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Induced pluripotent stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031235/homeobox-genes-and-tooth-development-understanding-the-biological-pathways-and-applications-in-regenerative-dental-science
#1
REVIEW
Anand Ramanathan, Thekkeparambil Chandrabose Srijaya, Prema Sukumaran, Rosnah Binti Zain, Noor Hayaty Abu Kasim
OBJECTIVES: Homeobox genes are a group of conserved class of transcription factors that function as key regulators during the embryonic developmental processes. They act as master regulator for developmental genes, which involves coordinated actions of various auto and cross-regulatory mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the expression pattern of homeobox genes in relation to the tooth development and various signaling pathways or molecules contributing to the specific actions of these genes in the regulation of odontogenesis...
October 4, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028833/merkel-cell-polyomavirus-recruits-mycl-to-the-ep400-complex-to-promote-oncogenesis
#2
Jingwei Cheng, Donglim Esther Park, Christian Berrios, Elizabeth A White, Reety Arora, Rosa Yoon, Timothy Branigan, Tengfei Xiao, Thomas Westerling, Alexander Federation, Rhamy Zeid, Benjamin Strober, Selene K Swanson, Laurence Florens, James E Bradner, Myles Brown, Peter M Howley, Megha Padi, Michael P Washburn, James A DeCaprio
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) frequently contains integrated copies of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA that express a truncated form of Large T antigen (LT) and an intact Small T antigen (ST). While LT binds RB and inactivates its tumor suppressor function, it is less clear how ST contributes to MCC tumorigenesis. Here we show that ST binds specifically to the MYC homolog MYCL (L-MYC) and recruits it to the 15-component EP400 histone acetyltransferase and chromatin remodeling complex. We performed a large-scale immunoprecipitation for ST and identified co-precipitating proteins by mass spectrometry...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027750/a-simple-and-robust-method-for-culturing-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-an-undifferentiated-state-using-botulinum-haemagglutinin
#3
Mee-Hae Kim, Yoshifumi Matsubara, Yukako Fujinaga, Masahiro Kino-Oka
Clinical and industrial applications of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been hindered by the lack of robust culture strategies capable of sustaining a culture in an undifferentiated state. Here, we developed a simple and robust hiPSC-culture-propagation strategy incorporating botulinum haemagglutinin (HA)-mediated selective removal of cells deviating from an undifferentiated state. After HA treatment, cell-cell adhesion was disrupted, and deviated cells detached from the central region of the colony to subsequently form tight monolayer colonies following prolonged incubation...
October 13, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027744/concise-review-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-models-for-neuropsychiatric-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Abidemi Adegbola, Luke A Bury, Chen Fu, Meixiang Zhang, Anthony Wynshaw-Boris
The major neuropsychiatric conditions of schizophrenia, affective disorders, and infantile autism are characterized by chronic symptoms of episodic, stable, or progressive nature that result in significant morbidity. Symptomatic treatments are the mainstay but do not resolve the underlying disease processes, which are themselves poorly understood. The prototype psychotropic drugs are of variable efficacy, with therapeutic mechanisms of action that are still uncertain. Thus, neuropsychiatric disorders are ripe for new technologies and approaches with the potential to revolutionize mechanistic understanding and drive the development of novel targeted treatments...
October 13, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027123/pluripotent-stem-cells-secrete-activin-a-to-improve-their%C3%A2-epiblast-competency-after-injection-into-recipient-embryos
#5
Jinzhu Xiang, Suying Cao, Liang Zhong, Hanning Wang, Yangli Pei, Qingqing Wei, Bingqiang Wen, Haiyuan Mu, Shaopeng Zhang, Liang Yue, Genhua Yue, Bing Lim, Jianyong Han
It is not fully clear why there is a higher contribution of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to the chimera produced by injection of PSCs into 4-cell or 8-cell stage embryos compared with blastocyst injection. Here, we show that not only embryonic stem cells (ESCs) but also induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can generate F0 nearly 100% donor cell-derived mice by 4-cell stage embryo injection, and the approach has a "dose effect". Through an analysis of the PSC-secreted proteins, Activin A was found to impede epiblast (EPI) lineage development while promoting trophectoderm (TE) differentiation, resulting in replacement of the EPI lineage of host embryos with PSCs...
October 12, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026098/hla-and-histo-blood-group-antigen-expression-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-their-derivatives
#6
Karin Säljö, Angela Barone, Johan Mölne, Lennart Rydberg, Susann Teneberg, Michael E Breimer
One prerequisite for a successful clinical outcome of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) based therapies is immune compatibility between grafted cells/tissue and recipient. This study explores immune determinants of human embryonic stem cell lines (hESC) and induced human pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines and hepatocyte- and cardiomyocyte-like cells derived from these cells. HLA class I was expressed on all pluripotent hPSC lines which upon differentiation into hepatocyte-like cells was considerably reduced in contrast to cardiomyocyte-like cells which retained class I antigens...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025705/differentiation-evaluation-and-application-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-endothelial-cells
#7
REVIEW
Yang Lin, Chang-Hyun Gil, Mervin C Yoder
The emergence of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology paves the way to generate large numbers of patient-specific endothelial cells (ECs) that can be potentially delivered for regenerative medicine in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the last decade, numerous protocols that differentiate EC from iPSC have been developed by many groups. In this review, we will discuss several common strategies that have been optimized for human iPSC-EC differentiation and subsequent studies that have evaluated the potential of human iPSC-EC as a cell therapy or as a tool in disease modeling...
