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Induced pluripotent stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319609/developmental-alterations-in-huntington-s-disease-neural-cells-and-pharmacological-rescue-in-cells-and-mice
#1
(no author information available yet)
Neural cultures derived from Huntington's disease (HD) patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells were used for 'omics' analyses to identify mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. RNA-seq analysis identified genes in glutamate and GABA signaling, axonal guidance and calcium influx whose expression was decreased in HD cultures. One-third of gene changes were in pathways regulating neuronal development and maturation. When mapped to stages of mouse striatal development, the profiles aligned with earlier embryonic stages of neuronal differentiation...
March 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319092/the-tdh-gcn5l1-fbxo15-kbp-axis-limits-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-mouse-embryonic-stem%C3%A2-cells
#2
Valerio Donato, Massimo Bonora, Daniele Simoneschi, Davide Sartini, Yasusei Kudo, Anita Saraf, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn, Matthias Stadtfeld, Paolo Pinton, Michele Pagano
Self-renewing naive mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) contain few mitochondria, which increase in number and volume at the onset of differentiation. KBP (encoded by Kif1bp) is an interactor of the mitochondrial-associated kinesin Kif1Bα. We found that TDH, responsible for mitochondrial production of acetyl-CoA in mESCs, and the acetyltransferase GCN5L1 cooperate to acetylate Lys501 in KBP, allowing its recognition by and degradation via Fbxo15, an F-box protein transcriptionally controlled by the pluripotency core factors and repressed following differentiation...
March 20, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317340/production-of-pancreatic-progenitor-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-three-dimensional-suspension-bioreactor-system
#3
Yuichiro Mihara, Katsuhisa Matsuura, Yoshihiro Sakamoto, Teruo Okano, Norihiro Kokudo, Tatsuya Shimizu
Islet replacement is a promising strategy for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes and patients who have undergone total pancreatectomy. Recent progress in cellular reprogramming technology may allow the transplantation of a patient's own pancreatic cells. Although many studies have reported the differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), obtaining sufficient cell numbers for clinical applications remains problematic. Here, we describe the mass production of human pancreatic progenitor cells from human induced (i)PSCs using a three-dimensional suspension bioreactor system...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316107/applied-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-combination-with-biomaterials-in-bone-tissue-engineering
#4
Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi
Due to increasing of the orthopedic lesions and fractures in the world and limitation of current treatment methods, researchers and surgeons paid attention to the new treatment ways especially to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Innovation in stem cells and biomaterials accelerate during the last decade as two main important parts of the tissue engineering. Recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) introduced as cells with highly proliferation and differentiation potentials that hold great promising features for used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315813/the-case-for-applying-tissue-engineering-methodologies-to-instruct-human-organoid-morphogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Carlos R Marti-Figueroa, Randolph S Ashton
Three-dimensional organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derivatives have become widely used in vitro models for studying development and disease. Their ability to recapitulate facets of normal human development during in vitro morphogenesis produces tissue structures with unprecedented biomimicry. Current organoid derivation protocols primarily rely on spontaneous morphogenesis processes to occur within 3-D spherical cell aggregates with minimal to no exogenous control. This yields organoids containing microscale regions of biomimetic tissues, but at the macroscale (i...
March 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315289/microrna-21-mediates-the-protective-effects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-ipscs-to-human-bronchial-epithelial-cell-injury-under-hypoxia
#6
Cheng-Lin Li, Zhi-Bin Xu, Xing-Liang Fan, He-Xin Chen, Qiu-Ning Yu, Shu-Bin Fang, Shu-Yue Wang, Yong-Dong Lin, Qing-Ling Fu
Airway epithelial cell injury is a key triggering event to activate allergic airway inflammation, such as asthma. We previously reported that administration of mesenchymal stem cells significantly alleviated allergic inflammation in a mouse model of asthma, and the mmu-miR-21/ACVR2A axis may be involved. However, whether MSCs protect against bronchial epithelial cell injury induced by hypoxia and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. In our study, the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B was induced to undergo apoptosis with a hypoxia mimic of CoCl2 damage...
March 17, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315121/untangling-the-biology-of-genetic-cardiomyopathies-with-pluripotent-stem-cell-disease-models
#7
REVIEW
Jan W Buikema, Sean M Wu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recently, the discovery of strategies to reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has led to a major paradigm change in developmental and stem cell biology. The application of iPS cells and their cardiac progeny has opened novel directions to study cardiomyopathies at a cellular and molecular level. This review discusses approaches currently undertaken to unravel known inherited cardiomyopathies in a dish. RECENT FINDINGS: With improved efficiency for mutation correction by genome editing, human iPS cells have now provided a platform to untangle the biology of cardiomyopathies...
