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Induced pluripotent stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227370/detection-and-localization-of-mouse-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-formation-using-time-lapse-fluorescence-microscopy-images
#1
Yuan-Hsiang Chang, Hideo Yokota, Kuniya Abe, Jung Hsien Liu, Ming-Dar Tsai, Yuan-Hsiang Chang, Hideo Yokota, Kuniya Abe, Jung Hsien Liu, Ming-Dar Tsai, Yuan-Hsiang Chang, Kuniya Abe, Ming-Dar Tsai, Hideo Yokota, Jung Hsien Liu
We present an automated method for detection and localization of mouse Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells formation by using the fluorescence microscopy images. The differentiated cells that possibly undergo reprogramming to iPS cells can be detected by this method for screening reagents or culture conditions in iPS induction. Our method includes image preprocessing to enhance the fluorescence microscopy images, followed by cell detection to detect isolated fluorescent (reprogramming or reprogrammed iPS) cells...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224997/clonal-reversal-of-ageing-associated-stem-cell-lineage-bias-via-a-pluripotent-intermediate
#2
Martin Wahlestedt, Eva Erlandsson, Trine Kristiansen, Rong Lu, Cord Brakebusch, Irving L Weissman, Joan Yuan, Javier Martin-Gonzalez, David Bryder
Ageing associates with significant alterations in somatic/adult stem cells and therapies to counteract these might have profound benefits for health. In the blood, haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) ageing is linked to several functional shortcomings. However, besides the recent realization that individual HSCs might be preset differentially already from young age, HSCs might also age asynchronously. Evaluating the prospects for HSC rejuvenation therefore ultimately requires approaching those HSCs that are functionally affected by age...
February 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223521/nondestructive-nanostraw-intracellular-sampling-for-longitudinal-cell-monitoring
#3
Yuhong Cao, Martin Hjort, Haodong Chen, Fikri Birey, Sergio A Leal-Ortiz, Crystal M Han, Juan G Santiago, Sergiu P Paşca, Joseph C Wu, Nicholas A Melosh
Here, we report a method for time-resolved, longitudinal extraction and quantitative measurement of intracellular proteins and mRNA from a variety of cell types. Cytosolic contents were repeatedly sampled from the same cell or population of cells for more than 5 d through a cell-culture substrate, incorporating hollow 150-nm-diameter nanostraws (NS) within a defined sampling region. Once extracted, the cellular contents were analyzed with conventional methods, including fluorescence, enzymatic assays (ELISA), and quantitative real-time PCR...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223401/transcriptome-analyses-of-rhesus-monkey-pre-implantation-embryos-reveal-a-reduced-capacity-for-dna-double-strand-break-repair-in-primate-oocytes-and-early-embryos
#4
Xinyi Wang, Denghui Liu, Dajian He, Shengbo Suo, Xian Xia, Xiechao He, Jing-Dong Han, Ping Zheng
Pre-implantation embryogenesis encompasses several critical events including genome reprogramming, zygotic genome activation (ZGA), and cell fate commitment, most of which remain mechanistically unclear in primates. In addition, primates display a high rate of embryo wastage without any clear molecular basis. Understanding the factors involved in genome reprogramming and ZGA will help the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency. Moreover, explaining the molecular basis responsible for embryo wastage in primates will greatly expand our knowledge of species evolution...