October 12, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025676/a-simple-and-efficient-feeder-free-culture-system-to-up-scale-ipscs-on-polymeric-material-surface-for-use-in-3d-bioprinting
#8
Chui-Wei Wong, You-Tzung Chen, Chung-Liang Chien, Tien-Yu Yu, Syang-Peng Rwei, Shan-Hui Hsu
The 3D bioprinting and cell/tissue printing techniques open new possibilities for future applications. To facilitate the 3D bioprinting process, a large amount of living cells are required. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent a promising cell source for bioprinting. However, the maintenance and expansion of undifferentiated iPSCs are expensive and time consuming. Therefore, in this study a culture method to obtain a sufficient amount of healthy and undifferentiated iPSCs in a short-term period was established...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025656/dual-delivery-of-vegf-and-ngf-by-emulsion-electrospun-nanofibrous-scaffold-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#9
Bin Xia, Yonggang Lv
Controlled delivery of multiple therapeutic agents can be considered an effective approach in nerve injury due to its multifunction. In this study, recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and recombinant human nerve growth factor (NGF) were loaded on the surface and in the core of emulsion electrospun poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibrous scaffold, respectively. The in vitro studies showed that VEGF and NGF had a sequential release pattern in which most of the VEFG was released in the first few days but the NGF could be continuously released for >1month...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024690/sodium-channel-current-loss-of-function-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-from-a-brugada-syndrome-patient
#10
Elisabet Selga, Franziska Sendfeld, Rebecca Martinez-Moreno, Claire N Medine, Olga Tura-Ceide, Sir Ian Wilmut, Guillermo J Pérez, Fabiana S Scornik, Ramon Brugada, Nicholas L Mills
Brugada syndrome predisposes to sudden death due to disruption of normal cardiac ion channel function, yet our understanding of the underlying cellular mechanisms is incomplete. Commonly used heterologous expression models lack many characteristics of native cardiomyocytes and, in particular, the individual genetic background of a patient. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CM) may uncover cellular phenotypical characteristics not observed in heterologous models...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024164/understanding-role-of-steroids-in-typical-and-atypical-brain-development-advantages-of-using-a-brain-in-a-dish-approach
#11
REVIEW
Dwaipayan Adhya, Emily Annuario, Madeline A Lancaster, Jack Price, Simon Baron-Cohen, Deepak P Srivastava
Steroids have an important role in growth, development, sexual differentiation and reproduction. All four classes of steroids, androgens, estrogens, progestogens and glucocorticoids, have varying effects on the brain. Androgens and estrogens are involved in the sexual differentiation of the brain, and also influence cognition. Progestogens such as progesterone and its metabolites have been shown to be involved in neuroprotection, although their protective effects are timing dependent. Glucocorticoids are linked with stress and memory performance, also in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023511/a-new-and-improved-algorithm-for-the-quantification-of-chromatin-condensation-from-microscopic-data-shows-decreased-chromatin-condensation-in-regenerating-axolotl-limb-cells
#12
Julian Sosnik, Warren A Vieira, Kaitlyn A Webster, Kellee R Siegfried, Catherine D McCusker
The nuclear landscape plays an important role in the regulation of tissue and positional specific genes in embryonic and developing cells. Changes in this landscape can be dynamic, and are associated with the differentiation of cells during embryogenesis, and the de-differentiation of cells during induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation and in many cancers. However, tools to quantitatively characterize these changes are limited, especially in the in vivo context, where numerous tissue types are present and cells are arranged in multiple layers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021610/low-immunogenicity-of-mouse-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neural-stem-progenitor-cells
#13
Go Itakura, Masahiro Ozaki, Narihito Nagoshi, Soya Kawabata, Yuichiro Nishiyama, Keiko Sugai, Tsuyoshi Iida, Rei Kashiwagi, Toshiki Ookubo, Kaori Yastake, Kohei Matsubayashi, Jun Kohyama, Akio Iwanami, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano
Resolving the immunogenicity of cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) remains an important challenge for cell transplant strategies that use banked allogeneic cells. Thus, we evaluated the immunogenicity of mouse fetal neural stem/progenitor cells (fetus-NSPCs) and iPSC-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (iPSC-NSPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry revealed the low expression of immunological surface antigens, and these cells survived in all mice when transplanted syngeneically into subcutaneous tissue and the spinal cord...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021520/hdac6-inhibition-reverses-axonal-transport-defects-in-motor-neurons-derived-from-fus-als-patients
#14
Wenting Guo, Maximilian Naujock, Laura Fumagalli, Tijs Vandoorne, Pieter Baatsen, Ruben Boon, Laura Ordovás, Abdulsamie Patel, Marc Welters, Thomas Vanwelden, Natasja Geens, Tine Tricot, Veronick Benoy, Jolien Steyaert, Cynthia Lefebvre-Omar, Werend Boesmans, Matthew Jarpe, Jared Sterneckert, Florian Wegner, Susanne Petri, Delphine Bohl, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Wim Robberecht, Philip Van Damme, Catherine Verfaillie, Ludo Van Den Bosch