April 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314379/rejuvenation-by-partial-reprogramming-of-the-epigenome
#8
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James Larrick, Jennifer L Lei
Epigenetic variation with age is one of the most important hallmarks of aging. Resetting or repairing the epigenome of aging cells in intact animals may rejuvenate the cells and perhaps the entire organism. In fact, differentiated adult cells, which by definition have undergone some epigenetic changes, are capable of being rejuvenated and reprogrammed to create pluripotent stem cells and viable cloned animals. Apparently, such reprogramming is capable of completely resetting the epigenome. However, attempts to fully reprogram differentiated cells in adult animals have failed in part because reprogramming leads to formation of teratomas...
March 17, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314267/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-related-genes-contribute-to-de-differentiation-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#9
Daisuke Takeda, Takumi Hasegawa, Takeshi Ueha, Eiji Iwata, Risa Harada, Akiko Sakakibara, Teruya Kawamoto, Tsutomu Minamikawa, Yoshitada Sakai, Takahide Komori
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cancer stem cells are suspected to contribute to malignancy in tumors. Hypoxia affects cell differentiation and induces stem-cell-like characteristics in malignancies. Induced pluripotency was demonstrated in mouse fibroblasts by reprogramming with four transcriptional factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4. Conversely, oncogenic transformations frequently express transcriptional factors and Nanog. Therefore, cancer cells present some similarities with induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314201/inhibition-of-mirna-212-132-improves-the-reprogramming-of-fibroblasts-into-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-by-de-repressing-important-epigenetic-remodelling-factors
#10
Nils Pfaff, Steffi Liebhaber, Selina Möbus, Abbas Beh-Pajooh, Jan Fiedler, Angelika Pfanne, Axel Schambach, Thomas Thum, Tobias Cantz, Thomas Moritz
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) repeatedly have been demonstrated to play important roles in the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying transcription factor-mediated reprogramming we have established a model, which allows for the efficient screening of whole libraries of miRNAs modulating the generation of iPSCs from murine embryonic fibroblasts. Applying this model, we identified 14 miRNAs effectively inhibiting iPSC generation, including miR-132 and miR-212...
March 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306359/spinal-cord-injuries-how-could-cell-therapy-help
#11
Anna Badner, Ahad M Siddiqui, Michael G Fehlings
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition, where regenerative failure and cell loss lead to paralysis. The heterogeneous and time-sensitive pathophysiology has made it difficult to target tissue repair. Despite many medical advances, there are no effective regenerative therapies. As stem cells offer multi-targeted and environmentally responsive benefits, cell therapy is a promising treatment approach. Areas covered: This review highlights the cell therapies being investigated for SCI, including Schwann cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, mensenchymal stem/stromal cells, neural precursors, oligodendrocyte progenitors, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells...
March 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303788/dynamics-and-robustness-of-the-cardiac-progenitor-cell-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-network-during-cell-phenotypes-transition
#12
Yuangen Yao, Chengzhang Ma, Haiyou Deng, Quan Liu, Wei Cao, Rong Gui, Tianquan Feng, Ming Yi
Robustness is a fundamental characteristic of biological systems since all living systems need to adapt to internal or external perturbations, unpredictable environments, stochastic events and unreliable components, and so on. A long-term challenge in systems biology is to reveal the origin of robustness underlying molecular regulator network. In this study, a simple Boolean model is used to investigate the global dynamic properties and robustness of cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) induced pluripotent stem cell network that governs reprogramming and directed differentiation process...
February 2017: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303468/human-very-small-embryonic-like-cells-support-vascular-maturation-and-therapeutic-revascularization-induced-by-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#13
Coralie L Guerin, Elisa Rossi, Bruno Saubamea, Audrey Cras, Virginie Mignon, Jean-Sébastien Silvestre, David M Smadja
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) are major pluripotent stem cells defined as cells of small size being Lineage- negative, CD133-positive, and CD45-negative. We previously described that human bone marrow VSELs were able to differentiate into endothelial cells and promoted post-ischemic revascularization in mice with surgically induced critical limb ischemia. In the present work, we isolated bone marrow VSELs from patients with critical limb ischemia and studied their ability to support endothelial progenitor cells therapeutic capacity and revascularization potential...