February 21, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223228/drug-discovery-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-models-of-neurodegenerative-and-ocular-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Sandy S C Hung, Shahnaz Khan, Camden Y Lo, Alex W Hewitt, Raymond C B Wong
The revolution of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology provides a platform for development of cell therapy, disease modeling and drug discovery. Recent technological advances now allow us to reprogram a patient's somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Together with methods to differentiate these iPSCs into the disease-relevant cell types, we are now able to model disease in vitro using iPSCs. Importantly, this represents a robust in vitro platform using patient-specific cells, providing opportunity for personalized precision medicine...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223123/proarrhythmia-liability-assessment-and-the-comprehensive-in-vitro-proarrhythmia-assay-cipa-an-industry-survey-on-current-practice
#6
Simon Authier, Michael K Pugsley, John E Koerner, Bernard Fermini, William S Redfern, Jean-Pierre Valentin, Hugo M Vargas, Derek J Leishman, Krystle Correll, Michael J Curtis
INTRODUCTION: The Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) has conducted a survey of its membership to identify industry practices related to testing considered in the Comprehensive In vitro Proarrhythmia Assay (CiPA). METHODS: Survey topics included nonclinical approaches to address proarrhythmia issues, conduct of in silico studies, in vitro ion channel testing methods used, drugs used as positive controls during the conduct of cardiac ion channel studies, types of arrhythmias observed in non-clinical studies and use of the anticipated CiPA ion channel assay...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220862/induction-of-hair-follicle-dermal-papilla-cell-properties-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-multipotent-lngfr-thy-1-mesenchymal-cells
#7
Ophelia Veraitch, Yo Mabuchi, Yumi Matsuzaki, Takashi Sasaki, Hironobu Okuno, Aki Tsukashima, Masayuki Amagai, Hideyuki Okano, Manabu Ohyama
The dermal papilla (DP) is a specialised mesenchymal component of the hair follicle (HF) that plays key roles in HF morphogenesis and regeneration. Current technical difficulties in preparing trichogenic human DP cells could be overcome by the use of highly proliferative and plastic human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this study, hiPSCs were differentiated into induced mesenchymal cells (iMCs) with a bone marrow stromal cell phenotype. A highly proliferative and plastic LNGFR(+)THY-1(+) subset of iMCs was subsequently programmed using retinoic acid and DP cell activating culture medium to acquire DP properties...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220575/generation-of-storable-retinal-organoids-and-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-from-adherent-human-ips-cells-in-xeno-free-and-feeder-free-conditions
#8
Sacha Reichman, Amélie Slembrouck, Giuliana Gagliardi, Antoine Chaffiol, Angélique Terray, Céline Nanteau, Anais Potey, Morgane Belle, Oriane Rabesandratana, Jens Duebel, Gael Orieux, Emeline F Nandrot, José-Alain Sahel, Olivier Goureau
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are potentially useful in regenerative therapies for retinal disease. For medical applications, therapeutic retinal cells, such as retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells or photoreceptor precursors, must be generated under completely defined conditions. To this purpose, we have developed a two-step xeno-free/feeder-free (XF/FF) culture system to efficiently differentiate hiPSCs into retinal cells. This simple method, relies only on adherent hiPSCs cultured in chemically defined media, bypassing embryoid body formation...
February 20, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220464/perspectives-and-challenges-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-cardiac-arrhythmia-research
#9
REVIEW
Alexander Goedel, Ilaria My, Daniel Sinnecker, Alessandra Moretti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The promises of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for modeling arrhythmogenic disease, but also for drug discovery and toxicity tests, are straightforward and exciting. However, the full potential of this new technology has not been fully realized yet. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art research in arrhythmogenic disease modeling and drug discovery and an outlook of what can be expected from the second decade of hiPSC-based arrhythmia research...
March 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219898/sk4-k-channels-are-therapeutic-targets-for-the-treatment-of-cardiac-arrhythmias
#10
Shiraz Haron-Khun, David Weisbrod, Hanna Bueno, Dor Yadin, Joachim Behar, Asher Peretz, Ofer Binah, Edith Hochhauser, Michael Eldar, Yael Yaniv, Michael Arad, Bernard Attali
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a stress-provoked ventricular arrhythmia, which also manifests sinoatrial node (SAN) dysfunction. We recently showed that SK4 calcium-activated potassium channels are important for automaticity of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells. Here SK4 channels were identified in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from healthy and CPVT2 patients bearing a mutation in calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2-D307H) and in SAN cells from WT and CASQ2-D307H knock-in (KI) mice...