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder due to selective loss of motor neurons (MNs). Mutations in the fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene can cause both juvenile and late onset ALS. We generated and characterized induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from ALS patients with different FUS mutations, as well as from healthy controls. Patient-derived MNs show typical cytoplasmic FUS pathology, hypoexcitability, as well as progressive axonal transport defects. Axonal transport defects are rescued by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic correction of the FUS mutation in patient-derived iPSCs...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021307/commercially-available-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-another-piece-in-our-tool-box-but-not-a-swiss-army-knife-yet
#15
EDITORIAL
Leif-Hendrik Boldt, Abdul S Parwani, Frank R Heinzel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021306/characterization-of-a-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocyte-model-for-the-study-of-variant-pathogenicity-validation-of-a-kcnj2-mutation
#16
Roselle Gélinas, Nabil El Khoury, Marie-A Chaix, Claudine Beauchamp, Azadeh Alikashani, Nathalie Ethier, Gabrielle Boucher, Louis Villeneuve, Laura Robb, Frédéric Latour, Blandine Mondesert, Lena Rivard, Philippe Goyette, Mario Talajic, Céline Fiset, John David Rioux
BACKGROUND: Long-QT syndrome is a potentially fatal condition for which 30% of patients are without a genetically confirmed diagnosis. Rapid identification of causal mutations is thus a priority to avoid at-risk situations that can lead to fatal cardiac events. Massively parallel sequencing technologies are useful for the identification of sequence variants; however, electrophysiological testing of newly identified variants is crucial to demonstrate causality. Long-QT syndrome could, therefore, benefit from having a standardized platform for functional characterization of candidate variants in the physiological context of human cardiomyocytes...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021296/lactate-promotes-synthetic-phenotype-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#17
Libang Yang, Ling Gao, Thomas J Nickel, Jing Yang, Jingyi Zhou, Adam Gilbertsen, Zhaohui Geng, Caitlin Johnson, Bernice Young, Craig Henke, Glenn R Gourley, Jianyi Zhang
Rationale: The phenotypes of vascular smooth-muscle cells (vSMCs) comprise a continuum bounded by predominantly contractile and synthetic cells. Some evidence suggests that contractile vSMCs can assume a more synthetic phenotype in response to ischemic injury, but the mechanisms that activate this phenotypic switch are poorly understood. Objective: To determine whether lactate, which increases in response to regional ischemia, may promote the synthetic phenotype in vSMCs. Methods and Results: Experiments were performed with vSMCs that had been differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells and then cultured in glucose-free, lactate-enriched (L(+)) medium or in standard (L(-)) medium...
October 11, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020618/hotspots-of-de-novo-point-mutations-in-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Masahito Yoshihara, Ryoko Araki, Yasuji Kasama, Misato Sunayama, Masumi Abe, Kohji Nishida, Hideya Kawaji, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Yasuhiro Murakawa
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are generated by direct reprogramming of somatic cells and hold great promise for novel therapies. However, several studies have reported genetic variations in iPSC genomes. Here, we investigated point mutations identified by whole-genome sequencing in mouse and human iPSCs in the context of epigenetic status. In contrast to disease-causing single-nucleotide polymorphisms, de novo point mutations introduced during reprogramming were underrepresented in protein-coding genes and in open chromatin regions, including transcription factor binding sites...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020617/live-imaging-reveals-that-the-first-division-of-differentiating-human-embryonic-stem-cells-often-yields-asymmetric-fates
#19
Katharine Brown, Kyle M Loh, Roel Nusse
How do stem cells respond to signals to initiate differentiation? Here, we show that, despite uniform exposure to differentiation-inducing extracellular signals, individual human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) respond heterogeneously. To track how hESCs incipiently exit pluripotency, we established a system to differentiate hESCs as single cells and conducted live imaging to track their very first cell division. We followed the fate of their earliest daughters as they remained undifferentiated or differentiated toward the primitive streak (the earliest descendants of pluripotent cells)...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020613/rna-exosome-complex-mediated-control-of-redox-status-in-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Maria Skamagki, Cheng Zhang, Christian A Ross, Aparna Ananthanarayanan, Zhong Liu, Quanhua Mu, Uttiya Basu, Jiguang Wang, Rui Zhao, Hu Li, Kitai Kim
The RNA exosome complex targets AU-rich element (ARE)-containing mRNAs in eukaryotic cells. We identified a transcription factor, ZSCAN10, which binds to the promoters of multiple RNA exosome complex subunits in pluripotent stem cells to maintain subunit gene expression. We discovered that induced pluripotent stem cell clones generated from aged tissue donors (A-iPSC) show poor expression of ZSCAN10, leading to poor RNA exosome complex expression, and a subsequent elevation in ARE-containing RNAs, including glutathione peroxidase 2 (Gpx2)...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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