio, Daniela Leal Zandim-Barcelos
This case report aimed to describe the effects of leukocyte and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) associated with deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) and absorbable collagen membrane (CM) on bone regeneration in maxillary sinus augmentation. A 59-year-old male patient was referred to the Department of Periodontology for implant rehabilitation of his edentulous upper jaw. The treatment plan involved maxillary sinus augmentation followed by implants installation. A split-mouth design was employed, in which the right maxillary sinus was filled using L-PRF, DBBM, and CM; the left side was filled with DBBM and CM...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Oral Implantology
Raquel Herrero, Gema Sanchez, Jose Angel Lorente
Appearance of alveolar protein-rich edema is an early event in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Alveolar edema in ARDS results from a significant increase in the permeability of the alveolar epithelial barrier, and represents one of the main factors that contribute to the hypoxemia in these patients. Damage of the alveolar epithelium is considered a major mechanism responsible for the increased pulmonary permeability, which results in edema fluid containing high concentrations of extravasated macromolecules in the alveoli...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Michael D Charles, David R Christian, Brian J Cole
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to establish the foundation of the major biologic adjuvants to rotator cuff repairs and review recent scientific findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) overall has no significant impact on functional outcomes and repair integrity, but may be more advantageous in small to medium tears. Further studies should focus on leukocyte-rich versus poor preparations and the use of PRP in patients that are high risk for repair failure...
February 7, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Forrest H Nielsen
Animal studies have shown that magnesium deficiency induces an inflammatory response that results in leukocyte and macrophage activation, release of inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins, and excessive production of free radicals. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that the primary mechanism through which magnesium deficiency has this effect is through increasing cellular Ca2+, which is the signal that results in the priming of cells to give the inflammatory response. Primary pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1; the messenger cytokine IL-6; cytokine responders E-selectin, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; and acute-phase reactants C-reactive protein and fibrinogen have been determined to associate magnesium deficiency with chronic low-grade inflammation (inflammatory stress)...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Mark Bishara, Gregori M Kurtzman, Waji Khan, Joseph Choukroun, Richard J Miron
Immediate implant placement often presents challenges in terms of predictably obtaining soft-tissue coverage over the implant site. While delayed implant placement offers the ability for soft tissues to grow and invade the extraction socket making their attachment around implants more predictable, immediate implant placement poses a significant risk of bacterial invasion towards the implant surface as a result of insignificant soft-tissue volume. Soft-tissue grafting techniques have often been proposed for use during immediate implant placement to augment soft-tissue deficiencies, including the use of either palatal connective tissue grafts (CTGs) or collagen-derived scaffolds...
February 2018: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Jeffrey Kroon, Antje Schaefer, Jos van Rijssel, Mark Hoogenboezem, Floris van Alphen, Peter Hordijk, Erik S G Stroes, Staffan Strömblad, Jacco van Rheenen, Jaap D van Buul
Leukocyte transendothelial migration is key to inflammation. Leukocytes first start rolling over the inflamed endothelium, followed by firmly adhering to it. Under inflammatory conditions, endothelial cells express small finger-like protrusions that stick out into the lumen. The function and regulation of these structures are unclear. We present evidence that these ICAM-1- and F-actin-rich endothelial finger-like protrusions are filopodia and function as adhesive structures for leukocytes to transit from rolling to crawling but are dispensable for diapedesis...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Dah-Ching Ding, Tang-Yuan Chu, Hwan-Wun Liu
Designated for cyclic shedding, the endometrial stroma is rich in endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) and may play an important role in the development of endometrial carcinoma (EC). This study characterized the crosstalk of EC cells with EMSCs and the resultant effects on malignant phenotypes. The cultured EMSCs expressed CD73, CD90, and CD105, but not CD14, CD19, CD34, CD45, or human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related markers. These EMSCs also showed osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation ability...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Chuchun L Chang, Itsaso Garcia-Arcos, Rakel Nyrén, Gunilla Olivecrona, Ji Young Kim, Yunying Hu, Rishi R Agrawal, Andrew J Murphy, Ira J Goldberg, Richard J Deckelbaum
OBJECTIVE: Tissue macrophages induce and perpetuate proinflammatory responses, thereby promoting metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein lipase (LpL), the rate-limiting enzyme in blood triglyceride catabolism, is expressed by macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques. We questioned whether LpL, which is also expressed in the bone marrow (BM), affects circulating white blood cells and BM proliferation and modulates macrophage retention within the artery. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We characterized blood and tissue leukocytes and inflammatory molecules in transgenic LpL knockout mice rescued from lethal hypertriglyceridemia within 18 hours of life by muscle-specific LpL expression (MCKL0 mice)...
January 25, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Jeffrey Kroon, Antje Schaefer, Mark Hoogenboezem, Floris Van Alphen, Peter Hordijk, Staffan Strömblad, Kees Hoeben, Jacco Van Rhenen, Erik Stroes, Jaap Van Buul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
Alyssa J Rolfe, Dale B Bosco, Erynn N Broussard, Yi Ren
Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) are mature leukocytes that serve a critical physiological role as professional phagocytes capable of clearing a variety of particles. Normally, BMDMs are restricted from the central nervous system (CNS), but following an injury, they can readily infiltrate. Once within the injured CNS tissue, BMDMs are the primary cell type responsible for the clearance of injury-derived cellular debris, including large quantities of lipid rich myelin debris. The neuropathological ramifications of BMDM infiltration and myelin debris phagocytosis within the CNS are complex and not well understood...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Eric J Miller, Edgars Jecs, Valarie M Truax, Brooke M Katzman, Yesim A Tahirovic, Robert J Wilson, Katie M Kuo, Michelle B Kim, Huy H Nguyen, Manohar T Saindane, Huanyu Zhao, Tao Wang, Chi S Sum, Mary Ellen Cvijic, Gretchen M Schroeder, Lawrence J Wilson, Dennis C Liotta
CXCR4 is a 7-transmembrane receptor expressed by hematopoietic stem cells and progeny, as well as by ≥ 48 different cancers types. CXCL12, the only chemokine ligand of CXCR4, is secreted within the tumor microenvironment, providing sanctuary for CXCR4+ tumor cells from immune surveillance and chemotherapeutic elimination by 1) stimulating pro-survival signaling and 2) recruiting CXCR4+ immunosuppressive leukocytes. Additionally, distant CXCL12-rich niches attract and support CXCR4+ metastatic growths. Accordingly, CXCR4 antagonists can potentially obstruct CXCR4-mediated pro-survival signaling, recondition the CXCR4+ leukocyte infiltrate from immunosuppressive to immunoreactive, and inhibit CXCR4+ cancer cell metastasis...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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