February 20, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219570/living-donor-lung-transplantation-after-bone-marrow-transplantation-for-chediak-higashi-syndrome
#11
Tetsu Yamada, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Shigeharu Oh, Rieko Ito-Taniguchi, Fumiaki Gochi, Masaaki Sato, Akihiro Aoyama, Hiroshi Date
An 8-year-old girl with Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) had pulmonary complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and eventually underwent single living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT). Electron micrographic findings showed vagus nerve tissue in extracted lung having granular inclusions, which are pathognomonic for CHS. Because her mother was the donor for both hematopoietic stem cell and lung transplantations, she was weaned from immunosuppression and is doing well 3 years after lung transplantation...
March 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219395/efficient-precise-knockin-with-a-double-cut-hdr-donor-after-crispr-cas9-mediated-double-stranded-dna-cleavage
#12
Jian-Ping Zhang, Xiao-Lan Li, Guo-Hua Li, Wanqiu Chen, Cameron Arakaki, Gary D Botimer, David Baylink, Lu Zhang, Wei Wen, Ya-Wen Fu, Jing Xu, Noah Chun, Weiping Yuan, Tao Cheng, Xiao-Bing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Precise genome editing via homology-directed repair (HDR) after double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) cleavage facilitates functional genomic research and holds promise for gene therapy. However, HDR efficiency remains low in some cell types, including some of great research and clinical interest, such as human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). RESULTS: Here, we show that a double cut HDR donor, which is flanked by single guide RNA (sgRNA)-PAM sequences and is released after CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage, increases HDR efficiency by twofold to fivefold relative to circular plasmid donors at one genomic locus in 293 T cells and two distinct genomic loci in iPSCs...
February 20, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219287/overview-of-the-moral-status-of-ips-cells
#13
Andreia Martins Martinho
The production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 by Takahashi and Yamanaka was a major breakthrough in stem cell research. IPS cells technology holds great promise for cell therapy, disease modelling, and drug testing, but it poses ethical questions concerning the moral status of somatic cells, which can re-gain pluripotency (iPS cells). This article provides an overview of the arguments that substantiate the debate on the moral assessment of iPS cells: potentiality argument; relational properties/standard view; and genetic basis for moral status...
July 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218286/vinculin-variant-m94i-identified-in-sudden-unexplained-nocturnal-death-syndrome-decreases-cardiac-sodium-current
#14
Jianding Cheng, John W Kyle, Brandi Wiedmeyer, Di Lang, Ravi Vaidyanathan, Jonathan C Makielski
Sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) remains an autopsy negative disorder with unclear etiology. Vinculin (VCL) was linked to sudden arrhythmia death in VCL knockout mice prior to the appearance of cardiomyopathy. We hypothesized VCL mutations underlie risk for SUNDS. A rare heterozygous variant VCL-M94I was found in a SUNDS victim who suffered sudden nocturnal tachypnea and lacked pathogenic variants in known arrhythmia-causing genes. VCL was identified to interact with SCN5A in vitro/vivo. The VCL-M94I was co-expressed with the cardiac sodium channel in HEK293 cells and also overexpressed in induced pluripotent stem cells derived cardiomyocytes (iPSCs-CM)...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217689/multiple-roles-of-myc-in-integrating-regulatory-networks-of-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
REVIEW
Luca Fagnocchi, Alessio Zippo
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are defined by their self-renewal potential, which permits their unlimited propagation, and their pluripotency, being able to generate cell of the three embryonic lineages. These properties render PSCs a valuable tool for both basic and medical research. To induce and stabilize the pluripotent state, complex circuitries involving signaling pathways, transcription regulators and epigenetic mechanisms converge on a core transcriptional regulatory network of PSCs, thus determining their cell identity...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216299/hipsc-derived-retinal-ganglion-cells-grow-dendritic-arbors-and-functional-axons-on-a-tissue-engineered-scaffold
#16
Kangjun Li, Xiufeng Zhong, Sijing Yang, Ziming Luo, Kang Li, Ying Liu, Song Cai, Huaiyu Gu, Shoutao Lu, Haijun Zhang, Yantao Wei, Jing Zhuang, Yehong Zhuo, Zhigang Fan, Jian Ge
: Numerous therapeutic procedures in modern medical research rely on the use of tissue engineering for the treatment of retinal diseases. However, the cell source and the transplantation method are still a limitation. Previously, we reported on the induction of a self-organizing three-dimensional neural retina from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this study, we disclose the generation of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from the neural retina and their seeding on a biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) scaffold to create an engineered RGC-scaffold biomaterial...