March 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303292/editing-the-genome-of-hipsc-with-crispr-cas9-disease-models
#14
REVIEW
Andrew R Bassett
The advent of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology has provided a unique opportunity to establish cellular models of disease from individual patients, and to study the effects of the underlying genetic aberrations upon multiple different cell types, many of which would not normally be accessible. Combining this with recent advances in genome editing techniques such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) system has provided an ability to repair putative causative alleles in patient lines, or introduce disease alleles into a healthy "WT" cell line...
March 16, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303153/de-novo-human-cardiac-myocytes-for-medical-research-promises-and-challenges
#15
REVIEW
Veronique Hamel, Kang Cheng, Shudan Liao, Aizhu Lu, Yong Zheng, Yawen Chen, Yucai Xie, Wenbin Liang
The advent of cellular reprogramming technology has revolutionized biomedical research. De novo human cardiac myocytes can now be obtained from direct reprogramming of somatic cells (such as fibroblasts), from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, which are reprogrammed from somatic cells), and from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Such de novo human cardiac myocytes hold great promise for in vitro disease modeling and drug screening and in vivo cell therapy of heart disease. Here, we review the technique advancements for generating de novo human cardiac myocytes...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302489/modelling-urea-cycle-disorder-citrullinemia-type-1-with-disease-specific-ipscs
#16
Elena Yukie Yoshitoshi-Uebayashi, Taro Toyoda, Katsutaro Yasuda, Maki Kotaka, Keiko Nomoto, Keisuke Okita, Kentaro Yasuchika, Shinya Okamoto, Noriyuki Takubo, Toshiya Nishikubo, Tomoyoshi Soga, Shinji Uemoto, Kenji Osafune
Citrullinemia type 1 (CTLN1) is a urea cycle disorder (UCD) caused by mutations of the ASS1 gene, which is responsible for production of the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), and classically presented as life-threatening hyperammonemia in newborns. Therapeutic options are limited, and neurological sequelae may persist. To understand the pathophysiology and find novel treatments, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from a CTLN1 patient and differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs)...
March 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302184/cytokine-free-directed-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-efficiently-produces-hemogenic-endothelium-with-lymphoid-potential
#17
Yekaterina Galat, Svetlana Dambaeva, Irina Elcheva, Aaruni Khanolkar, Kenneth Beaman, Philip M Iannaccone, Vasiliy Galat
BACKGROUND: The robust generation of human hematopoietic progenitor cells from induced or embryonic pluripotent stem cells would be beneficial for multiple areas of research, including mechanistic studies of hematopoiesis, the development of cellular therapies for autoimmune diseases, induced transplant tolerance, anticancer immunotherapies, disease modeling, and drug/toxicity screening. Over the past years, significant progress has been made in identifying effective protocols for hematopoietic differentiation from pluripotent stem cells and understanding stages of mesodermal, endothelial, and hematopoietic specification...
March 17, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300219/doxorubicin-induces-cardiotoxicity-through-upregulation-of-death-receptors-mediated-apoptosis-in-cardiomyocytes
#18
Liqun Zhao, Baolin Zhang
Doxorubicin is a highly effective anticancer agent but causes cardiotoxicity in many patients. The mechanisms of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs). We found that doxorubicin and related anthracycline agents (e.g., daunorubicin, idarubicin, and epirubicin) significantly upregulated the expression of death receptors (DRs) (TNFR1, Fas, DR4 and DR5) in iPS-derived cardiomyocytes at both protein and mRNA levels...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299522/glycoconjugates-reveal-diversity-of-human-neural-stem-cells-hnscs-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-hipscs
#19
Majury Kandasamy, Lars Roll, Daniel Langenstroth, Oliver Brüstle, Andreas Faissner
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into various cell types of the central nervous system. This potential can be recapitulated by human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in vitro. The differentiation capacity of hiPSCs is characterized by several stages with distinct morphologies and the expression of various marker molecules. We used the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 487(LeX), 5750(LeX) and 473HD to analyze the expression pattern of particular carbohydrate motifs as potential markers at six differentiation stages of hiPSCs...
March 15, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298436/chromatin-remodeler-chd4-represses-aberrant-expression-of-tbx3-and-sustains-self-renewal-of-embryonic-stem-cells
#20
Haixin Zhao, Zhijun Han, Xinyuan Liu, Junjie Gu, Fan Tang, Gang Wei, Ying Jin
The unique properties of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), unlimited self-renewal and pluripotent differentiation potential, are sustained by integrated genetic and epigenetic networks composed of a series of transcriptional factors and epigenetic modulators. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the function of these regulators are not fully elucidated. Chd4, an ATPase subunit of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex, is highly expressed in ESCs. However, its function in the regulation of ESC properties remains elusive...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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