February 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216146/divergent-levels-of-marker-chromosomes-in-an-hipsc-based-model-of%C3%A2-psychosis
#17
Julia Tcw, Claudia M B Carvalho, Bo Yuan, Shen Gu, Alyssa N Altheimer, Shane McCarthy, Dheeraj Malhotra, Jonathan Sebat, Arthur J Siegel, Uwe Rudolph, James R Lupski, Deborah L Levy, Kristen J Brennand
In the process of generating presumably clonal human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from two carriers of a complex structural rearrangement, each having a psychotic disorder, we also serendipitously generated isogenic non-carrier control hiPSCs, finding that the rearrangement occurs as an extrachromosomal marker (mar) element. All confirmed carrier hiPSCs and differentiated neural progenitor cell lines were found to be mosaic. We caution that mar elements may be difficult to functionally evaluate in hiPSC cultures using currently available methods, as it is difficult to distinguish cells with and without mar elements in live mosaic cultures...
February 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216144/patient-ipsc-derived-neurons-for-disease-modeling-of-frontotemporal-dementia-with-mutation-in-chmp2b
#18
Yu Zhang, Benjamin Schmid, Nanett K Nikolaisen, Mikkel A Rasmussen, Blanca I Aldana, Mikkel Agger, Kirstine Calloe, Tina C Stummann, Hjalte M Larsen, Troels T Nielsen, Jinrong Huang, Fengping Xu, Xin Liu, Lars Bolund, Morten Meyer, Lasse K Bak, Helle S Waagepetersen, Yonglun Luo, Jørgen E Nielsen, Bjørn Holst, Christian Clausen, Poul Hyttel, Kristine K Freude
The truncated mutant form of the charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) is causative for frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). CHMP2B is a constituent of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) and, when mutated, disrupts endosome-to-lysosome trafficking and substrate degradation. To understand the underlying molecular pathology, FTD3 patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were differentiated into forebrain-type cortical neurons. FTD3 neurons exhibited abnormal endosomes, as previously shown in patients...
February 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215825/stage-specific-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-map-the-progression-of-myeloid-transformation-to-transplantable-leukemia
#19
Andriana G Kotini, Chan-Jung Chang, Arthur Chow, Han Yuan, Tzu-Chieh Ho, Tiansu Wang, Shailee Vora, Alexander Solovyov, Chrystel Husser, Malgorzata Olszewska, Julie Teruya-Feldstein, Deepak Perumal, Virginia M Klimek, Alexandros Spyridonidis, Raajit K Rampal, Lewis Silverman, E Premkumar Reddy, Elli Papaemmanuil, Samir Parekh, Benjamin D Greenbaum, Christina S Leslie, Michael G Kharas, Eirini P Papapetrou
Myeloid malignancy is increasingly viewed as a disease spectrum, comprising hematopoietic disorders that extend across a phenotypic continuum ranging from clonal hematopoiesis to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we derived a collection of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines capturing a range of disease stages encompassing preleukemia, low-risk MDS, high-risk MDS, and secondary AML. Upon their differentiation, we found hematopoietic phenotypes of graded severity and/or stage specificity that together delineate a phenotypic roadmap of disease progression culminating in serially transplantable leukemia...
February 13, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215634/isolation-and-expansion-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-hepatic-progenitor-cells-by-growth-factor-defined-serum-free-culture-conditions
#20
Takayuki Fukuda, Kazuo Takayama, Mitsuhi Hirata, Yu-Jung Liu, Kana Yanagihara, Mika Suga, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Miho K Furue
Limited growth potential, narrow ranges of sources, and difference in variability and functions from batch to batch of primary hepatocytes cause a problem for predicting drug-induced hepatotoxicity during drug development. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived hepatocyte-like cells in vitro are expected as a tool for predicting drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Several studies have already reported efficient methods for differentiating hPSCs into hepatocyte-like cells, however its differentiation process is time-consuming, labor-intensive, cost-intensive, and unstable...
February 16, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
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